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Introduction to NumPy axis

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Syntax:

NumPy.function(arrayname, axis = 0/1)

Where NumPy.function is any function on which the axis function must be applied, arrayname is the name of the array on which the NumPy.function must be performed along the axis specified by axis function whose value can be either 0 or 1.

Working of axis function in NumPy

The directions along the rows and columns in a two-dimensional array are called axes in NumPy.

The direction along the rows is axis 0 and is the first axis that runs down the rows in multi-dimensional arrays.

The direction along the columns is axis 1 and is the second axis which runs across the columns in multi-dimensional arrays.

The axes in NumPy are numbered, beginning from zero.

One should always be alert on what parameters are passed to the axis function and how they impact the function on which they are used, and the axis function in NumPy can be used on several functions.

Examples

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

Python program to demonstrate NumPy axis function to create an array using array function and find the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 0 and along the axis = 1:

#we are importing the package NumPy as num import numpy as num #creating a two dimensional array using array function and storing it in a avariable called array1 array1 = num.array([[1,2,3],[4,5,6]]) #displaying the elements of newly created array print("The elements of the newly created array are:") print(array1) #using axis function on the newly created array along with sum function to find the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 0 arraysum = num.sum(array1, axis = 0) print("n") #displaying the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 0 print("The sum of the elements of the newly created array along the axis = 0 are:") print(arraysum) print("n") #using axis function on the newly created array along with sum function to find the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 1 arraysum1 = num.sum(array1, axis = 1) #displaying the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 1 print("The sum of the elements of the newly created array along the axis = 1 are:") print(arraysum1)

Output:

In the above program, the package NumPy is imported as num to be able to make use of array function, sum function, and axis function. Then a two-dimensional array is created using the array function and stored in a variable called array1. Then the elements of the array array1 are displayed. Then sum function is used on the array array1 to find the sum of the elements of the array along axis = 0, and the result is displayed as the output on the screen; then again sum function is used on the array array2 to find the sun of the elements of the array along axis = 1 and the result is displayed as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #2

Python program to demonstrate NumPy axis function to create an array using array function and find the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 0 and along the axis = 1:

#we are importing the package NumPy as num import numpy as num #creating a two dimensional array using array function and storing it in a avariable called array1 array1 = num.array([[5,4,3],[2,1,0]]) #displaying the elements of newly created array print("The elements of the newly created array are:") print(array1) #using axis function on the newly created array along with sum function to find the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 0 arraysum = num.sum(array1, axis = 0) print("n") #displaying the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 0 print("The sum of the elements of the newly created array along the axis = 0 are:") print(arraysum) print("n") #using axis function on the newly created array along with sum function to find the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 1 arraysum1 = num.sum(array1, axis = 1) #displaying the sum of the elements of the array along the axis = 1 print("The sum of the elements of the newly created array along the axis = 1 are:") print(arraysum1)

Output:

In the above program, the package NumPy is imported as num to be able to make use of array function, sum function, and axis function. Then a two-dimensional array is created using the array function and stored in a variable called array1. Then the elements of the array array1 are displayed. Then sum function is used on the array array1 to find the sum of the elements of the array along axis = 0, and the result is displayed as the output on the screen; then again sum function is used on the array array2 to find the sun of the elements of the array along axis = 1 and the result is displayed as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

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## Working And Examples Of Composition In C#

Introduction to Composition C#

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In this type of relationship, one or greater than one object of a different class is declared in the related class. Here come two more divisions, which are aggregation and composition. In aggregation, the nested objects can independently exist in the class without being an integral part of the class. On the other hand, in composition, the nested objects or a singular nested object supplements the class, which makes the class inconceivable without their or its existence.

Syntax of Composition in C#

Given below is the syntax mentioned:

class Training { } public class Course { Project project = new Project(); } Working of Composition in C#

Composition in C# is a way of creating a relationship between two classes that one or greater than one nested objects are a part of the related class, and the logical existence of class becomes impossible without the nested objects.

For example, if we consider a class called Car, then it should have one instance of class “Engine.” Moreover, it should also have four other instances of the class “Wheel.”

Now, if we eliminate any of these instances, then the Car won’t function.

Examples of Composition C#

Given below are the examples of Composition C#:

Example #1

If the training class is considered, which is describing two courses. Now, the courses are being used for describing the course class. Therefore, the training class cannot exist without the two-course instances as both of these instances are part of the course class. Moreover, both of these instances of the course class are also a part of the training class.

Code:

using System; using static System.Console; namespace EDUCBA { class Course { public double M; public double A; } class Training { public Course course1 = null; public Course course2 = null; } class Career { public Course[] courses; public Training[] trainings; public Career() { courses = null; trainings = null; } public void Print() { WriteLine(" Courses Data is represented below:"); for (int b = 1; b< courses.Length; b++) { WriteLine("n M = {0}, A = {1}", courses[b].M, courses[b].A); } WriteLine("n Trainings Data is represented below:"); for (int b=1; b<trainings.Length; b++) { WriteLine("n course1.M = {0}, course1.A = {1}", trainings[b].course1.M, trainings[b].course1.A); WriteLine("n course2.M = {0}, course2.A = {1}", trainings[b].course2.M, trainings[b].course2.A); } } } class Code { static void Main(string[] args) { Career O = new Career(); O.courses = new Course[9]; for (int b = 1; b < O.courses.Length; b++) { O.courses[b] = new Course(); O.courses[b].M = b * b; O.courses[b].M = b * b * b; } O.trainings = new Training[5]; for (int b = 1; b < O.trainings.Length; b++) { O.trainings[b] = new Training(); O.trainings[b].course1 = new Course(); O.trainings[b].course2 = new Course(); O.trainings[b].course1.M = b; O.trainings[b].course1.A = b * 4; O.trainings[b].course2.M = b * 5; O.trainings[b].course2.A = b * b; } O.Print(); } } }

Output:

Example #2

In this example, both of the classes created are regular classes; however, the course class is using an instance from the project class inside it. This is the same way in which one function is called inside another. Using inheritance, we can have access to each and everything from the Project class. However, using composition, only the code specified by us can be accessed. Here, we can access the Project class indirectly.

Code:

using System; namespace EDUCBA { class Training { static void Main(string[] args) { Course courses = new Course(); courses.Bought(); Console.ReadLine(); } } public class Project { public void Log(string aboutus) { Console.WriteLine(aboutus); } } public class Course { Project project = new Project(); public void Bought() { } } }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; namespace EDUCBA { abstract class Training { public Training() { } public abstract string Project(); public virtual void Add(Training training) { throw new NotImplementedException(); } public virtual void Remove(Training training) { throw new NotImplementedException(); } public virtual bool IsCourse() { return true; } } class DataScience : Training { public override string Project() { return "DataScience"; } public override bool IsCourse() { return false; } } class Course : Training { public override void Add(Training training) { this._children.Add(training); } public override void Remove(Training training) { this._children.Remove(training); } public override string Project() { int m = 1; string result = "Dream Career("; foreach (Training training in this._children) { result += training.Project(); if (m != this._children.Count + 2) { result += "-"; } m--; } return result + ")"; } } class Input { public void InputCode(Training data_analysis) { Console.WriteLine(\$"OUTPUT: n {data_analysis.Project()}n"); } public void InputCode2(Training training1, Training training2) { if (training1.IsCourse()) { training1.Add(training2); } Console.WriteLine(\$"OUTPUT: n {training1.Project()}"); } } class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { Input client = new Input(); DataScience data_analysis = new DataScience(); Console.WriteLine("INPUT: n Best Course to Upgrade Career:"); client.InputCode(data_analysis); Course vr = new Course(); Course career1 = new Course(); career1.Add(new DataScience()); career1.Add(new DataScience()); Course career2 = new Course(); career2.Add(new DataScience()); vr.Add(career1); vr.Add(career2); Console.WriteLine("nINPUT: n Trendy Dream Career Right Now:"); client.InputCode(vr); Console.Write("nINPUT: Lets Upgrade and start your dream career jouney: n"); client.InputCode2(vr, data_analysis); } } }

Output:

Conclusion

On the basis of the above article, we understood the concept of composition in C#. We went through multiple examples for understanding the application of composition in C# coding.

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## Working Of Php Json_Encode Function

Introduction to PHP json_encode

There are built-in functions to handle JSON and the function used to convert the objects to JSON is called the json_encode function in PHP. And JSON is something that is used to read the data from the webserver and display the read data on a web page. When the json_encode function is used to encode the PHP value in the format of JSON, the json_encode function returns the encoded string in JSON if it is successful and FALSE is returned by the json_encode function if it is a failure and this json_encode function is available in all the PHP versions after version 5.2.

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Syntax:

json_encode(value, options, depth)

where value is the value that is to be encoded in JSON format, a bitmask is specified by options and this is optional and maximum depth is specified by the depth and this is optional.

Working of PHP json_encode Function

Working of json_encode function is as follows:

Whenever there is a need to handle JSON in PHP using built-in functions, one of the functions that can be used is the json_encode() function.

JSON is something that is used to read the data from the webserver and display the read data on a web page.

The function used to convert the objects to JSON is called the json_encode function in PHP.

When the json_encode function is used to encode the value in the format of JSON, the json_encode function returns the encoded string in JSON if it is successful, and FALSE is returned by the json_encode function if it is a failure.

The json_encode function is available in all versions after version 5.2.

Examples

Following are the examples are given below:

Example #1

PHP program to demonstrate json_encode program to encode the given PHP array into JSON array:

Code:

<?php \$val = array( \$object = json_encode(\$val); echo(\$object);

Output:

In the above program, a PHP array is declared and the capital cities of the states of India are stored in this array which is represented by a variable. Then json_encode() function is used to convert the PHP array into JSON representation. Then the converted PHP array is displayed in JSON representation as to the output on the screen.

Example #2

PHP program to demonstrate json_encode program to encode the given indexed array into JSON array:

<?php \$val = array( "Welcome","to", "PHP","Concept", "is","json_encode", "function","Learning", "is","fun"); \$object = json_encode(\$val); echo(\$object);

Output:

In the above program, a PHP array is declared and the statements to be converted into JSON array is stored in this array which is represented by a variable. Then json_encode() function is used to convert the array into JSON array. Then the converted array is displayed in JSON array as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #3

PHP program to demonstrate json_encode program to encode the given multi dimensional array into JSON array:

Code:

<?php \$val = array( array( ) ); \$object = json_encode(\$val); echo(\$object);

Output:

In the above program, a multidimensional array is declared and the author of the book, name of the book, and the publishing year of the book is stored in a multidimensional array which is represented by a variable. Then json_encode() function is used to convert the multidimensional array into JSON array. Then the converted multidimensional array is displayed in JSON array as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #4

PHP program to demonstrate json_encode program to covert the given objects into JSON objects:

Code:

<?php \$Convertedobject = json_encode(\$firstobject); echo \$Convertedobject;

Output:

In the above program, the object is created to store two messages. Then json_encode() function is used to convert the objects in PHP to JSON object. Then the converted object is displayed on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

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## Small Function In Excel (Formula, Examples)

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SMALL Function in Excel

A small function in Excel is used for getting the smallest number from the selected range of numbers with the help of the Kth position in the range. For example, we have 10 different numbers, and we need to find the smallest number out of that; by using the Small function, we can get the 1st or 2nd or any Kth smallest number out of those 10 selected numbers.

SMALL Formula in Excel:

Below is the SMALL Formula in Excel :

The SMALL function has two arguments, i.e. array, k. Both are required arguments.

Array: This is the range of cells you are selecting it as the source data to find the K value.

K: This is the Kth position of the number. From the list, it gives the bottom value.

In this function, the range should not be empty, and we need to specify both arguments.

How to Use SMALL Function in Excel?

This Function in Excel is very simple and easy to use. Let us now see how to use this SMALL Function in Excel with the help of some examples.

You can download this SMALL Function Excel Template here – SMALL Function Excel Template

Example #1

Below are the scores of the students on a test. From the below-given data, find the smallest and the 3rd smallest scores.

If we find the smallest number, we can simply apply MIN Function. If you look at the below image, both the formulas return the same value as the smallest number in the given list.

However, MIN Function stops there only. It cannot find the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th smallest numbers. In such cases, SMALL can give us the Kth position number.

Find the 3rd Smallest Number.

We need to specify the number in the Kth argument to find the third smallest score or number from the list.

“In the range, B2:B11 find the 3rd largest value.”

So the result will be :

Example #2

Below is the data for a cycle race. From this list, you need to find the winner. Data includes names, start time, and end time.

From this list, we need to find who has taken the least time to complete the race.

Step 1: Find the total time taken.

The time taken to complete the race arrived by deducting the start time by the end time. The image below shows the actual time each one takes to complete the race.

Step 2: Now apply the SMALL Function to get the winner.

So the result will be :

It is a bit of a herculean task if the list is long. But we can just name the winner using the if condition.

So the result will be :

Similarly, it is applied to other cells in that column to get the desired output.

Example #3

We can use the SMALL Function along with other functions. From the below-given list, find the sum of the bottom 3 values for Week 2.

Apply the below SMALL function along with the SUM & VLOOKUP function.

This is an array formula. You need to close the formula by typing Ctrl + Shift + Enter. This would insert the curly brackets before and after the formula.

VLOOKUP returns the value for WEEK 2 specified by the SMALL function for 3 bottom values. Then SUM function will add the bottom values together and return the result as 1988.

Things to Remember

SMALL Function ignores text values and considers only numerical values.

Result is :

A SMALL function returns an error if there are no numerical values in the list.

Result is :

If there are any duplicates, then SMALL considers the first value as the smaller one.

K should be numeric; otherwise, it returns the error as #VALUE!

Supplied range should not be empty.

If we find only the least value, we can use the MIN Function. But it finds only the first smallest value.

Even though SMALL ignores text values, if there are any errors, it will return the result as #DIV/0!

We can use SMALL and many other functions to find the Nth values.

Use practically to get the hint of the SMALL function.

If you use SMALL with other functions, it becomes an array formula.

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## Working Of Predicate Delegate In C# With Examples

Introduction to C# Predicate

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Syntax:

Where the object type is represented by P and obj is the object which compares the criteria that is defined within a method and is  represented by predicate delegate.

Working of Predicate Delegate in C#

A function that returns true or false is a predicate and the reference to a predicate is a predicate delegate.

The feature of predicate delegate was introduced with the release of .NET 2.0. framework.

The predicate function can be defined, and it can be passed as a parameter to any other function through predicate delegate.

A special case of Func is predicate delegate which takes only one parameter as input and it returns a Boolean value that is either true of false.

Any method can be written inside a predicate delegate even the expression of lambda or anonymous method.

A generic type is taken as an argument by the predicate delegate when it is used with the expression of lambda.

Examples of C# Predicate

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

C# program to demonstrate the use of predicate delegate in a program to check if the given string passed as a parameter is in capital letters or not.

Code:

using System; namespace program { public class check { static bool IsUC(string stri) { return stri.Equals(stri.ToUpper()); } static void Main(string[] args) { bool res = isU("welcome to c#"); Console.WriteLine(res); } } }

Explanation:

In the above program, a namespace called program is defined. Then a class called check is defined. Then a Boolean method is defined to check if the given string is written in capital letters or not. If the given string is written in capital letters, true is returned else False is returned. Then the main method is called.

Then a predicate delegate is defined with object type as string and IsUC is an object which compares the criteria that is defined within a method and is represented by predicate delegate. Then the result of the predicate delegate is stored in a variable called res. Then the result is displayed.

Example #2

C# program to demonstrate the use of predicate delegate in a program to check if the length of the given string is less than a specified value or not.

using System; class program { public delegate bool my_del(string stri); public static bool fun(string stri) { if (stri.Length < 5) { return true; } else { return false; } } static public void Main() { my_del obj = fun; Console.WriteLine(obj("Shobha")); } }

Output:

Explanation:

In the above program, a class called program is defined. Then a predicate delegate is defined with object type as string. Then a method is defined inside a predicate delegate by passing the object as parameter to check if the length of the given string is less than a specified value. If the length of the string is less than the given specified value, true is returned else false is returned.

Then the Main method is called. Then a predicate delegate is defined with object type as string and fun is an object which compares the criteria that is defined within a method and is represented by predicate delegate. Then the string to be passed as a parameter to predicate delegate is written at last.

The Predicate delegates are useful when we have to filter out a list of values.

The predicate delegates can be made inline for one off search function.

The predicate delegates can be used when we have to search for items in a generic collection.

By using predicate delegates, the length of the code is shortened and either true or false is returned.

Anonymous methods, expression of lambda can be assigned to predicate delegates.

The predicate delegates provide the logic at runtime and it can be a simple logic or complicated logic.

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## Learn The Different Examples Of Python Widgets

Introduction to Python Widgets

Widgets are small parts on web applications that allow user input. The widgets are eventful objects of Python that have a browser representation, often as control such as a slider, textbox, etc. Interactive GUIs for Python notebook are created using these Widgets. Synchronize stateless and stateful information between JavaScript Python and is done using widgets. Widget input allows us to add parameters and dashboards to the notebooks. Widget API has calls that can be given with various types of input, access bound values, and removing them. Exploration of different parameters using a single query are the results of widgets. Widgets are of many types. Few are Text, drop down, Combo box, Multi-select, which are widely used. All these widgets are quiet neat to understand and implement.

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Syntax of Widgets

import widget_name

Example:

Ipywidgets packages furnish a lot of common interface controls. These interfaces are used in exploring code and data interactively. These can be customised and assembled for creating user interfaces that are complex. Let’s see various schemes to create user interfaces using Python Ipywidgets. The package of widgets in Python can be installed in Anaconda by default. Manual installation is done with conda install Ipywidgets. Or you can also use pip install Ipywidgets, but then an extension for Jupyter Notebook is needed.

Now, getting into the actual methodology:

The block of code shows how we import the widgets. These are few widgets which are used in general.

Code:

import Ipywidgets as widgets from Ipywidgets import Hbox, Vbox import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from Ipython.display import display %matplotlib inline Examples of Python Widgets

Widgets have an @interact decorator, which controls the function of arguments. The f() function receives an integer as an argument. That displays a slider by default.

Example #1

Displaying a slider which has border values and can be slid along, which is an integer slider.

Code:

import Ipywidgets as wg import Ipython.display name = chúng tôi (value = ‘Name’) age = wg.IntSlider (description = ‘Age: ’) display (name, age) print (name.value + ‘ is already ‘+ str (age.value) + ‘ now ’)

Output:

The above displays an age bar or a slider, where you can slide the age of John and hold at one. It is still changeable. At age.value, you need to consider taking the value as a string as it is a number or integer, and it needs to be typecasted because all the other parameters in the command line are integers.

You can also import the FloatText widget, which is the same as above but includes a floating-point slider. Wg.FloatText() is used.

Example #2

Code:

import numpy as np %matplotlib inline From matplotlib.pyplot as plt def myPlot (c): x = np.linspace(-5,5,20) y = c * x**2  # we are going to have a parabola here. plt.plot (x, y, ‘ r-- ‘) # let us make a plot using x and y values plt.ylabel (‘ y (x) ’) # create y label and make It y (x) plt.xlabel (‘ x ‘) # x label and named it x plt.ylim([ 0, 80 ]) plt.xlim ([ -5, 5 ])

myPlot(10) #running the plot with a random value.

Output:

But our point is to see the plot change with respect to c.

For that, we include a cSlider which sides along with the possible given values and updates the plot automatically. We can give a FloatSlider as well.

Code:

c_slide = wg.FloatSlider ( value = 1.0, min = 0.5, max = 3.5, steps = 0.2 ) #Then run the function by calling myPlot and include parameters to use. wg.interact (myPlot, c = c_slide)

Output:

c_slide.key: This is the keywords which display all the different types of widgets you might want to change. This will display quiet a big list.

wg.Widgets.widget_types: This is the keyword used to displays all the types of Widgets that can be used.

Example #3

Code:

import time progress = wg.IntProgress ( description = ‘ Loading: ’ ) progress.orientation = ‘horizontal’ #we can use vertical as well. display(progress) for i in range (100) progress.value = i time.sleep (0.1)

Output:

The loading bar in the above block of code can be taken as vertical, which shows a vertical orientation.

Try typing “import this” on Python IDE; you’ll find a poem highlighting the philosophies of Python.

Output:

Conclusion

Demonstration of many features of packages is done by importing Ipywidgets. Widgets can be styled and customised. They can be created using JavaScript and Python Notebook – Jupyter in this case. If you remove the keyword widget in case the same cell cannot be accessed, create subsequent command. Nevertheless, a widget can be created in another cell.

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