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A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network that protects user identifications by rerouting the traffic and helps you to connect to a remote computer. If we talk about a Proxy, it also does the same job as like VPN. But there is a difference. This guide helps you to find the difference between a proxy and a VPN. Also, it explains why VPN is a more reliable and stronger service than that of the Proxy, so read on.

Difference between a Proxy and a VPN

In order to abstain from these snooping things, we use a VPN software or a Proxy service that provides a higher level of privacy. Both services allow you to access the internet services anonymously by concealing the Internet Protocol address in various ways.

So, the question arises that if proxy servers and VPN connections perform the same job then why they are called different. Basically, they are different and here the similarities come to end.

What is a Proxy Server?

Proxy software makes it easier for people to overcome Internet censorship. It can make you anonymous on the internet, making the connections more secure and private.

A proxy server is a server that acts as a middle man between your computer and the server that you are trying to access. In this case, the websites can’t detect your original IP address and it seems to come from any other location.

For example, suppose you are currently located in Mumbai city and you need to access the website that is only limited to the people located in the United States. In this case, you need to connect to a proxy server that is located in the United States. After that, connect to that website. That way, the traffic coming from your web browser looks like coming from the remote computer.

Proxy service is quite helpful for the region-restricted websites and it is highly reliable for the task related to low-stakes. As we mentioned earlier, the proxy server uses anonymous network ID, so it bypasses the simple contents filters and services that are based on IP restrictions.

In order to make it more clear, let us take an example. Assume you are five friends and playing an online game where you receive a daily in-game incentive bonus when you vote the game server on a server ranking site. But according to the game policy, you can only vote with your IP address notwithstanding whether other player names are used. Luckily, there is a proxy service using which all the five friends can easily log in their vote and get the in-game incentive bonus. It could happen because the web browser of each person appears to be originating from any other IP address.

Apart from these plus points, there is also some downside to the proxy server. The proxy server is not much reliable for high-leveled tasks. Although, it hides the IP address and works as a mute man lies in the middle for Internet traffic. But, it does not support the encryption protection to encrypt data between your device and the proxy server. Therefore, a proficient and experienced programmer can quickly block sensitive data in transit and keep it.

The proxy service is basically based on an application by application basis. It means that you can’t configure the entire PC while connecting to the proxy.

There are two main types of proxy that are commonly used. These proxy server protocols are HTTP and SOCKS. The HTTP Proxy is the oldest and most wide-spread proxy server. It has been designed basically for web-based traffic so that it could detect the suspicious content easily. The most interesting thing of an HTTP proxy is that it allows you the encryption protection using the SSL certificate, whereas the SOCKS server doesn’t support encryption security.

Read: Free Proxy software for Windows 10.

What is a VPN server?

A VPN or a Virtual Private Network is essential to stay invisible or anonymous on the chúng tôi will encrypt all the data that your device sends so that it will not be hackable. It hides and protects your identity online.

Virtual Private Networks is somewhat similar to the Proxy server, herewith it also offers an extra layer of privacy and security to the internet activity. The VPN functions at the OS level where it occupies the entire traffic connection of the computer it is configured on. That indicates, the VPN captures the network traffic of each application running on your computer that extends far beyond a single web browser.

Additionally, the VPN server encrypts the network traffic between the internet and the computer due to which the whole process passes through an extremely encrypted tunnel. It provides 100% assurance to the protection of data from the Internet Service Providers and the prying eyes of Intruder on internet activity. And that way, sensitive and private information of every single user would remain preserved.

Read: Free VPN software for Windows 10.

VPN vs Proxy

The actual difference between a proxy and a VPN is that a Proxy service lets you hide your IP (Internet Protocol) address and it reroutes the entire network connections anonymous. Whereas a VPN connection has major benefits over the proxy. It not only hides your IP but also provides better encryption to the network between the computer and its servers so that no snoopers or hackers could harm your device.

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Sas Vs R: What Is Difference Between R And Sas?

What is SAS?

SAS stands for Statistical Analysis Software which is used for Data Analytics. It helps you to use qualitative techniques and processes which allows you to enhance employee productivity and business profits. SAS is pronounced as SaaS.

What is mean by R?

R is a programming language is widely used by data scientists and major corporations like Google, Airbnb, Facebook etc. for data analysis.

R language offers a wide range of functions for every data manipulation, statistical model, or chart which is needed by the data analyst. R offers inbuilt mechanisms for organizing data, running calculations on the given information and creating graphical representations of that data sets.

Google Trend SAS vs R


SAS is commercial software, so it needs a financial investment, whereas R is open source software, So, anyone can use it.

SAS is the easiest tool to learn. So, people with limited knowledge of SQL can learn it easily; on the other hand, R programmers need to write tedious and lengthy codes.

SAS is relatively less frequently updated, whereas R is an open-source tool, continuously updated.

SAS has good graphical support, whereas the Graphical support of the R tool is poor.

SAS provides dedicated customer support, whereas R has the biggest online communities but no customer service support.

Why use SAS?

Access raw data files and data in an external database

Analyze data using statics, descriptive, multivariate techniques, forecasting, modeling, and linear programming

Advanced analytics feature allows you to make changes and improvements in business practices.

Helps businesses to know about their historical data

Why use R?

R offers a useful programming constructs for data analytics like conditionals, loops, input and output facilities, user-defined recursive functions, etc.

R has a rich and expanding ecosystem and plenty of documentation available over the internet.

You can run this tool on a variety of platforms including Windows, Unix, and MacOS.

Good graphics capabilities Supported by an extensive user network.

R Vs Sas Stackoverflow Questions

History of SAS

SAS was developed by Jim Goodnight and John Shall in 1970 at N.C. University

Initially, it was developed for Agricultural Research.

Later, it expanded to a gamut of tools to include Predictive Analytics, Data Management, BI, among others.

Today 98 of the world’s top companies in fortune 400 uses SAS data analytical tool for Data analysis.

History of R

1993- R is a programming language developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman

1995: R first distributed as an open-source tool under GPL2 license

1997: R core group and CRAN founded

1999: The R website, chúng tôi launched

2000: R 1.0.0 released

2004: R 2.0.0 released

2009: First edition of the R Journal

2013: R 3.0.0 released

2023: New R logo adopted

SAS Vs. R: Key Differences

Differences between SAS and R

Parameters SAS R

Availability / Cost SAS is commercial software, so it needs a financial investment. R is open source software, So, anyone can use it.

Ease of Learning SAS is the easiest tool to learn. So, people with limited knowledge of SQL can learn it easily. R programmers need to write tedious and lengthy codes.

Statistical Abilities SAS offers a powerful package which offers all types of statistical analysis and techniques. R is an open source tool which allows users to submit their own packages/libraries. The latest technologies are often released in R first.

File Sharing You can’t share SAS generated files with another user who does not use SAS. Since anyone uses r, it is much easier to share files with another user.

Updates SAS relatively less frequently updated. R is an open source tool, so it is continuously updated.

Market Share Currently, SAS is facing stiff competition from R, and other Data analytical tool as a result market share of SAS is gradually declining. R has seen exponential growth in the last past five years with its increasing popularity. That is why its market share is increasing rapidly.

Graphical Capabilities SAS has good graphical support. However, it does not offer any customization. Graphical support of R tool is poor.

Customer Support SAS provides dedicated customer support. R has the biggest online communities but no customer service support.

Support for Deep learning Deep Learning in SAS is still in its early stages, and there’s a lot to work for before it matures.

Job Scenario SAS analytic tool is still the market leader as far as corporate jobs are concerned. Many big companies still work on SAS. Jobs on R have been reported to increase over the last few years.

Salary Range The average salary for any SAS programmer is $81,560 per year in the U.S.A. The average salary for an “R” programmer” ranges from approximately $127,937 per year for Data scientists to $147,189 per year.

Best features



Nested rules



Data analysis

Graphics and data Flexible statistical analysis

Highly interactive

Famous companies using Airbnb, StacShare, Asana, Hubspot Instacart, Adroll, Opbandit, Custora

TIOBE Rating 22 16

Feature of R

R helps you to connect to many databases and data types

A large number of algorithms and packages for statistics flexible

Offers effective data handling and storage facility

Collect and analyze social media data

Train machines to make predictions

Scrape data from websites

A comprehensive and integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis

Interface with other languages and scripting capabilities

Flexible, extensible, and comprehensive for productivity

Ideal platform for data visualization

Features of SAS

Operations Research and Project Management

Report formation with standard graphics

Data updating and modification

Powerful Data handling language

Read and write almost any data format

Best data cleansing functions

Allows you to Interact with multiple host systems

The Final Verdict: R vs SAS

After comparing some main differences between both these tools, we can say that both have their own set of users. There are many companies, who prefer SAS because of data security issues, which show despite a drop in a recent year, there is still a huge demand for SAS certified professionals.

On the other hand, R is an ideal tool for those professionals who want to do deep cost-effective Data analytics jobs. The numbers of startup companies are increasing all over the world. Therefore, the demand for R-certified developers is also increasing. Currently, both have equal potential for growth in the market, and both are equally popular tools.

The Difference Between Jailbreaking And Unlocking

There is a lot of confusion among noobies about jailbreaking and unlocking. One of our readers recently asked for a clear “non geeky” definition of both terms.

What’s the difference in a nutshell?

The difference between jailbreak and unlock is that jailbreaking allows you to gain access to files on your device that Apple wouldn’t normally let you access, while unlocking is the removal of carrier restrictions allowing you to use your iPhone on any carrier. These are two very different things which we will explain in more details below.

What is Jailbreaking?

Definition of Jailbreaking

Jailbreaking is the process by which an iPhone firmware is modified to allow unsigned code to be run to gain access to files that Apple wouldn’t normally let you access. Jailbreaking adds unofficial application installers to your iPhone such as Cydia or Icy (I personally only use Cydia), which let you download many 3rd-party applications previously unavailable through the App Store.

Is Jailbreaking Legal?

Update: Jailbreaking is now officially legal in the US

Yes and no. The legality of jailbreaking is very unclear. Most iPhone owners including myself think that since we own the iPhone, we should be able to do whatever we want with it.

Apple’s lawyers think differently as they consider jailbreaking to be a violation of copyright. I had a phone conversation with Apple’s copyright attorney about a year ago and he admitted to me that they are not capable of going after every jailbreaker out there… To these days, I don’t think anyone has had legal issues with Apple due to jailbreaking.

Jailbreaking lets you install applications that are not approved by Apple. Many of these applications can be very helpful but they will unfortunately never make it to the App Store due to Apple’s restrictions. There are many reasons why you would want to jailbreak your iPhone:

install 3rd party applications rejected by Apple for various reasons (ie. nudity)

video recording (now available on the iPhone 3GS)

changing the look and feel by installing custom graphics and themes

free tethering

get access to cracked App Store apps for free (not endorsed by me, but still worth noting)

be able to unlock your iPhone

I can only think of one reason why you wouldn’t want to jailbreak. Jailbreaking your iPhone automatically voids the warranty. This is not really a problem as you can always restore your iPhone in iTunes, putting it back to its factory settings. This will make it impossible for Apple to see you jailbroke your iPhone, thus not voiding your warranty.

In the past, some jailbreak methods were not very stable and sometimes turned your iPhone into an iBrick aka an expensive paper weight. Jailbreak methods are now very stable and I have yet to hear about someone bricking his iPhone while jailbreaking. In other words, jailbreaking is safe!

How Do I Jailbreak My iPhone?

What If Something Goes Wrong?

Why Are You Still Reading This?

What? You’re still aren’t sure about this whole jailbreak thing? You’re missing out big time. An unjailbroken iPhone is a plain boring iPhone! Jailbreaking is the best thing that has happened to my iPhone and I seriously can’t live without it.

What Is Unlocking?

Definition of Unlocking

Unlocking is the removal of SIM restrictions on the modem, allowing the use of the iPhone on any carrier. There are 2 types of iPhone unlocks:

software unlock: the iPhone is unlocked by a software

hardware unlock: modification have to be made to the actual hardware to unlock the phone

Software unlocks are safer because they do not modify your device and can easily be reverted back. Soft unlocks are mostly developed for free by the Dev Team, an international group of iPhone hackers. Hardware unlocks are a little tricky and usually cost money. In clear, if you want to unlock your iPhone, you can do it for free by with a safe software unlock.

Is Unlocking Legal?

According to Wikipedia, “unlocking a phone without the permission or unlocking code from the provider is usually in breach of the agreement with the provider, though most countries do not make specific laws prohibiting the removal of SIM locks. In the United States the DMCA formerly was claimed to criminalize unlocking. However, an exemption that took effect 27 November 2006 specifically permits it.”

Why Unlock Your iPhone

The main reason to unlock your iPhone is if you want to use it with a different service provider (ie T-Mobile). An unlocked iPhone also has a better resell value.

Why Not Unlock Your iPhone

If you’re good with your phone carrier and will not use your iPhone internationally, there is absolutely no reason for you to unlock your iPhone.

How Do I Unlock My iPhone?

Before unlocking your iPhone, you will have to jailbreak it. The unlock can either be done from a computer, or directly from the iPhone. Check out my iPhone unlock tutorials for step by step instructions.

What If Something Goes Wrong?

Although unlocks can sometimes mess up your settings a little bit, they are constantly improved to fix errors and bugs. If something goes wrong, you can always restore your iPhone to factory settings.

In Short…

I case you’re still not really sure you understand the difference between jailbreaking and unlocking, let me put it in very simple words. Jailbreaking an iPhone means that 3rd party applications can be installed on it (ie. apps from other developers than Apple). Unlocking an iPhone means that any SIM card can be used on it.

Does Vpn Affect Routers? What Is The Best Router Vpn?

Does VPN Affect Routers? What is the Best Router VPN? Learn how the VPN impacts your router and use the best one here








VPNs are wonderful little tools designed to protect your online privacy against prying eyes. However, using them on your default network might have some drawbacks.

If you’re considering deploying a VPN network-wide by installing it on your router, there are a few things you must take into consideration.

You may consider that your regular Internet connection can get slower because of the VPN server and complex data encryption. 

To learn more about how these privacy tools determine your devices, dive deep into this useful article. 



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VPNs are wonderful little tools designed to protect your online privacy against prying eyes. There are truly the multi-tool of the modern era world wide web enthusiasts.

Truth be told, aside from protecting your privacy, a VPN can do so much more.

For instance, it encrypts all of your traffic, circumvents geo-restrictions as easily as pie, and can even help you improve ping and reduce packet loss.

So, long story short, VPNs tend to reduce Internet speed because there’s so much going on with them, including encryption, decryption, and not to mention the extra distance they add to your connection.

Can a VPN mess up your Internet?

Unfortunately, all these security and privacy perks come with a price, and we’re not talking about paying the subscription plan.

It will also affect your connection if you’re using WiFi and it can access your data just like your ISP.

The good news is that using a VPN will render your ISP unable to see your data, so it’s a matter of who you trust most.

Does VPN affect your internet speed? 🌐

Badly for the users, it is well-known that using a VPN will affect your Internet speed. The reasons why that problem may happen are the complex processes of encrypting your data.

In addition to that, the server location where you connect can decrease your Internet speed because of the actual server distance between you and the location.

Does VPN affect router performance? 1. Using a VPN on your PC

A common misconception is that using a VPN on your network will subsequently affect everyone else on the network, including your router.

If you’re not exactly tech-savvy, this might not be too hard to believe, so we’re going to debunk that right away.

That also applies to your router. Using a VPN on your personal device will only affect the router in the sense that your router will receive encrypted traffic from your computer, but that’s it.

Also, any other speed or performance limitation will only apply to your device.

2. Using a VPN on your router

This situation is wildly different than the one above.

If you install your VPN directly on a supported router or create a passthrough to connect to routers that don’t have native support such as Eero routers, then the VPN will have a great impact on your connection.

All of your devices connect to your router, so in a sense, it’s not exactly accurate to say that using a VPN on your router will only affect this device.

In fact, since your router is downstream of every other device on your network, all network traffic gets routed through it. That’s why it’s called a router.

Your router, like any other flashable device, has memory that it uses to run various processes. For instance, any additional security option you toggle might take additional memory (RAM). The same goes for any additional device you connect through it.

Then there’s the fact that it must connect to a specific VPN server every once in a while, which also takes some processing power.

In conclusion, the answer is yes, if you’re using a VPN on your router, it will affect both its speed and performance.

But don’t expect it to tank suddenly. Depending on your router, the shift in its performance might be subtle or more noticeable, but it won’t all happen at once.

Does VPN affect all devices on WiFi?

If you’re using a VPN on your device, whether it’s a phone, desktop PC, or tablet, it will affect all. No other user on your network will be affected by your VPN, security, speed, or performance-wise.

So, a VPN on your router will subject it to additional network management tasks. For once, a VPN encrypts and decrypts traffic, which is a pretty intense memory and CPU-consuming process.

Is VPN for WiFi only? 📶

No, it is not. Your VPN connection can be established using either WiFi, mobile data, or an Ethernet cable. Thus, it doesn’t matter if you don’t connect directly through WiFi.

Home routers with VPN are the way to go

Generally speaking, most modern routers support VPNs, but you’ll have to get your hands a bit messy with manual configurations and whatnot. However, there’s a special category of routers that are VPN-ready.

If you choose to go with such a device, you won’t have to spend a lot of time configuring them, or at least you don’t have to come up with creative ways to deploy your favorite VPN on your entire network.

We believe that ExpressVPN is one of the best VPNs you can use to shield the entire batch of devices on your network.

It allows you to install it on up to 6 devices on the same account, so you might not even need to deploy it on your router.

If you have more than 10 devices on the same network (kudos, by the way), you’ll have to install it on the router.

However, note that these devices are wildly different from one another, both hardware- and software-wise. Thus, you might want to see the official recommendations from ExpressVPN on deploying their VPN on your router.


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It’s also worth mentioning that certain devices that are not VPN-ready might need open-source firmware such as DD-WRT, Tomato, or PFsense.

Should I put a VPN on my router?

So, while using a VPN service network-wide will do wonders for your security and privacy, it comes with some drawbacks.

If you install a VPN service on your router, expect to face some limitations regarding speed and device performance.

Make sure to check if your router supports VPN before attempting to deploy this type of service on your device. If it’s not compatible, you might need to flash your router with custom, open-source firmware such as DD-WRT, or Tomato.

You can go to our best VPN-ready routers to simplify VPN installation. Visit the VPN Hub to discover more tools and guides to keep your online identity safe.

Last, but not least, always check all the steps before you perform them, since flashing your router with unsupported firmware can do irreversible damage to it (you can turn it into an expensive paperweight).

Frequently Asked Questions

Does VPN affect router performance? Yes, you can expect your router to be affected speed- and performance-wise if you install a VPN on it.

What are the best VPN routers? If you want to deploy a VPN on your entire network, it would be a wise thing to invest in a VPN router. Check out our best VPN routers if you don’t know where to start.

Your connection is not secure – websites you visit can find out your details:

Use a VPN to protect your privacy and secure your connection.

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What’s The Difference Between Causality And Correlation?


Causation and Correlation are loosely used words in analytics. People tend to use these words interchangeably without knowing the fundamental logic behind them. Apparently, people get trapped in the phonetics of these words and end up using them at incorrect places. But, let me warn you that apart from the similar sounding names, there isn’t a lot common in the two phenomena. Their fundamental implications are very different.

Let’s understand the difference between Causation and Correlation using a few examples below. Analyze the following scenarios and tell us whether there is a causal relation between the two events (X and Y). Answers are provided below.

Hypothesis – Students going to premium B-schools get higher salaries on an average. Are these B-school a cause of getting better jobs?

Hypothesis – People who smoke are found to have higher level of stress. Is smoking the reason of stress?

Hypothesis – People get more matured after having kids? Is having kids a cause of attaining higher maturity levels?

Hypothesis – We witness lower temperature at high altitudes. Which means, the higher you go, the colder it would become. Is higher altitude a cause of lower temperature?

I hope the examples described above would have triggered your learning appetite and have got excited you to learn more on this. Though, this is not a newly discovered topic, but people still haven’t got firm grip on using these terms. Hence, I have tried to explain the aspects of causation and correlation in the simplest possible manner.

Here are the Answers:

Example 1 : Causal relation does not exist. For instance, only ambitious and intelligent people are selected from elite B-schools who further get much higher salary than the average. Hence, even if these students did not study in Tier 1 B-School, he/she still might get more than the average salaries. Hence, we have alternate reasoning issue in this case.

Example 2 : Causal relation does not exist. We can reject hypothesis based on inverse causality. For instance, higher mental stress can actually influence a person to smoke.

Example 4 : Causal relation does exist. We definitely know that inverse causality is not possible. Also alternate reasoning or mutual independence can be rejected.

Result: If you were able to answer all the 4 scenarios correctly, you are ready for the next concept. In case you got any of the scenario wrong, you probably need more practice on finding cause-effect pairs.

What are the keypoints in establishing causation?

3. Mutual independence : Sometimes X and Y might just be correlated and nothing else. In such cases we reject hypothesis based on mutual independence.

How can we conclusively derive cause-effect relationship?

In fields like pharma, it is very important to establish cause-effect pairs. And that’s why, there are enough researches done to find cause-effect pairs. Let’s understand the following definitions before we get down to mathematics :

1. Randomized Experimental data : An experiment is often defined as random assignment of observational units to different conditions, and conditions differ by the treatment of observational units. Treatment is a generic term, which translates most easily in medical applications (e.g. patients are treated differently under different conditions), but it applies to other areas as well.

2. Observational data : If we do not have the luxury to do a randomized experiment, we are forced to work on existing data sources. These events have already happened without any control. Hence, the selection is not random.

Deriving out causality from Observational data is very difficult and non-conclusive. For a conclusive result on causality, we need to do randomized experiments.

Why are observational data not conclusive?

1. Observational Data not conclusive because the selection in observational data are not randomized. We can never conclude individual cause-effect pair.

2. For instance, if the number of students graduating from Tier 1 B-school get higher salary; this will not conclude causality relationship because the selection was based on initial performance.

3. However, if we randomly select students for Tier 1 B-schools, this analysis will become more conclusive to establish causality.

Why don’t we do random experiment every time to establish causality?

There are multiple reason you might be asked to work on observational data instead of experiment data to establish causality.

First is, the cost involved to do these experiments. For instance, if your hypothesis is giving free I-phone to customers, this activity will have an incremental gain on sales of Mac. Doing this experiment without knowing anything on causality can be an expensive proposal.

Second is, not all experiments are allowed ethically. For instance, if you want to know whether smoking contributes to stress, you need to make normal people smoke, which is ethically not possible.

In that case, how do we establish causality using observational data?

There has been good amount of research done on this particular issue. The entire objective of these methodologies is to eliminate the effect of any unobserved variable. In this section, I will introduce you to some of these well known techniques :

Let’s try this methodology.

1. Following is the equation of regressing y (salary) against both Premium college (subscript T) and unobserved dimensions (subscript U)

2. But, because the unobserved dimension is invariant over time, we can simplify the equation as follows :

3. We can now eliminate the unobserved factor by differencing over time

Now, it becomes to find the actual coefficient of causality relationship between college and salary.

2. Simulated Control : Biggest concern with observation data is that we do not get treatment and non-treatment data for the same data point. For instance, referring to the smoking example above, a person can’t be a smoker and non-smoker at the same time.

But, what if, we can find out a look alike for all treated in the non-treated group. And then compare the response of this treatment among look alikes. This is the most common method implemented currently in the industry.

The look alike can be found using nearest neighbor algorithm, k-d tree or any other algorithm. Let’s take an instance, we have two people with same age group, gender, income etc. One of them starts smoking and another does not. Now the stress level can be compared over a period of time given no other condition changes among them.

While this might sound a very exciting approach theoretically, it is usually difficult to carve out pure simulated / virtual control and this can some time lead to conclusions, which may not be correct. This is actually a topic for a different article in future.

3. Instrumental Variable (IV) : This is probably the hardest one which I find to implement. Following are the steps to implement this technique :

Find the cause – effect pair.

Find an attribute which is related to cause but is independent of the error which we get by regressing cause-effect pair. This variable is known as Instrumental Variable.

Now estimate the cause variables using IV.

Try regressing estimated cause – effect to find the actual coefficient of causality.

What have we done here?

In observational data, any regression technique applied between cause-effect pair gives a biased coefficient. Using this methodology, we come out with an unbiased estimation. For example (in cigarette – mental stress  pair), we might think it could be influenced by reverse causality.

Now, if we can find any information which is connected to cigarette consumption but not mental stress, we might be able to find the actual relationship. Generally IV are regulatory based variables. For example, here we found a tax regulation which increased only cigarette price and lead to lesser consumption of cigarettes across board.  We can now try finding out the mental stress using the 4-step method discussed above.

4. Regression discontinuity design : This is amongst one of my favourite choices. It this makes the observational data really close to experimental design.

In the graph shown below, we are finding a dimension which has a spike on treatment  and non-treatment population ratio. Suppose, we want to test the effect of scholarship in college on the grades by the end of course for students. Note that, scholarship is offered to students scoring more than 80% in their pre-college examinations. Here’s the twist. Because these students are already bright, they might continue being on top in future as well. Hence, this is a very difficult cause-effect relation to crack!

But, what if, we compare students who scored just below 80% (say 79.9%) with those who scored just above 80% (say 80.1%) on grades by end of the college. The assumption being that 79.9% student won’t be much different from 80.1% student. And the only thing which can change is the effect of scholarship. This is known as Quasi Randomized Selection.

Hence, the results are very close to perfect conclusions on causality. The only challenge with this methodology is that getting such a dimension is very difficult which can give a pure break up between treated and non-treated population.

End Notes

Establishing causality is probably the most difficult task in the field of analytics. The probability of getting it wrong is exceptionally high. Key concepts discussed in this article will help you address the question of causality to a good extent.

Just to end the article with some humor on the topic, here are a few images to drive the difference in correlation and causality.

A spurious correlation:

If you like what you just read & want to continue your analytics learning, subscribe to our emails, follow us on twitter or like our facebook page.


Difference Between C++ And Java

What is the C++ language?

C++ is a computer programming language that contains the feature of C programming language as well as Simula67 (first object Oriented language). C++ introduced the concept of Class and Objects.

It encapsulates high and low-level language features. So, it is seen as an intermediate level language. Earlier it was called “C with classes” as it had all the properties of the C language.

What is the Java language?

Java is programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. A small software development team developed this language. They were known as the Green Team, who initiated Java language in the year 1991.

History of C++

C++ language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT & T Bell Laboratories. Stroustrup was a strong supporter of C and an admirer of Simula67. He wanted to combine the best of both the languages. He was aiming to create a language which supports object-oriented programming features and still retains the power of C. This resulted in C++.

History of Java

Later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of two key Sun software assets: Java and Solaris.


C++ uses only compiler, whereas Java uses compiler and interpreter both.

C++ supports both operator overloading & method overloading whereas Java only supports method overloading.

C++ supports manual object management with the help of new and delete keywords whereas Java has built-in automatic garbage collection.

C++ supports structures whereas Java doesn’t supports structures.

C++ supports unions while Java doesn’t support unions.

C++ Vs Java

C++ Vs. Java

Parameter C++ Java

Relationship No strict relationship between class names and filenames. In C++, header files and implementation files are used for specific class. The strict relationship is enforced, e.g., the source code for class PayRoll has to be in

Input mechanism I/O statements use in and cout, e.g., in » x; cout« y;

Compiler and Interpreter C++ only support compiler Java supports both compiler and interpreter

Compatibility with other languages Compatible with C source code, except some exceptional cases. No backward compatibility with any previous language. The syntax is influenced by C/C++.

Access control and object protection Flexible model with constant protection available The cumbersome model encourages weak encapsulation.

Concept Write once compile anywhere Write once run anywhere everywhere

Support for programming type Allows both procedural programming and object-oriented programming. Support object-oriented programming model.

Interface Allows direct calls to native system libraries. Only call through the Java Native Interface and recently Java Native Access

Memory management Accessible to programmer System controlled

Root hierarchy C++ there is no such root hierarchy. C++ supports both procedural and object-oriented programming; therefore, it is called a hybrid language. Java is a pure object-oriented programming language. That’s. Why It follows single root hierarchy.

Best features C++ supports Object-oriented features Procedural programming features. Java support automatic garbage collection. It does not support destructors as C++ does.

Goto Statement C++ has a goto statement. Although, it is not ideal to a use a goto statement. Java has no goto statement. The keywords got, and const are reserved even if they are not used.

Multiple inheritance C++ provide multipleInheritance. The keyword virtual is used to resolveproblems during multipleinheritance if there is any. Java doesn’t provide multiple inheritance.

Scope resolution operator C++ has scope resolution operator (: 🙂 which is used to define a method outside of a class and to access a global variable within from the scope where a local variable also exists with the same name. No scope resolution operator (: 🙂 in Java. The method definitions have to occur within a class, so there is no need for scope resolution.

Supporting method C++ supports both method overloading & operator overloading Java only supports method overloading. It does not provide support for operator overloading.

Portability The source must be recompiled for the platform; hence the code is not portable. Bytecode classes are transferrable to platform-specific JVM’s.

Type semantics Consistent between primitive and object types. Differ for primitive and object types.

Libraries Predominantly low-level functionality Massive, classes for high-level services.

Runtime error detection Programmer responsibility. System Responsibility.

Functions & Data Functions and data may exist external to any class, global and namespace scopes are available. All function and data exist within classes; package scope are available.

Platform C++ programs are platform dependent. They need to be compiled for a particular platform. Java programs are platform independent. Java programs are written for Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It will run without needing recompilation.

Runtime error detection In C++, It is Programmer responsibility to check the errors. It is system responsibility to check error in the program.

Pointer C++ support pointers. Java offers only limited support for pointers.

Structure It supports structures. It does not any support for structures.

Unions C++ supports unions. Java does not support unions.

Object management C++ supports manual object management with the help of new and delete keywords. Java is heavy depend on automatic garbage collection. It does not support destructors.

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