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Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations.
Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio).
Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc.
Quantitative research question examples
What is the demographic makeup of Singapore in 2023?
How has the average temperature changed globally over the last century?
Does environmental pollution affect the prevalence of honey bees?
Does working from home increase productivity for people with long commutes?Quantitative research methods
You can use quantitative research methods for descriptive, correlational or experimental research.
In descriptive research, you simply seek an overall summary of your study variables.
In correlational research, you investigate relationships between your study variables.
In experimental research, you systematically examine whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Correlational and experimental research can both be used to formally test hypotheses, or predictions, using statistics. The results may be generalized to broader populations based on the sampling method used.
To collect quantitative data, you will often need to use operational definitions that translate abstract concepts (e.g., mood) into observable and quantifiable measures (e.g., self-ratings of feelings and energy levels).
Quantitative research methods
Research method How to use Example
Experiment Control or manipulate an independent variable to measure its effect on a dependent variable. To test whether an intervention can reduce procrastination in college students, you give equal-sized groups either a procrastination intervention or a comparable task. You compare self-ratings of procrastination behaviors between the groups after the intervention.
Survey Ask questions of a group of people in-person, over-the-phone or online. You distribute questionnaires with rating scales to first-year international college students to investigate their experiences of culture shock.
(Systematic) observation Identify a behavior or occurrence of interest and monitor it in its natural setting. To study college classroom participation, you sit in on classes to observe them, counting and recording the prevalence of active and passive behaviors by students from different backgrounds.
Secondary research Collect data that has been gathered for other purposes e.g., national surveys or historical records. To assess whether attitudes towards climate change have changed since the 1980s, you collect relevant questionnaire data from widely available longitudinal studies.
Note that quantitative research is at risk for certain research biases, including information bias, omitted variable bias, sampling bias, or selection bias. Be sure that you’re aware of potential biases as you collect and analyze your data to prevent them from impacting your work too much.Quantitative data analysis
Once data is collected, you may need to process it before it can be analyzed. For example, survey and test data may need to be transformed from words to numbers. Then, you can use statistical analysis to answer your research questions.
Descriptive statistics will give you a summary of your data and include measures of averages and variability. You can also use graphs, scatter plots and frequency tables to visualize your data and check for any trends or outliers.
Using inferential statistics, you can make predictions or generalizations based on your data. You can test your hypothesis or use your sample data to estimate the population parameter.
Examples of descriptive and inferential statisticsYou hypothesize that first-year college students procrastinate more than fourth-year college students. You collect data on procrastination levels of the two groups using 7-point self-rating scales.
First, you use descriptive statistics to get a summary of the data. You find the mean (average) and the mode (most frequent rating) of procrastination of the two groups, and plot the data to see if there are any outliers.
Next, you perform inferential statistics to test your hypothesis. Using a t-test to compare the mean ratings of the two groups, you find a significant difference and support for your hypothesis.
You can also assess the reliability and validity of your data collection methods to indicate how consistently and accurately your methods actually measured what you wanted them to.Here’s why students love Scribbr’s proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editingAdvantages of quantitative research
Strengths of this approach include:
Repeating the study is possible because of standardized data collection protocols and tangible definitions of abstract concepts.
Direct comparisons of results
The study can be reproduced in other cultural settings, times or with different groups of participants. Results can be compared statistically.
Data from large samples can be processed and analyzed using reliable and consistent procedures through quantitative data analysis.
Using formalized and established hypothesis testing procedures means that you have to carefully consider and report your research variables, predictions, data collection and testing methods before coming to a conclusion.
Despite the benefits of quantitative research, it is sometimes inadequate in explaining complex research topics. Its limitations include:
Using precise and restrictive operational definitions may inadequately represent complex concepts. For example, the concept of mood may be represented with just a number in quantitative research, but explained with elaboration in qualitative research.
Predetermined variables and measurement procedures can mean that you ignore other relevant observations.
Despite standardized procedures, structural biases can still affect quantitative research. Missing data, imprecise measurements or inappropriate sampling methods are biases that can lead to the wrong conclusions.
Lack of context
Quantitative research often uses unnatural settings like laboratories or fails to consider historical and cultural contexts that may affect data collection and results.Other interesting articles
If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.Frequently asked questions about quantitative research Cite this Scribbr article
Bhandari, P. Retrieved July 17, 2023,
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While impotence may have existed throughout history, pornography has increased to record levels recently through the digital internet. Pornography shows explicit sexual activity that is quite unrealistic and different from the sex that married couples may experience. A kind of aggressive sport, porn shows unusual and unnatural sex positions that titillate the senses and encourage arousal and masturbation.Are Pornography and Erectile Dysfunction linked?
Without a consensus, it is a controversial subject for debate. On the face of it, it looks as if they are linked, and that porn causes erectile problems. If the erection cannot be maintained and is not strong enough, sex will not succeed. The traditional approach links them and considers porn immoral and against religious laws, certainly according to some cultures. Guilt feelings cause stress that worsens the situation.
Certain societies frown upon laxity and would certainly object to graphic illustrations of sex in weird positions. Some countries like China have banned porn sites on the internet, but the billion-dollar pornography industry finds ways to get around the laws.Some Things Cannot Change.
Multimedia is a convenient tool for porn. Films and video clips, porn websites, pictures and magazines, posters, and slides are easily and cheaply available. Similar to prostitution and drugs that seem to be illegal but are not, porn flourishes mostly beyond legal reach. A few unlucky ones may get arrested, charged, fined, and imprisoned, but the big fish get away.A Variety of Causes for Erection Lapses
The most direct cause is the inadequate blood supply to the penis. In a normal erection, blood fills up the penis and the erection results. Why does the blood not reach the penis? Heart problems like blood pressure could be the reason—high blood pressure results in the narrowing of the blood vessels. High cholesterol or diabetes with high blood sugar could be additional causes. Relaxed muscles encourage blood flow.
Psychological problems and stress, hormonal deficiency, and neural problems could be other reasons. Prostrate issues could also cause the problem.
Once the cause is identified, a combination of medications, exercise, and counseling could help overcome the problem, probably in stages. Like a drunk getting back to drinks in occasional lapses, porn viewing may continue for a while before completely avoiding it. Though it is not as easy as it sounds, it is achievable. Passions have highs and lows, like mountains and valleys.Mighty Dimensions of the Problem
Many younger men are reporting ED, probably due to too much porn. The numbers are rapidly increasing, mostly affecting men between 40 and 70. From 150 million men in 1995, the numbers may reach 320 million men by 2025. While internet porn spread rapidly in the mid-1990s, medications like Viagra followed later. Do these medications help solve the problem? It probably does, partially at least, with devices like implants and the penis pump for better sexual performance.Porn Addiction and Desensitization Looking at the Brighter Side
Is it not reasonable to think, as one study suggests, that porn might encourage erection through stimulation of the senses? If the cause of ED is relationships or psychological factors, the man may be helped with erectile dysfunction. With greater sexual responsiveness to a partner, it seems that the body and brain get a chance to prepare for sex better. Hopefully, the intercourse might work better. Many more studies are required to confirm such theories.
Research is similarly lacking regarding harm caused by porn, though the general impression goes strongly against porn.
Though scientific evidence is lacking, many companies make money through the supposed porn harmful impact. ED medications, too, have a huge market along with connected devices and implants.ED Prevention Strategies
Heart health equals sexual health. Keep away from food and drinks that restrict blood flow in the arteries. Red meats, processed meats, white rice, sodas, and energy drinks are examples. Water and red wine, tuna and olive oil, nuts and almonds are good for the heart.
Weight management is best even though surrounded by obesity. Heavyweights can get diabetes which can harm the nerves that extend to the sexual organs.
Tobacco is harmful too and can restrict blood flow in addition to lots of other damage.
Mental health matters since the brain also play a part. Avoid anxiety and depression and find remedies.Further Possible ED Causes
A combination of factors could cause primary ED. Clogged arteries, as happens in atherosclerosis, could be the cause. A physical injury could lead to stress. Relationship disputes might come up. Secondary ED occurs much later in life after normal erections over many years. Secondary ED could be caused by anxiety about sex or psychological issues. Spinal cord injury and prostrate problems are other possible causes. Nerve damage could result from surgery.
Amidst the complexity of porn and the question of its effects, pornography has certainly disrupted normal sex life globally. The law should restrict porn, and parents must shield kids from harmful influence. Directly or indirectly, erection problems have surfaced in men in huge numbers, not all due to porn. A variety of diseases and lifestyles cause erectile dysfunction. It is time to seek remedial actions.
An autonomous AI research platform called “Data-to-Paper” has recently been unveiled, showcasing the strong capabilities of ChatGPT in scientific analysis. Through a new approach, ChatGPT, a well-established language model, is utilized within this platform to autonomously generate research papers based on data analysis.
Credit: Metaverse Post (mpost.io)Karolina Gaszcz
Edited and fact-checked
The process begins by feeding the ChatGPT model with a large CDC Health Survey dataset and allowing it to explore various research topics independently. After a brief period, the AI system selects several research areas, writes data analysis codes, interprets the obtained results, and ultimately produces five transparent and reproducible papers.
The feature of “data-to-paper” is its emphasis on reproducibility. The generated documents not only present the final outcomes but also include detailed technical steps and analysis codes employed by ChatGPT. This ensures that human scientists can review, follow, and reproduce the entire process accurately.
The platform operates through an intricate interaction between ChatGPT and algorithmic agents, each assuming different roles such as “scientist,” “reviewer,” “encoder,” and “illuminated reviewer.” These agents autonomously progress through the canonical sequence of research stages, from data analysis to the final paper.
To address potential challenges, such as hallucinated citations, the system has access to search engines. Additionally, auto-checks, cross-checks between multiple ChatGPT instances, and well-defined tasks are employed to minimize other instances of hallucination. Nonetheless, it is essential to acknowledge that the involvement of human judgment and assessment remains crucial for ensuring the quality of the resulting papers.
The “data-to-paper” platform is not a new language model but rather an orchestration of ChatGPT’s capabilities. Similar to other structured, automated approaches, such as AutoGPT and LangChain, it harnesses ChatGPT’s potential through a multi-step process focused on complex goals, specifically data analysis and paper writing.
One of the primary objectives of “data-to-paper” is to highlight the potential of ChatGPT in the scientific domain, traditionally considered a realm exclusive to human creativity and intellect. By provoking discussions around the strengths and societal impacts of current and future language models, the platform aims to stimulate new perspectives on the role of human scientists in this evolving era.
“Data-to-Paper” currently focuses on papers that involve statistical tests on datasets. However, expanding its capabilities to accommodate other types of data analysis studies remains a challenge, showing that the importance of human involvement and judgment in producing high-quality research papers cannot be understated.
The emergence of “data-to-paper” prompts us to consider how we can leverage interactive systems like a “scientist co-pilot.” Such systems can handle routine scientific tasks, enabling human scientists to engage in higher-level abstraction and tackle more complex questions and challenges. While there are areas for improvement, the platform undoubtedly opens up new avenues for exploration and collaboration in scientific research.
MIT researchers conducted an experiment to evaluate GPT-4’s capabilities in various fields, including engineering, law, and history. The results showed GPT-4 demonstrated exceptional competence in various fields, but the claim of flawless 100% accuracy was not entirely accurate. The researchers used multiple methods to aid GPT-4 in answering questions accurately, including Chain of Reasoning, Coding Approach, Critical Prompt, and Expert Prompting. GPT-4 demonstrated a 90% success rate in solving the reserved 10% of questions without the aid of additional techniques. However, when employing these techniques, the model achieved a flawless 100% accuracy, flawlessly answering every question.
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How did we find out that video games can promote violent outbreaks? Or that children should not view certain shows? Were these only intuitive? Or are they backed by researchers? These and many facts we know about how media influence us are derived from research.Media Psychology Research
Media psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the psychological effects of media on individuals and society. Media psychology seeks to understand how media influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and how we engage with and make sense of media messages. Media psychology research encompasses a wide range of topics, including the effects of social media on mental health, the impact of violent media on aggressive behavior, and the influence of media on body image and self-esteem.
It also examines how individuals process and make meaning of media messages and how media can be used to promote positive social change. Media psychology draws on various psychological theories and methods, including social cognitive theory, cultivation theory, and agenda-setting theory, to better understand the psychological effects of media. It is interdisciplinary, incorporating communication, sociology, and media studies insights.
Many research methods are used in media psychology, including quantitative and qualitative approaches. Some common research methods in media psychology include −Surveys
Surveys are a commonly used research method in media psychology and involve collecting data from a sample of individuals through self-report questionnaires. Surveys can be administered online, by phone, or in person and are useful for collecting data on a wide range of topics, such as media consumption patterns, attitudes toward media, and the impact of media on behavior. Surveys can be administered in various formats, including online, over the phone, or in person. They can be used to gather both quantitative (numerical) and qualitative (non-numerical) data. There are several different types of surveys that researchers might use in media psychology, including −
Self-Report Surveys − Participants are asked to report their media consumption habits, attitudes, and behaviors through a series of questions or statements.
Experiential Surveys − Participants are asked to describe their experiences and feelings related to media consumption in their own words.
Attitude Surveys − Participants are asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement with a series of statements or questions about media attitudes or behaviors.
Demographic Surveys − Participants are asked about their age, gender, education level, and other personal characteristics relevant to media consumption.Experiments
Experiments are a research method in which researchers manipulate one or more variables and measure the effect on a dependent variable. Experiments are often used in media psychology to study the causal relationship between media exposure and attitudes, behaviors, or outcomes. There are several different types of experiments that researchers might use in media psychology, including−
Quasi-Experiments − Researchers cannot randomly assign participants to different experimental groups, but they can still manipulate the media exposure variable and measure the effect on the dependent variable.
Field Experiments − Researchers manipulate the media exposure variable in a naturalistic setting (e.g., a public park or a shopping mall) and measure the effect on the dependent variable.Ethnography & Observations
Ethnography and observation are research methods that involve the study of cultures or social groups by immersing oneself in the context being studied and collecting data through direct observation and other methods. These methods can be particularly useful in media studies, as they allow researchers to understand the cultural and social contexts in which media is consumed and how it shapes attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. Ethnography involves systematically studying a culture or social group through in-depth observation and participation in the group’s daily activities. Ethnographic research in media studies might involve spending time with a particular community or group to observe how they consume media and how it fits into their everyday lives.
Observation is another common research method in media studies and can involve participant observation (in which the researcher actively participates in the activities being observed) and non-participant observation (in which the researcher observes from a distance). Observation can be conducted in naturalistic settings, such as people’s homes or public spaces, or more controlled settings, such as a laboratory.Interviews & Qualitative Methods
Interviews involve collecting data through one-on-one conversations with individuals. Interviews can be useful in media psychology research for understanding how individuals interpret and make sense of media messages. There are several different types of interviews that researchers may use, including structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews.
Structured interviews involve the use of a predetermined set of questions that are asked of all participants. This allows for more consistent data collection and can be useful for comparing responses across different groups of people. However, structured interviews may allow less flexibility or depth of exploration than other interviews.
Semi-structured interviews involve using a predetermined set of questions as a starting point but allow for some flexibility and deviation from the script based on the needs and interests of the participant. This can provide a balance between standardization and flexibility.
Unstructured interviews involve little or no predetermined structure and allow the participant to guide the conversation. These interviews can be very open-ended and provide a rich data source, but they may need to be more reliable and easier to analyze.
Regardless of the type of interview used, researchers need to be trained in interviewing techniques and to use appropriate ethical guidelines when conducting interviews with human subjects. Qualitative research methods involve collecting and analyzing data in the form of words, images, or sounds rather than numbers. Qualitative research methods are often used in media psychology to understand how media is used and interpreted by individuals and communities. It is used in media psychology to provide valuable insights into how media shapes attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. It can also help researchers understand the meanings and symbols people attach to different media types and how they use them daily.Conclusion
Various research methods are commonly used in media psychology to study how individuals interact with and are affected by media. These methods include qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, observational methods, and quantitative techniques such as surveys and experiments. Each method has its strengths and limitations, and researchers must carefully consider which is most appropriate for their research question and study design.
What is chúng tôi & What is it Used For? Run an anti-malware program to remove the threat from your PC
The chúng tôi file has been reported to be consuming a high amount of CPU resources by multiple users.
Read this guide to understand what this EXE file is and if it is an important system file or not.
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Many readers have reported that they are seeing the chúng tôi process on their Task Managers, which is consuming high memory. They are confused about whether they should keep it intact or not.
In this guide, we will give you all the details that you need to know about chúng tôi and whether this is harmful or important for your PC. Let us get right into it.
After reading several forums and going through various reports, we discovered that chúng tôi is a malicious process that runs on your PC because of a virus infection.
This file is noticeably created by the FORBOT-BJ WORM. This worm virus is meant to steal sensitive data from your computer.
The virus basically creates and edits the registry files and makes the chúng tôi process run automatically on Windows startup.
If it says Microsoft, then it could be a system file. However, in case it says Unable to verify or something else, then it is a sure-shot malicious file.
Software, especially cryptocurrency miner software can mask themselves as important system files and cause various issues on your computer after infecting them.
This chúng tôi file is also a part of malicious programs that can infect your sensitive files and lock them behind paywalls or steal them and send them to the attacker over the network.
Moreover, the chúng tôi file isn’t an important system file, and you can easily disable the process and it will cause no harm to your PC. So, you can remove it from your computer.1. Run an antivirus scan
The best way to remove any virus or malware from your computer is to simply perform a virus scan and remove the detected problem.
For that, you can use the Windows Security tool that comes built-in with Windows OS. However, this isn’t as effective as dedicated antivirus software.
In such a case, we have listed some of the best anti-malware software and the best antivirus software that you can use and easily resolve such issues and keep your PC protected.2. Clean the registry
Since this chúng tôi malicious file tweaks the registry and causes all sorts of damage to your computer, we would suggest you perform a registry cleanup.
For that purpose, you do not need to do anything manually. You can simply use some of the best registry cleaners that we have tested and get done with your job.
Using the registry cleaner, you will make sure that there are no traces of the chúng tôi file on your computer.
On the same note, you could use a standalone PC repair application that can fix Registry issues alongside corrupted registry files.3. Perform a system restore
To make that process easy, we have a guide that explains how you can reinstall Windows with just 2 easy steps. This guide explains everything in detail and will help you remove the chúng tôi file from your PC.
You can also download the Windows 11 ISO and install it using bootable USB media. In order to learn how to create bootable media, we would suggest you check out our guide.
But before you do that, we would suggest you back up the data on your PC, so that none of your important data is lost when reinstalling or upgrading the PC.
That is it from us in this guide. You can also check our guide that explains what is the chúng tôi file and if you should delete it from your PC or not. We have also detailed whether or not you should keep the chúng tôi file on your computer or not.
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Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling method where units are selected for inclusion in the sample because they are the easiest for the researcher to access.
This can be due to geographical proximity, availability at a given time, or willingness to participate in the research. Sometimes called accidental sampling, convenience sampling is a type of non-random sampling.
Example: Convenience samplingSuppose you are researching public perception towards the city of Seattle. You have determined that a sample of 100 people is sufficient to answer your research question.
To collect your data, you stand at a subway station and approach passersby, asking them whether they want to participate in your research. You continue to ask until the sample size is reached.
Note: Make sure not to confuse random selection with stopping passersby at random.
In probability (or random) sampling, random selection means that each unit has an equal chance of being selected.
In convenience sampling, stopping people at random means that not everyone has an equal chance of forming part of your sample. For instance, here you have excluded people who did not pass through that subway station on the day and time you were collecting your data.When to use convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is often used in qualitative and medical research studies.
In medical research, convenience sampling often involves selecting clinical cases or participants that are available around a particular location (such as a hospital) or a medical records database.
In qualitative research, convenience sampling is often used in social sciences and education where it’s convenient to use pre-existing groups, such as students.
Convenience sampling could be a good fit for your research if:
You want to get an idea of people’s attitudes and opinions
You want to run a test pilot for your survey
You want to generate hypotheses that can be tested in greater depth in future research
Be aware that convenience sampling can introduce several types of research bias, such as selection bias and sampling bias.Convenience sampling examples
There are several ways to draw a convenience sample. Here are a few examples:Example: Online convenience sampling
You are researching how parents use a popular online parenting forum. You want to find out if parents are likely to participate in discussions online or just “lurk,” as well as what kind of information they are seeking there.
Since it’s an online community, there is no membership list to use as a sampling frame. This is a good scenario for using convenience sampling. You decide to draw a convenience sample of 100 users.
You create a pop-up ad that invites users to complete your online survey, which the administrators agree to place on the chúng tôi entice users to participate, a prize draw is mentioned in the ad.Example: Convenience sampling based on location
Suppose you are researching why people visit Monroe Lake Recreation Area, a popular recreational destination in your county. To gather insights, you stand in a parking area and approach people at random, asking them if they would be interested in participating in a five-minute anonymous survey on their preferred recreational activities.
To maximize the number of responses, you also create flyers with a scannable QR code and a shortened URL link. You place them at the Welcome Center and other locations around the lake.Crowdsourced convenience sampling
You are conducting research into attitudes toward depression. You are interested in the difference between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. As an early-career researcher, you do not have an extensive international network. You decide to use a crowdsourcing platform, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk).
MTurk covers a wide range of demographic populations both in the United States and internationally. This enables you to access a more diverse pool of respondents in exchange for monetary compensation.
Here, you set up a short survey for screening purposes. You can then separate out people who qualify for your longer survey, rewarding them with bonus pay. Alternatively, you can email participants if they qualify for the longer survey, or set location-specific criteria, so as to meet the collectivist or individualist criterion.Example: Convenience sampling of a pre-existing group
You are doing a survey to investigate work satisfaction at a large camping gear company in your town. The manager has given you permission to conduct your research but cannot give you a list of all employees due to privacy regulations.
As you do not have a sampling frame, you cannot use probability sampling. Instead, you decide to use convenience sampling. You stand next to the coffee machine and approach random employees, asking them to fill in your quick survey.Here’s why students love Scribbr’s proofreading services
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Convenience samples are quite prone to research bias.
Despite these limitations, there are steps that you can take as a researcher to reduce bias in research. Here are a few options:
Describe in detail how you recruited your participants in the methodology section of your research paper to make your research reproducible and replicable.
Diversify your data collection by recruiting as many participants or cases as possible and use a sample size calculator to determine the appropriate sample size.
Distribute your surveys at different days and times, and use different methods for recruiting participants
Use appropriate descriptive analysis methods, rather than statistical analyses designed for probability samples
Overall, avoid overstating your research findings. Remember that findings based on a convenience sample only apply to the selected cases or participant group. By definition, they cannot be generalized to the target population.
TipMany research studies, particularly in the behavioral sciences, rely heavily on samples from undergraduate students. These have the potential for limited external validity and run the risk of including a disproportionately large number of “WEIRD” participants: Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic.
In a research context, crowdsourcing can help you avoid overly WEIRD samples because it draws from a large and diverse population.
Advantages of convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is usually low-cost and easy, with subjects readily available.
In the absence of a sampling frame, convenience sampling allows researchers to gather data that would not have been possible otherwise.
If you’re conducting exploratory research, convenience sampling can help you gather data that can be used to generate a strong hypothesis or research question.
Since the sample is not chosen through random selection, it is impossible that your sample will be fully representative of the population being studied. This undermines your ability to make generalizations from your sample to the population of interest.
Getting responses only from the participants who are easiest to contact and recruit leaves out many respondents. This affects the accuracy of your data and runs the risk that important cases are not detected, leading to undercoverage bias.
TipFor any type of research, it’s important to be explicit about your sampling method, as well as its potential limitations and biases.Other interesting articles
If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.Frequently asked questions about convenience sampling Cite this Scribbr article
Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 17, 2023,
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