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blog / Finance Unveiling the Power of Common Size Analysis and its 4 Key Principles

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What is Common Size Analysis?

It is a financial tool that presents financial statements in a standardized format, enabling a company to evaluate its performance and compare it with others. It involves expressing each line item on a financial statement as a percentage of a common base. This method allows for better comparison across different time periods or among different companies. One can identify key trends, patterns, and relationships within the financial statements by using common size analysis. Moreover, this analysis facilitates decision-making by highlighting areas of strength or weakness within a company’s financial structure.

The formula for common size analysis is:

Percentage of base = (Amount of individual item / Amount of base item) * 100

ALSO READ: Mastering Accounting and Financial Management for Career Success

4 Key Principles of Common Size Analysis

The following are the main principles of financial analysis that are closely related to common size analysis:

1. Comparability

By standardizing financial records, it increases comparability as it permits meaningful comparisons between different time periods or companies. This approach ensures that financial information is consistently analyzed.

2. Trend Analysis

This can identify trends over time using percentage changes in line items. This notion is consistent with the goal of examining financial data in order to uncover patterns, shifts, and long-term trends in a company’s performance.

3. Ratio Analysis

This analysis is aided by the use of consistent denominators in common size analysis. Ratios provide vital insights into a company’s financial health. Common size analysis guarantees that ratios are calculated on a uniform base, improving accuracy and comparability.

4. Transparency

Just like financial analysis, this improves transparency. It presents financial information in a straightforward and succinct manner. It also gives stakeholders transparent and understandable insights into a company’s financial status.

What Types of Businesses Benefit the Most From Common Size Analysis?

It can benefit a variety of businesses, such as:

Large Organizations

Common size analysis is especially useful for huge corporations with complex financial statements. It enables them to standardize and simplify their financial data, making it easier to examine and compare the same across multiple divisions, departments, or subsidiaries.

Multinational Corporations

Companies that operate in numerous countries confront the issue of complying with diverse accounting rules and currencies. Common size analysis aids in the standardization of financial accounts, simplifying comparisons, and analysis across multinational enterprises.

Industries with High Competition

It is also useful for organizations operating in highly competitive industries. It allows companies to compare their financial performance to that of their counterparts in the industry. Moreover, it identifies areas of strength and weakness and makes educated strategic decisions to strengthen their competitive position.

Startups and Small Enterprises

What are the Limitations of Common Size Analysis?

Limited Context

Overlooks qualitative elements and vital contextual information, thereby restricting understanding of the financial picture.

Industry Variations

Such analysis neglects industry-specific traits and benchmarks, making cross-sector comparisons less accurate and hence less meaningful.

Emphasis on Proportions

It focuses on relative percentages rather than exact amounts, which may not provide a clear picture of the financial impact of certain line items.

Limited Financial Coverage

Stresses on the income statement and balance sheet, ignoring other critical financial statements such as cash flow statements, potentially missing out on valuable information.

Compatibility Challenges

Diverse accounting practices and reporting standards among companies can make accurate comparisons difficult, thus reducing the reliability of the analysis.

Historical Bias

Traditional size analysis is based on historical data, hence, it may miss changes in the business environment, market conditions, or future trends. This limits the ability of common size analysis to provide forward-looking insights.

When using common size analysis, it is critical to be aware of these limitations. Moreover, supplement them with additional tools and information to obtain a more comprehensive financial assessment.

ALSO READ: Cash Flow Statement Analysis: How Does it Track Business Growth?

How Can Common Size Analysis Help in Identifying Financial Trends and Patterns?

Furthermore, by presenting data in a standardized format, it makes significant changes in specific line items more visible, highlighting potential trends. Moreover, analyzing common size statements enables the identification of patterns or relationships among various financial metrics. This, in turn, reveals correlations or dependencies that may not be apparent in absolute values.

As a result, common size analysis allows financial analysts to identify trends, patterns, and relationships within financial statements. It gives them valuable insights into a company’s financial performance and dynamics.

How Can Emeritus Courses Make You a Better Decision-Maker

Emeritus courses can have a significant impact on decision-making abilities as they provide comprehensive knowledge and practical insights. Learners gain a thorough understanding of various domains and develop critical thinking skills through expert-led instruction and real-world case studies. Moreover, they gain exposure to various points of view, allowing them to make well-informed decisions.

In conclusion, incorporating common size analysis into financial analysis practices provides insights into financial health. Additionally, it also aids in the making of informed strategic decisions. You can thus improve your financial analysis skills by using common size analysis to uncover valuable insights for better results. Explore these finance courses by Emeritus and gain a better understanding of your organization’s financial performance today.

By Siddhesh Shinde

Write to us at [email protected]

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## What Is Metaverse? How Does It Work?

If you have heard the Metaverse term and are wondering what exactly is it, here is your answer. In this guide, we are going to discuss what is Metaverse and how does it work. In short- Metaverse can be considered as a parallel virtual universe on the Internet!

What is Metaverse and how does it work?

Metaverse is a term that is formed by combining the two different words including Meta and Universe. It is basically a digital space in which digital objects and things represent the digital people. It is hypothesized concept to combine aspects of several technologies including social media, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), online gaming,  and cryptocurrencies. And, enable people to interact with each other virtually. In layman’s terms, it is a virtual world in which users can socialize, shop, perform different activities, and learn new things.

The term “Metaverse” is credited to Author Neal Stephenson. He was the one who visualized people as avatars meeting in different virtual reality environments (e.g., realistic 3D buildings) in his 1992 science fiction novel “Snow Crash.”

In a way, Metaverse already exists in several online gaming platforms including Minecraft, Fortnite, and Roblox. Even apps like Microsoft Teams or Zoom can be called a form of Metaverse since a group of people come together and interact in a virtual world. However, Metaverse is a wider concept of digital space representation in order to bring people together from virtual trips to concerts and conferences.

It is being a hot topic currently as Facebook and Microsoft are rebranding the term and concept. These two most popular organizations are focusing on utilizing the concept of Metaverse to the fullest.

Is Metaverse a new concept?

No, not really. It is not really a new phenomenon, especially for gamers. People who know about Fortnite and Ready Player One can understand and comprehend the concept and its functioning easily. However, the term has just recently got the buzz since Facebook took over it and rebranded itself as “Meta.”

What is Metaverse used for?

As we already described above that metaverse is used for creating a virtual world to bring people together. Instead of viewing the content, the users will actually be into this virtual world.

Future meetings could move to the metaverse Barbados to establish the world’s first Metaverse embassy

This tiny country in the Caribbean called Barbados is all set to become the first sovereign country in building an embassy in the metaverse. It has signed an agreement on November 14 with Decentraland to establish its metaverse embassy.

Gucci to Announce Its New “Metaverse Design” Category

Roblox to come up with a new category called “Metaverse Design” in association with Gucci. The gamers can buy exclusive outfits on Roblox. Recently, a digital Gucci bag sold for US\$4,000 on gaming platform Roblox indicating that virtual fashion could well become a million-dollar industry!

Games move to the Metaverse

A metaverse game is one that allows millions of players to interact with one another within a single virtual world. Roblox, Fortnite, Acknoledger, Crucible Network, Ex-Populous, Netvrk, Meta Spatial, Sandbox, etc are some of the metaverse games that are currently available.

What are the current implementations of Metaverse?

The current implementations of Metaverse largely include internet video games like Roblox, Active Worlds, Decentraland, and Fortnite. It even focuses on enhancing Virtual reality technology and Facebook has recently launched Facebook Horizon which is basically a VR world. In addition to that, several organizations are focussing on making use of metaverse in enhancing work productivity.

Read: Facts, Myths, Debate about Artificial Intelligence.

What does Zuckerberg mean by metaverse?

Mark Zuckerberg has already announced his plans of establishing the “Metaverse.” This is what he had to say about Metaverse:

I believe the metaverse is the next chapter for the internet.

An embodied internet, where instead of just viewing content — you are in it.

What I think is most interesting is how these themes will come together into a bigger idea. Our overarching goal across all of these initiatives is to help bring the metaverse to life.

All these quotes of Facebook CEO clearly give an idea of how Metaverse is going to be the prime focus for Facebook in the future.

Is Microsoft working on Metaverse?

Microsoft has its own plan of branding the Metaverse. It has planned to roll out Mesh for Microsoft Teams which is somewhat like a Metaverse. Several new features like Together Mode are aiming to make virtual spaces with better collaboration.

What will I be able to do in Metaverse?

Metaverse is touted to be a game-changer in creating a virtual world that brings people across the globe together. It can be used for things like virtual concerts, virtual trips, shopping, leisure activities,  and much more. The scope of Metaverse is not limited to a specific action. It is more relevant in today’s world which is affected by coronavirus pandemic and having people go through Work from Home (WFH) shifts. In such cases, employees can join in a virtual office rather than seeing individual workers on a video call grid.

As Mark Zuckerberg says:

A lot of the metaverse experience is going to be around being able to teleport from one experience to another.

The users will be able to flit between distinct virtual worlds generated by different organizations. However, big tech brands and organizations are still working on how separate virtual worlds will connect with one another. They have to agree on the same set of standards to connect different virtual worlds.

What is Metaverse Cryptocurrency?

Each metaverse platform is expected to have its own cryptocurrency or tokens that users can buy and use online on their platform. Currently, Decentraland (CRYPTO:MANA) and The Sandbox (CRYPTO:SAND) are two of the popular metaverse cryptocurrencies that can be used in their respective metaverse games

That’s it!

Now read: What is Windows Mixed Reality & why is it important to Microsoft?

## What Is Freedom Gpt? How Does It Work?

Are you tired of being censored while conversing with AI chatbots? Do you want to explore the breadth of conversational AI freely and securely without any partiality? If yes, you must check out FreedomGPT, the AI GPT chatbot launched by the Age of AI Capital LLC.

Unlike ChatGPT, FreedomGPT is an LLM-based AI chatbot that guarantees complete privacy and neutrality without censorship. It is the perfect solution for those who want to ask questions without worrying about their content being flagged or deleted. This article will explore how FreedomGPT differs from ChatGPT and how it can revolutionize conversations.

FreedomGPT is an AI chatbot developed by the age of AI Capital LLC, an Austin-based AI Venture firm. It is an open-source Large Language Model (LLM) chatbot dedicated to privacy, neutrality, and customization. The AI GPT is based on the LLaMA and Alpaca open-source models and is developed and hosted by CellStrat AI Research Lab.

According to the creators, the AI chatbot aims to be censor-free and willing to answer any question without partiality. It is a technology that empowers users to explore the breadth of conversational AI freely and securely while uncovering new use cases.

FreedomGPT has been known to provide uncensored answers to questions that mainstream AI language models would never touch, such as tips on cleaning up crime scenes, making bombs, and even praising Hitler as a good leader. While some may find these answers troubling, it showcases the chatbot’s dedication to freedom of information.

The potential benefits are that it is an open-source AI chatbot free from censorship and safety filters. It can provide answers to sensitive topics and maintain ethical considerations. It is also available for anyone to use and join the revolution of open-source AI. However, the potential drawbacks of using FreedomGPT are that it can sometimes give offensive responses and disregard human decency. The development of GPT can also lead to limitations on freedom of speech and threaten privacy rights. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that individuals have the right to express their thoughts and ideas freely without fear of government censorship or retaliation. While FreedomGPT can be a powerful tool, it comes with potential risks and ethical considerations.

Also read: How does Auto-GPT work?

To download and install FreedomGPT, the user can follow the steps below:

Visit the FreedomGPT GitHub repository.

Extract the ZIP file to a folder on the computer.

Open the extracted folder and run the “yarn install” command to install the dependencies.

FreedomGPT is different from ChatGPT in several ways. Here are some of the key features that set it apart from its competitors:

1. Censorship-Free AI

Unlike ChatGPT, FreedomGPT is completely censorship-free. It guarantees that all conversations with the AI chatbot are private and secure. You can ask any question without worrying about your content being flagged or deleted.

2. Desktop Local Execution

Another unique feature of FreedomGPT is that it can run locally on any computer without internet connectivity or reliance on third-party servers. This ensures complete privacy and security of your conversations.

3. Customization

Age of AI Capital LLC has also announced that they will release an open-source version of the AI GPT, allowing individuals and companies to fully customize it to help with specific high-stakes and confidential workflows. This will be a game-changer for businesses that rely on AI chatbots for their day-to-day operations.

In conclusion, FreedomGPT is an AI chatbot revolutionising how we converse with chatbots. It offers complete privacy, neutrality, and customization, unlike its competitors. If you’re tired of being censored while conversing with AI chatbots, you must check it out . It is the perfect solution for those who want to explore the breadth of conversational AI freely and securely while uncovering new use cases. So what are you waiting for? Try out FreedomGPT today and revolutionize your conversations!

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## What Is Bluetooth And How Does It Work?

The name Bluetooth has been synonymous with connected technology for years now and for good reason. When we need two devices to communicate with one another, Bluetooth is our go-to and has been for the better part of the last two decades. While Bluetooth is an incredibly valuable function that we increasingly take for granted, what is Bluetooth exactly? You may be wondering what it is and how does Bluetooth work in today’s increasingly connected world. Let’s find out.

What Is Bluetooth?

Named after a 10th century Scandinavian King, Harald Bluetooth, the history of modern day Bluetooth traces back to 1994. Ericsson, a Swedish telecommunications giant, saw the promise of using Bluetooth as a wireless connection to connect earphones with mobile devices. After testing, five companies (Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Toshiba and Intel) formed the Bluetooth SIG in 1998 to help monitor the growth of Bluetooth. By the end of 1998, Bluetooth had more than 400 companies and more recently had more than 30,000 members.

On a more technical side, Bluetooth uses the same 2.4GHz technology as other wireless technologies. Originally designed to work over distances of 10 meters, Bluetooth can generally handle a network of two to eight devices. It’s through this technology that you can send a page from your computer to your printer in another room without a cable. Inside each Bluetooth hardware is a governor of sorts that allows it to properly determine the type of range available. In this modern day, there are three types of Bluetooth classes available:

Class 1 is the most powerful and can operate up to 100 meters or 330 feet.

Class 2 is the most common and retains the original’s standard of 10 meters or 33 feet.

Class 3 is the least powerful and generally is only good for distances of 1 meter or 3.3 feet.

How Does Bluetooth Work?

As noted above, Bluetooth works in the 2.4GHz frequency range and sends 79 different bands of radio waves inside this frequency. As data is sent, Bluetooth divides all of your data into smaller, more transferable packets. Once the packets have been divided, they are then sent individually over those 79 bands, all while being smart enough to not get clogged up anywhere. Of course, all of this happens within microseconds with almost no lag between the two connected devices.

Bluetooth Versus Wi-Fi

Unlike your Wi-Fi or 3G/4G/5G connections, Bluetooth doesn’t use any data. That’s good news for people in today’s world who connect their smartphones to their cars and stream music. While the actual streaming of music uses data, connecting to your car via Bluetooth uses no Internet data and has minimal impact on battery life.

Different Bluetooth Types

As of 2023, there are two different types of Bluetooth technology available for consumer use. The first is Bluetooth Basic Rate/Enhanced Data Rate, and the second is Low Energy. The former (BR/EDR) must always be paired. On the other hand, Low Energy devices can require a trusted relationship, but it is not always a requirement. Introduced with Bluetooth 4.0, Low Energy is great for electronics such as wearables, headphones or other low power devices where battery life is at a premium. As of today, there are five different versions of Bluetooth available:

Bluetooth Classic: This includes versions 1.0 – 3.0.

When Bluetooth 1.0 first launched, it was capped at data speeds of less than 1 Mbps with a range no greater than 10 meters.

Bluetooth 2.0 took things up a notch by increasing speeds upwards of 2 to 3 Mbps.

Bluetooth 3.0 included the use of 802.11 tech, which helped increase data transfers up to 24 Mbps.

Bluetooth 4.0 is the most common type of Bluetooth available today. Data speeds are limited to 1 Mbps.

Bluetooth 5.0 is an improvement on the Low Energy side by increasing data rate and range. It can work in a variety of transmission ranges including 125 Kbps, 500 Kbps, 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps. The reduction in data rate had the positive effect of being able to increase data range to a whopping 240 meters. Conversely, the faster transmission of 2 Mbps is significantly more limited and is best suited for short range use.

The latest version Bluetooth 5.1 introduces better transmission technology and range. Read more about Bluetooth 5.1 here.

Why Use Bluetooth?

Why not? The usage of Bluetooth has expanded to more than just connecting earphones and mobile phones. There are already plenty of uses for Bluetooth:

While printers have generally relied on Wi-Fi, that type of connection can be shaky. Bluetooth enabled printers allow you to print from your phone or computer without cable, and even when Wi-Fi is offline.

Smartwatches and wearables rely heavily on Bluetooth connectivity. These devices have opened the door to an entire new world of tracking workouts and can share data directly back to your phone for syncing back to a health app.

Most laptops come with Bluetooth and allows you to connect to a Bluetooth keyboard and mice.

Wireless gaming is done via Bluetooth across the Xbox, PS4 and smartphone worlds. Connecting a PS4 or Xbox One controller to your iPhone or Android device is all handled through Bluetooth.

Need to get a Wi-Fi signal somewhere you only have cellular service? Connect your smartphone to your computer through Bluetooth so it can be enabled as a hotspot.

These few examples only scratch the surface of how many different types of electronics you are using today with Bluetooth. It’s so deeply integrated and connected, that you can see it’s something relatively new to the electronics world.

Final Thoughts

David Joz

David is a freelance tech writer with over 15 years of experience in the tech industry. He loves all things Nintendo.

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## What Is Raw Input Buffer In Valorant? What Does It Do

You might have come across the Raw Input Buffer settings in Valorant while going through the mouse sensitivity settings. The game does not mention anything about what the feature does, nor is it readily seen unless you are aware of the very minute details.

If you, too, are someone who is curious about what raw input buffer in Valorant means, look no further. We did the hard work of researching so that you have an easier time finding out what it means.

Raw Input Buffer in Valorant

In Layman’s terms, the raw input buffer is a feature that allows the game to read your mouse input directly by Valorant. This feature gives you less lag and reaction time than when Windows filters the input and sends it to the game.

The raw input buffer is a crucial part of the settings for those gamers whose mice have a polling rate of 8000 Hz. The usual mice range from 125 Hz to 1000 Hz. So, if you have a mouse that has a polling rate of 100 Hz, you might have a hard time finding the changes caused by this function.

Difference Between Using and Not Using Raw Input Buffer

Before moving on to the similarities and differences, it is best to keep in mind that the settings are still in beta mode, so it might be normal for you to face some bugs from time to time.

Now that we know what the raw input buffer does let’s look at the difference between using and not using the raw input buffer.

Standard Mouse InputRaw Input BufferMice with a higher polling rate get chúng tôi is specially made to make the mice with higher polling rates chúng tôi standard APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) go through Windows to filter the chúng tôi raw input buffer takes input directly from the mouse, decreasing the reaction chúng tôi does not affect FPSMay decrease FPSWindows mouse acceleration affects gamingBypasses any Windows mouse accelerationSame for all types of miceMice with lower polling rates may not find any difference.

With the differences in mind, let’s focus on whether you should turn the raw input buffer on or off.

Should You Turn the Raw Input Buffer On?

When the feature first came out with Valorant, it was a bit laggy and did not work well with the 8000 Hz polling rate mice. However, it all changed after the 3.07 patch.

Credit: Razer

Usually, all the good-quality mice come with a 1000 Hz polling rate. So you can safely turn the setting on.6g1 But if you have a mouse with a higher polling rate, Riot Games recommends you turn on the setting so that you experience smoother gameplay.

If you own a standard mouse or the one with a lower polling rate, you can turn the setting on and try playing the game. You can check if you see any improvement. However, the improvement might be minuscule, and you may not perceive it readily.

Nevertheless, it is best to keep the setting turned on as it definitely reduces the input lag in your game.

It is best to keep in mind that if you do not get a constant FPS (60 or above) or if you face a sudden drop in the FPS, you should turn the raw input buffer off so that it does not affect your gameplay.

## What Is Night Mode And How Does It Work?

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

Those following the latest smartphone camera trends have probably heard of “Night Mode,” “Night Sight,” “Bright Night,” or other similar terms. These shooting modes seem to give smartphones night vision, and results have proved amazing.

What is all this Night Mode talk about, though? How does it work? Is it the right tool for you? Today we are here to tell you everything there is to know about these low-light smartphone shooting modes, so stick around to clear all your doubts.

More: Important photography terms you should learn

How Night Mode helps

With Night Mode, the average consumer can forget about carrying heavy tripods, learning complex techniques, or settling for horrible low-light photos.

Edgar Cervantes

With Night Mode, you get the best of both worlds. You can hand-hold the smartphone camera, shoot an image over a few seconds, and let the software do the rest of the work. The average consumer can forget about carrying heavy tripods, learning complex techniques, or settling for ugly photos.

Also read: These tips will take your images to a whole other level

Night Mode downsides

Everything comes with a cost in photography, and Night Mode variations are no exception. The technique has its downsides. The main culprit is that Night Modes don’t do well with moving objects, because the technique requires multiple shots, and subjects in motion can be blurred out or completely erased. The mode is better equipped to deal with static scenes.

Of course, taking any shot in Night Mode will also take longer. Life is full of fleeting moments, and you may not have 3—5 seconds to spare. You best stay away from these specialized shooting modes when you need a quicker shot. You might be better off in Auto if you want to take a picture of that speeding Lambo, for example.

Google Pixel 6 series

Robert Triggs / Android Authority

Pixel phones have long been praised for their photography prowess, and the Google Pixel 6 series is no exception. Both the Pixel 6 and Pixel 6 Pro feature Night Sight, and they do exceptionally well taking shots in dark environments.

Google Pixel 5a

Jimmy Westenberg / Android Authority

If you want all the night-shooting power of the Pixel 6 devices for a lower price, the Pixel 5a is the next best thing. Despite its lower price, it’s still a capable phone, more than capable and well-designed.

Samsung Galaxy S21 series

Robert Triggs / Android Authority

OnePlus 9 series

Dhruv Bhutani / Android Authority

OnePlus calls it Night Mode Nightscape, and it works wonders on the OnePlus 9 series. This includes the OnePlus 9 and OnePlus 9 Pro. There’s a newer OnePlus 10 Pro now, but it’s tough to find in most of the world, so we think the OnePlus 9 devices are still the best, simply due to their accessibility. They’re also great devices.

iPhone 13 series

Gary Sims / Android Authority

We’re all about Google’s mobile OS at Android Authority, but we can’t deny that Apple makes some great smartphones, featuring beautiful designs, superb performance, and an overall great experience. The iPhone 13 series also features excellent camera systems, and all four iterations come with Night Mode.

Night Mode is a great feature to have, but it’s not everything in terms of great smartphone cameras. If you’re looking for the best shooters, we’ve created a couple of lists of the best overall camera phones and the best budget camera phones. We also have a guide for improving smartphone photos in low-light situations.

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