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Accrued Expense

The type of expense that is recognized when incurred but not yet paid

Written by

Jeff Schmidt

Published April 2, 2023

Updated February 14, 2023

What is an Accrued Expense?

Accrued expense is a concept in accrual accounting that refers to expenses that are recognized when incurred but not yet paid.

In some transactions, cash is not paid or earned yet when the revenues or expenses are incurred. For example, a company pays its February utility bill in March, or delivers its products to customers in May and receives the payment in June. Accrual accounting requires revenues and expenses to be recorded in the accounting period that they are incurred.

Since accrued expenses are expenses incurred before they are paid, they become a company liability for cash payments in the future. Therefore, accrued expenses are also known as accrued liabilities.

Key Highlights

Accrued expenses, also known as accrued liabilities, are expenses recognized when they are incurred but not yet paid in the accrual method of accounting.

Typical accrued expenses include utility, salaries, and goods and services consumed but not yet billed.

Accrued expenses are recorded in estimated amounts, which may differ from the real cash amount paid or received later.

Accrual Accounting

There are two types of accounting methods: the accrual method and the cash method. The major difference between the two methods is the timing of recording revenues and expenses. In the cash method of accounting, revenues and expenses are recorded in the reporting period that the cash payment is made. This makes it a simpler method of accounting.

The accrual method of accounting requires revenues and expenses to be recorded in the period that they are incurred, regardless of the time of payment or receiving cash. Since the accrued expenses or revenues recorded in that period may differ from the actual cash amount paid or received in the later period, the records are merely an estimate. The accrual method requires appropriate anticipation of revenues and expenses.

Although it is easier to use the cash method of accounting, the accrual method can reveal a company’s financial health more accurately. It allows companies to record their sales and credit purchases in the same reporting period when the transactions occur.

Therefore, the accrual method of accounting is more commonly used, especially by public companies. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) both require companies to implement the accrual method.

Understanding Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses or liabilities occur when expenses take place before the cash is paid. The expenses are recorded on an income statement, with a corresponding liability on the balance sheet. Accrued expenses are usually current liabilities since the payments are generally due within one year from the transaction date.

Some typical cases of accrued expenses include:

Goods and services have been consumed, but bills have not yet been received.

The utility is consumed in one month, and the bill is received in the next month.

Salaries are not paid to employees until the end of the payment period.

At the end of each recording period, a company should properly estimate the dollar amount for each of its accrued expenses, and then record it as an expense account with a corresponding payable/accrued expense liability.

Accrued expenses example

For example, a company consumes $5,000 utility in February. The expense for the utility consumed remains unpaid on the balance day (February 28). The company then receives its bill for the utility consumption on March 05 and makes the payment on March 25.

On the balance day, the accrued expense of utility is treated as a current liability (accounts payable or accrued expense) owed to the utility company, and an expense (Utility Expense) incurred by the company in February.

Accrued expenses and prepaid expenses

A related concept under accrual accounting is prepaid expenses. Accrued expenses represent the expenditures incurred before cash is paid, but there are also cases where cash is paid before the expenditures are incurred. Such expenditures are known as prepaid expenses.

Prepaid expenses are an asset on the balance sheet, as the goods or services will be received in the future. Like accrued expenses, prepaid expenses are also recorded in the reporting period when they are incurred under the accrual accounting method. Typical examples of prepaid expenses include prepaid insurance premiums and rent.

In the reporting period that the cash is paid, the company records a debit in the prepaid asset account and a credit in cash. In the later reporting period when the service is used or consumed, the firm will record a debit in expense and a credit to the prepaid asset.

Video Explanation of Accrued Expenses

Watch this short video to quickly understand how accrued expenses work.

Additional Resources

Accounting Transactions

Philosophy of Accounting

Prepaid Expenses

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What To Do When Android Is Unable To Format An Sd Card

Is your Android unable to format an SD card? This is a common error, not just on Android but on other platforms as well. Unfortunately, it usually means that the hardware on your SD card is beginning to fail, and you may end up having data loss. On the bright side, it is still workable in most cases, and as long as you haven’t put vital information on an SD card of all things, you should be fine.

Why does the “Android unable to format SD card” error happen?

Whenever you get the Android unable to format SD card error, it often happens because the SD card is already formatted with a file system it doesn’t recognize, or the SD card can no longer perform write operations. SD cards have a lower density for write operations than other forms of storage which means after a certain amount of usage, all SD cards will eventually be unwriteable, and some time soon after that, unreadable.

If you’ve encountered this error, it’s likely already time to start looking for a replacement. However, you can still take steps in the meantime to continue using the card or to recover your data. Let’s see how you can do the former.

How can I keep using the card?

To keep using your card, you’re likely going to have to format it on another device. This is where a PC will come in handy – preferably a laptop with a built-in card reader, but you can also get a USB card reader for your desktop if need be.

Once you plug your SD card into your PC, open Start, type “My Computer” (or “This PC” on Windows 10)  and look under “Devices and drives.”

In the popup Window that you see next, format the card as “FAT32.” This will wipe any data on the SD card, but if Windows is able to format it, it will be usable (albeit with a lesser amount of remaining storage.)

What if I need to save my data?

If the Android unable to format SD card error also means that you can’t read said data, you might be in trouble. If you can’t use another device to format your SD card, that likely means the onboard read/write controller is either broken or has encountered enough errors to choose to lock itself down. Unfortunately, there’s nothing left that you can do on your own at this point. What you’ll have to do is take your SD card to a data recovery expert who may or may not be able to make a copy of the data still saved on the card.

Is there an alternative solution to storage on Android?

Finally, we’re going to close this article with an alternative storage solution that will allow you to avoid an Android unable to format anSD card error altogether: by removing SD cards from the equation entirely.

Meet USB OTG, or On The Go. USB OTG opens up a phone’s capabilities by allowing it to take normal-sized USB peripherals, and many modern smartphones support this standard. This means you can use an OTG adapter to plug in a flash drive or external hard drive to your Android phone, devices with a much higher reliability and storage capacity than an SD card.

Of course, first you want to make sure that your phone is supported. Use this app to do that.


So, you’re unable to format or access your SD card, meaning  your best bet is either buying a new one or using a USB OTG device to get around the headaches entirely. It’s an unfortunate reality of dealing with SD cards (especially if you’ve had this issue multiple times on the same device), but it does happen.

Do you have any experience with SD card errors or using an OTG hookup? Comment below and talk to us about it!

Christopher Harper

I’m a longtime gamer, computer nerd, and general tech enthusiast.

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What Is& What Is It Used For?

What is chúng tôi & What is it Used For? Run an anti-malware program to remove the threat from your PC




The chúng tôi file has been reported to be consuming a high amount of CPU resources by multiple users.

Read this guide to understand what this EXE file is and if it is an important system file or not.



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readers this month.

Many readers have reported that they are seeing the chúng tôi process on their Task Managers, which is consuming high memory. They are confused about whether they should keep it intact or not.

In this guide, we will give you all the details that you need to know about chúng tôi and whether this is harmful or important for your PC. Let us get right into it.

After reading several forums and going through various reports, we discovered that chúng tôi is a malicious process that runs on your PC because of a virus infection.

This file is noticeably created by the FORBOT-BJ WORM. This worm virus is meant to steal sensitive data from your computer.

The virus basically creates and edits the registry files and makes the chúng tôi process run automatically on Windows startup.

If it says Microsoft, then it could be a system file. However, in case it says Unable to verify or something else, then it is a sure-shot malicious file.

Software, especially cryptocurrency miner software can mask themselves as important system files and cause various issues on your computer after infecting them.

This chúng tôi file is also a part of malicious programs that can infect your sensitive files and lock them behind paywalls or steal them and send them to the attacker over the network.

Moreover, the chúng tôi file isn’t an important system file, and you can easily disable the process and it will cause no harm to your PC. So, you can remove it from your computer.

1. Run an antivirus scan

The best way to remove any virus or malware from your computer is to simply perform a virus scan and remove the detected problem.

For that, you can use the Windows Security tool that comes built-in with Windows OS. However, this isn’t as effective as dedicated antivirus software.

In such a case, we have listed some of the best anti-malware software and the best antivirus software that you can use and easily resolve such issues and keep your PC protected.

2. Clean the registry

Since this chúng tôi malicious file tweaks the registry and causes all sorts of damage to your computer, we would suggest you perform a registry cleanup.

For that purpose, you do not need to do anything manually. You can simply use some of the best registry cleaners that we have tested and get done with your job.

Using the registry cleaner, you will make sure that there are no traces of the chúng tôi file on your computer.

On the same note, you could use a standalone PC repair application that can fix Registry issues alongside corrupted registry files.

3. Perform a system restore

To make that process easy, we have a guide that explains how you can reinstall Windows with just 2 easy steps. This guide explains everything in detail and will help you remove the chúng tôi file from your PC.

You can also download the Windows 11 ISO and install it using bootable USB media. In order to learn how to create bootable media, we would suggest you check out our guide.

But before you do that, we would suggest you back up the data on your PC, so that none of your important data is lost when reinstalling or upgrading the PC.

That is it from us in this guide. You can also check our guide that explains what is the chúng tôi file and if you should delete it from your PC or not. We have also detailed whether or not you should keep the chúng tôi file on your computer or not.

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What Is Masked Email? This New Spin On An Old Practice Supercharges Your Security

But as online hackers and criminals get more sophisticated, so have recommendations for best security practices. Currently experts recommend the use of unique, random passwords (and the more characters, the better), plus two-factor authentication as a strong baseline. But you can go further—and companies on the frontlines of online security are trying to make that easier. 

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One such step is called masked email. (You may also hear it referred to as email masks or email masking.) It formalizes a long-available feature known as email aliases as a privacy and security measure. A randomized email address is created to hide (aka mask) your true email address for an online account. Any correspondence sent to the masked email address gets forwarded to your actual inbox. The sender doesn’t know about the email’s final destination. They’ll only find out if you accidentally reply to a message as your main account.

The benefits are twofold. You get better privacy, because the more you use different masked email addresses (ideally, one per online account), the more you limit the potential fallout of the information leaking in a data breach. That email address won’t work on other websites as a login ID or for a password reset. Nor can someone take over the address like with an actual account. It’s just a forwarding address, and a disposable one at that.

Masked email vs email aliases

Masked email is a more specific (and automated) take on email aliases.


If you already filter your incoming email and/or guard against spam by using email aliases, masked email may sound like an empty marketing term for a familiar feature. But there is a slight difference—email masking is a narrower use of email aliases, with a particular style in how the aliases are created.

The result is a faster, easier way to maintain anonymity in your contact info—and for sites that default to email addresses as usernames, your login info too. With the added benefit of integration with some browsers and password managers, email masking saves time and reduces the hassles of the DIY route.

Ways you can start using masked email

Some email providers offer masked email as part of their plans. Fastmail takes that one step further by offering integration with a password manager for super-simple creation and storing of aliases.


Two common ways to get email masking is through an email provider or a dedicated service. Email providers offer the feature as an integrated part of the service. Access will likely cost you a little bit, though. At the moment, few providers offer masked email, and the well-known sites that do bundle it into paid plans (e.g., Apple iCloud+, Fastmail). That said, prices can be as low as $0.99 USD per month (iCloud+).

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Dedicated services can be used with any site, main email address, browser, password manager, etc. You create an account using the email address you want to receive the forwarded email, and then create masks through the web interface or a browser extension. Some services also offer premium plans that allow sending and replying from an email mask, support larger file attachments, and generate email masks for multiple email addresses. All email masks are managed through the service, which is less convenient than with an email provider. You won’t have a single repository for your direct and forwarded email.

To really simplify the incorporation of email masking into your daily flow, choose a service that integrates with a password manager. Once you connect your email account or masking service, you’ll be able to create the email masks directly within the password manager. It eliminates the need to copy and paste the new forwarding address when saving login info. Right now, 1Password has a partnership with Fastmail, and Bitwarden just announced relationships with SimpleLogin, AnonAddy, and Firefox Relay. (When asked, Bitwarden said it intends to add more integrations over time, as well as expand them to products like Fastmail.) Apple users can use the company’s Hide My Email feature; email masks automatically save to iCloud Keychain if you actively use the latter.

Free email masking services

SimpleLogin is the most generous with the features available to free users.


While getting masked email through an email provider usually costs money, dedicated services usually offer a free plan. They’re more limited in scope but still a great start.

AnonAddy allows you to create unlimited “standard” email masks. These are based on your AnonAddy username, however—so if you want more privacy, you can then use one of your 20 free shared domain email masks. You can send and reply from your aliases, too. The catch: You’re limited to 10MB (yes, megabytes) of bandwidth per month. The company estimates that to be roughly 140 emails max. (Start adding in attachments and that drops very, very fast.)

SimpleLogin offers 15 free forwarding addresses. There are no bandwidth limitations, and forwarded emails can be up to 25MB each. The service also allows you to send and reply email from an alias, too.

Firefox Relay lets you create just 5 free forwarding addresses, with a 10MB size limit per email and no bandwidth limitations. It’s the most stripped down of the freebie tiers, but it makes the list for a couple of reasons: It works across devices (and browsers—there’s a Chrome extension, too), and currently, upgrading to the paid tier with unlimited addresses and the ability to send email from aliases is just $1 per month. (If you’re intensely focused on privacy, consider quitting Chrome and switching to Firefox while you’re at it.)

Live exclusively in Apple’s ecosystem? Sign in with Apple is a free way to get started with the company’s take on email masking.


Apple users also have an alternative option called Sign in with Apple. For apps and websites that allow you to sign in with your Apple ID, you get access to a limited form of Hide My Email, the company’s email masking service. Apple will generate a random forwarding email that will pass messages from the site or app to your Apple ID’s linked email address. Unlike with the version of Hide My Email that comes with iCloud+, you can’t change the generated aliases or create ones independently. Also, as a general security note, signing in with this method can carry risk, since anyone with access to your Apple account could also then access linked services and apps, too.

P.S.—Unique user IDs help online privacy and security, too

The general concept behind masked email can be applied to creating user IDs, too. For sites that ask you to create a dedicated username (e.g., randomuser1), going with a new identifier each time makes it harder for people to track you across the web. Unauthorized access to your other accounts is less likely, too, when your username and password are different for every site and app. And you can combine masked email with a unique user ID so that you’re really hard to trace.

Sounds complicated? This is why a password manager is so handy. It lets you continually level up your security with very little mental burden. Choose a paid password manager or a free one—either will make life easy.

What It Means To Be An Entrepreneur

Being an entrepreneur is more than being a business owner; it’s a perspective and a lifestyle.

Make sure you have a solid idea that you’re passionate about pursuing. 

Look to examples of successful entrepreneurs and testimonials for inspiration.

This article is for aspiring entrepreneurs and business owners. 

The road to entrepreneurship is often a treacherous one filled with unexpected detours, roadblocks and dead ends. There are lots of sleepless nights, plans that don’t work out, funding that doesn’t come through and customers that never materialize. It can be so challenging to launch a business that it may make you wonder why anyone willingly sets out on such a path.

Despite those hardships, every year thousands of people embark on an entrepreneurial journey, determined to bring their vision to fruition and fill a need they see in society. They open brick-and-mortar businesses, launch tech startups, or turn an idea into a new product or service. With the right motivation, inspiration and game plan, you can be a successful entrepreneur, too.

What entrepreneurs do

An entrepreneur identifies a need that no existing business addresses and determines a solution for that need. Entrepreneurial activity includes developing and starting a new business and implementing a business marketing plan, often with the end goal of selling the company to turn a profit.

An entrepreneur who regularly launches new businesses, sells them and then starts new companies is a serial entrepreneur. Whether a business owner should be considered an entrepreneur often depends on whether they created the business, and other legalities. That said, any founder of a successful household-name business began as an entrepreneur. 

If you want to become an entrepreneur yourself but you worry you don’t have the money for it, finances don’t have to stop you from achieving your career goals. Many entrepreneurs seek financing options that bypass traditional banks, like funding from angel investors that provide entrepreneurs with capital to cover startup costs (or, later, expansion costs). If you can demonstrate a high growth potential for your business, you can also turn to a venture capitalist, who offers capital in exchange for receiving equity in your company.

Examples of successful entrepreneurs

Many people whose names no one knew decades ago exemplify entrepreneurial success today. Here are just a few examples:

Steve Jobs: The late tech leader started Apple in a garage and grew it into the dominant company it is today. Jobs even faltered partway through his career, leaving Apple for more than a decade before returning to the company and taking it to new heights

Elon Musk: He founded SpaceX and has since become known for putting the billions of dollars his company has earned him toward some benevolent projects, including providing clean water to Flint, Michigan, and donating FDA-approved ventilators to hospitals fighting COVID-19.

Bill Gates: The Microsoft co-founder has often been listed as the world’s wealthiest individual and has become an internationally renowned leader on pandemics and how to handle them. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, shared with his former wife, focuses on combating poverty, inequity and disease globally.

Jeff Bezos: The founder and creator of chúng tôi originally started the enterprise as an online book retailer. The internet marketplace has since become one of the most valued companies in the world, selling nearly every product imaginable.

Mark Zuckerberg: As a college student, he helped shape the future of social media by co-founding the social networking platform Facebook. Initially launched for only select college campuses, the service quickly expanded to the broader public. Its success turned Zuckerberg into one of the youngest self-made billionaires in America.

Sara Blakely: She took $5,000 and turned it into a $1 billion company with an invention known today as Spanx. The idea was born out of Blakely’s frustration with the pantyhose she had to wear for prior jobs. She had no fashion experience but researched everything from patents to fabrics. 

Key Takeaway

Many of the biggest businesses had humble beginnings and evolved into highly successful enterprises over time. Don’t be afraid to change your initial idea to fit shifts in your market.

The value of entrepreneurship

Being a successful entrepreneur isn’t an easy path. It can often take far more hard work, ingenuity and perseverance than the typical 9-to-5 job and yet still not pan out in the long run. However, succeeding as an entrepreneur can be one of the most rewarding experiences, because you’re doing so on your own terms and affecting society at the same time. For many, those rewards are invaluable. There’s never a guarantee that an idea will succeed, but you’ll still see many people starting their own businesses anyway. After all, failure is just as uncertain.

Isaiah Atkins and Paula Fernandes contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. 

What Is Convenience Sampling?

Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling method where units are selected for inclusion in the sample because they are the easiest for the researcher to access.

This can be due to geographical proximity, availability at a given time, or willingness to participate in the research. Sometimes called accidental sampling, convenience sampling is a type of non-random sampling.

Example: Convenience samplingSuppose you are researching public perception towards the city of Seattle. You have determined that a sample of 100 people is sufficient to answer your research question.

To collect your data, you stand at a subway station and approach passersby, asking them whether they want to participate in your research. You continue to ask until the sample size is reached.

Note: Make sure not to confuse random selection with stopping passersby at random.

In probability (or random) sampling, random selection means that each unit has an equal chance of being selected.

In convenience sampling, stopping people at random means that not everyone has an equal chance of forming part of your sample. For instance, here you have excluded people who did not pass through that subway station on the day and time you were collecting your data.

When to use convenience sampling

Convenience sampling is often used in qualitative and medical research studies.

In medical research, convenience sampling often involves selecting clinical cases or participants that are available around a particular location (such as a hospital) or a medical records database.

In qualitative research, convenience sampling is often used in social sciences and education where it’s convenient to use pre-existing groups, such as students.

Convenience sampling could be a good fit for your research if:

You want to get an idea of people’s attitudes and opinions

You want to run a test pilot for your survey

You want to generate hypotheses that can be tested in greater depth in future research

Be aware that convenience sampling can introduce several types of research bias, such as selection bias and sampling bias.

Convenience sampling examples

There are several ways to draw a convenience sample. Here are a few examples:

Example: Online convenience sampling

You are researching how parents use a popular online parenting forum. You want to find out if parents are likely to participate in discussions online or just “lurk,” as well as what kind of information they are seeking there.

Since it’s an online community, there is no membership list to use as a sampling frame. This is a good scenario for using convenience sampling. You decide to draw a convenience sample of 100 users.

You create a pop-up ad that invites users to complete your online survey, which the administrators agree to place on the chúng tôi entice users to participate, a prize draw is mentioned in the ad.

Example: Convenience sampling based on location

Suppose you are researching why people visit Monroe Lake Recreation Area, a popular recreational destination in your county. To gather insights, you stand in a parking area and approach people at random, asking them if they would be interested in participating in a five-minute anonymous survey on their preferred recreational activities.

To maximize the number of responses, you also create flyers with a scannable QR code and a shortened URL link. You place them at the Welcome Center and other locations around the lake.

Crowdsourced convenience sampling

You are conducting research into attitudes toward depression. You are interested in the difference between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. As an early-career researcher, you do not have an extensive international network. You decide to use a crowdsourcing platform, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk).

MTurk covers a wide range of demographic populations both in the United States and internationally. This enables you to access a more diverse pool of respondents in exchange for monetary compensation.

Here, you set up a short survey for screening purposes. You can then separate out people who qualify for your longer survey, rewarding them with bonus pay. Alternatively, you can email participants if they qualify for the longer survey, or set location-specific criteria, so as to meet the collectivist or individualist criterion.

Example: Convenience sampling of a pre-existing group

You are doing a survey to investigate work satisfaction at a large camping gear company in your town. The manager has given you permission to conduct your research but cannot give you a list of all employees due to privacy regulations.

As you do not have a sampling frame, you cannot use probability sampling. Instead, you decide to use convenience sampling. You stand next to the coffee machine and approach random employees, asking them to fill in your quick survey.

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How to reduce bias in convenience sampling

Convenience samples are quite prone to research bias.

Despite these limitations, there are steps that you can take as a researcher to reduce bias in research. Here are a few options:

Describe in detail how you recruited your participants in the methodology section of your research paper to make your research reproducible and replicable.

Diversify your data collection by recruiting as many participants or cases as possible and use a sample size calculator to determine the appropriate sample size.

Distribute your surveys at different days and times, and use different methods for recruiting participants

Use appropriate descriptive analysis methods, rather than statistical analyses designed for probability samples

Overall, avoid overstating your research findings. Remember that findings based on a convenience sample only apply to the selected cases or participant group. By definition, they cannot be generalized to the target population.

TipMany research studies, particularly in the behavioral sciences, rely heavily on samples from undergraduate students. These have the potential for limited external validity and run the risk of including a disproportionately large number of “WEIRD” participants: Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic.

In a research context, crowdsourcing can help you avoid overly WEIRD samples because it draws from a large and diverse population.

Advantages of convenience sampling

Convenience sampling is usually low-cost and easy, with subjects readily available.

In the absence of a sampling frame, convenience sampling allows researchers to gather data that would not have been possible otherwise.

If you’re conducting exploratory research, convenience sampling can help you gather data that can be used to generate a strong hypothesis or research question.

Since the sample is not chosen through random selection, it is impossible that your sample will be fully representative of the population being studied. This undermines your ability to make generalizations from your sample to the population of interest.

Getting responses only from the participants who are easiest to contact and recruit leaves out many respondents. This affects the accuracy of your data and runs the risk that important cases are not detected, leading to undercoverage bias.

TipFor any type of research, it’s important to be explicit about your sampling method, as well as its potential limitations and biases.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

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Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

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