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Girls School in India – 1848
The Missionary Repository for Youth, and Sunday School Missionary Magazine, Public domain, via Wikimedia CommonsWhat Happened to Local Schools Under British Rule?
In India, there were numerous pathshalas prior to British control. There were more than 100,000 pathshalas, and each had 20 students or less. Books, blackboards, benches, timetables, roll-call registers, and exams are all part of the educational system. The lessons were delivered at the guru’s residence, at a shop, a village temple, or even outside under a tree. There were no separate courses, and all instruction was given orally. The parent’s income determined the pathshala’s fees. Since many rural kids were working in the fields during harvest, there were no courses at the pathshala.
The British decided to reform the pathshalas in 1854 and assigned government officials to oversee operations and raise the pathshalas’ teaching standards. The gurus were instructed to keep to a set schedule, teach using textbooks, and produce recurring reports. The pupils had to come to class on a regular basis, pay a set fee, and pass exams. Government grants were provided to pathshalas that agreed to follow British regulations but not to those that dissented. Numerous impoverished children’ lives were negatively impacted by the new system since they were no longer able to attend school due to fixed costs and set schedules. It was challenging for many gurus who wanted to operate independently to compete with the government-supported pathshalas.The Report of William Adam
William Adam travelled to the areas of Bengal and Bihar in the 1830s at the request of the Company to provide a report on the development of education in local schools. In Bengal and Bihar, nearly 1 lakh pathshalas with little more than 20 pupils each were reported, according to Adam’s research. Rich people or the local community established these institutions. The educational system was open-ended and did not include a set tuition fee, printed textbooks, a separate school building, benches or seats, blackboards, a system of separate classes, roll call registers, annual exams, or a set timetable. The guru’s house, the corner of a village store or temple, or a banyan tree were all common locations for classes.
The amount of tuition was based on the parents’ income, with the wealthy having to pay more than the underprivileged. Based on the demands of the students, the guru selected what to teach them orally. The guru worked independently with groups of kids who had varying levels of learning while the class was all seated together. Local needs were met by this adaptable system. No lessons were held during the harvest season. As soon as the crops were cut and stored, the pathshala began once more.New Routines, New Rules
Higher education was the focus of the company. The East India Company made the decision to strengthen the vernacular education system after 1854 by bringing order to the system, setting procedures, defining norms, and ensuring regular inspections. new customs and regulations The Company hired several government pandits and assigned them to four to five schools. The pandit’s responsibility was to check on the quality of instruction in the pathshalas. Every guru was required to turn in reports on a regular basis and attend classes on the scheduled days. Teaching was centred on textbooks, and learning was assessed via an annual exam system. Students were required to pay the standard cost, attend regularly scheduled classes, take fixed seats, and abide by the new regulations. Government funds were provided to pathshalas that complied with the new regulations. Due to the flexibility of the schedule, children from low-income peasant households had previously been able to attend pathshalas because of the new norms and procedures. Even during harvest when children from low-income families had to labour in the fields, the new system required frequent attendance.Conclusion FAQs
Q1. Explain Charter Act of 1813
Ans. The introduction of the Charter Act of 1813, implied the permanence of British Rule in India. Amounts for education under this Act were set at INR 1 lakh annually. The East India Company Act, 1813, is another name for this. This law is significant because it established the status of British Indian territory in the constitution for the first time.
Q2. Who brought India to the British educational system?
Ans. In 1854, Sir Charles Wood was the company’s President of the Board of Control and sent a despatch to Lord Dalhousie, who was then the Governor- General of India. This text is often referred to as the Magna Carta of English instruction in India.
Q3. Who was Lord Macaulay?
Ans. Lord Macaulay was a poet and historian. From 1834 to 1838, he served as the first member of the law department on the governor general council, ensuring that English was widely used in India.
Q4. What is Wood’s Despatch?
Q5. Who and why did Asiatic society begin?
Ans. A British lawyer and Orientalist named Sir William Jones formed the Asiatic Society of Bengal on January 15, 1784, to promote Oriental studies. Orientalism was a Western academic field of study in the 18th and 19th centuries that included the study of the languages, literatures, religions, philosophies, histories, art, and laws of Asian countries, particularly those from ancient times.
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Google’s July 2023 Core Algorithm update is now fully rolled out. Any subsequent changes you’ll see in rankings will probably be due to the normal shifting of search results.
The announcement was made by Google SearchLiaison this afternoon.
The July 2023 core update rollout is now effectively complete.
— Google SearchLiaison (@searchliaison) July 12, 2023
This generally means that the new search index has fully rolled out to all the data centers and that the search results should remain relatively settled.
If you lost rankings it’s probably safe to no longer expect a last minute reprieve, it’s time to get to work understanding what happened.Background of the July 2023 Core Algorithm Update
Google rarely says what is involved in the core algorithm update. But Google has said that a core algorithm update is one that introduces changes across a wide range of the indexing and ranking processes.
The July 2023 update was preceded by two spam updates, which was unusual.
Earlier this year Google announced that it was fighting spam with a new anti-spam AI, so it’s not far fetched to speculate that Google may have introduced more efficient spam fighting features that allow it to perform the task at a faster pace.Less ccTLD Domain Crowding in Search Results?
Domain crowding is when the same domain ranks repeatedly in the search results.
For some search results sites with multiple country code top level domains (CCTLDs) like .uk, .tv, .ca domains tended to dominate Google’s search results.
Lily Ray noticed that Pinterest ccTLDs lost visibility after Google’s July Core Algorithm Update.
“Here are the different Pinterest ccTLDs, which saw huge visibility increases in the U.S. throughout 2023. Those sites are taking a nosedive right now.
We have already noticed for some ecomm clients that product/category pages are replacing spots previously held by Pinterest.”July 2023 Update Speculation and Anecdotal Observations Quality Links
A common observation I’m seeing in many Facebook groups is that solid on-page and off-page SEO practices are paying off with stable rankings.
Steven Kang (@SEOSignalsLab), founder of the popular SEO Signals Lab Facebook group said that he has seen minimal changes from the recent updates and credited avoiding things like low quality links.
“I’m not noticing much. Very little fluctuations even for high search volume keywords.
I have a client ranking for 300k monthly search volume. It’s fluctuating between 1st and 2nd. Even for 10k+ keywords for other clients.
Then again, I don’t do low quality links.WebmasterWorld Update Discussion
Publishers and SEOs in the WebmasterWorld forum speculated on a wide range of things that may have changed. Although this kind of discussion can be unreliable sometimes what people are talking about lines up with what is going on.
One of things they’re talking about is an increase in People Also Ask (PAA), a query refinement feature designed to get users to the answers they want to see.
Another observation of interest is in there being similarities in the ranking losses in images and the regular organic search engine results pages (SERPs).
One forum member observed:
“What I found interesting is that the losses in image search mirrored the losses in web search despite being separated by a week, and being different search systems.”Low Quality Sites in the Search Results?
There is also anecdotal evidence of a seeming increase in spam in Google’s search results since the recent spam updates that is persisting through the July 2023 Core Algorithm Update.
Although Google is actively trying not to show low quality search results, arguably questionable search results continue to show up in Google.
For example, this is a screenshot of Google’s search results for Instagram Account Hacked, taken on July 7th shortly after a Google spam update.
Google’s algorithm ranks this at position two, you be the judge if you agree that this is a great search result.Search Results for Instagram Account Hacked
This is a screenshot of the PDF file that is ranking in Google:Screenshot of Top Ranked PDF
Now that Google’s July Core Algorithm Update is over that same PDF continues to rank in position 9.PDF Still Ranking After Google July 2023 Core Update Search Community Notices Low Quality Sites
One person remarked on how bad some search results in Italy were:
In Italy the results of Google are bad, indeed, I would say disastrous. On the front page we find 3-page sites, without content, without authority, with 4 backlinks from well-known guest posting sites. More than artificial intelligence I would say artificial dementia.
— Giovanni Sacheli (@EVEMilano) July 12, 2023
totally agree! the results are completely out of quality! not sure how this algo can bring up such sites to rank in top 20
— Rudra Uma Kasturi (@kasturitagore) July 13, 2023Scraper Spam in Search Results
There are also spam pages generated from scraping Google’s featured snippets that are ranking number one.
I was shown dozens of examples of multiple sites that were scraping Google’s featured snippets and combining that from other scraped websites to create new web pages and ranking in the number one position, outranking the legitimate websites from which the content was scraped from.
Part of what is helping these sites rank is having obtained links from quality websites that don’t appear to be selling links (but maybe they are).
Many of these scraper sites didn’t exist prior to November 2023 and others appeared in January 2023, all of them with tens of thousands of pages of scraped content.
I verified the information that was shared with me.
Here is some of what this person (who wishes to remain anonymous) shared with me:
“Not even a year old, 50,000 pages indexed getting MILLIONS of visitors from Google in just a few months from launch.
Refresh the page and the words change
Try the rating stars and they are fake
Most of the “see full answer” links open other people’s sites in a full screen iframe
As I said, pure spam, but LOVED by Google.
In fact the owner replicated the site and each variant is doing equally well. …that spam site is able to rank for brand names, medical terms and more.
The backlink profile is the cream of the crop, it’s got links from mainstream media, psychology sites and trusted kids sites run by doctors.”
I checked the backlinks and the person who showed me these top ranked scraper sites may be correct about the spam getting a boost from the quality links.What it Means: Sites Didn’t Do Anything Wrong
Google says that sites that lost rankings don’t have anything to fix.
Most in the search community find that statement from Google to be debatable.
But those kinds of technical issues are not likely why a site typically loses ranking, so “fixing” those kinds of things seems to be what Google means when there is nothing to fix.
On the other hand, there are things to be fixed.
For example, after the Medic Update many sites lost rankings for health and medical related queries. The reason they lost rankings is because Google’s algorithm began associating medical search queries with scientifically proven answers. Alternative healing sites like Oz lost traffic because of that change.
It’s not that there was something wrong with alternative medical sites. They just weren’t relevant for the user intent inherent in medical search queries which demands proven not speculative health remedies.
It’s common to view a loss of rankings or traffic as a sign that the web page did something wrong. But that is not always the case.
The search industry needs to broaden the way it reviews ranking changes by expanding their reviews beyond picking apart the affected site looking for clues.Review the Search Results to Understand Ranking Changes
Search professionals need to review the search results to gain a full understanding of what changed and why it affected the sites that lost rankings.
MANY times Google’s updates change how Google understands what queries and/or web pages mean (i.e. BERT). That can result in different sites moving up, sites that conform to the algorithms new understanding of what a user is looking for when they make a particular search query.
Some sites may lose positions not because they did something bad but because the algorithm’s judgment of what is relevant changed.
In other cases Google may introduce query refinement features like People Also Ask (PAA) which can lower a web page from position two to a virtual position 5 (while technically still position 2).
But the People Also Ask (PAA) feature can also mean that another site, appearing within the PAA feature may gain more traffic because it’s more topically relevant for the user making a particular query, gaining traffic for a query it may not have otherwise been rewarded with.
The site that dropped to beneath the PAA didn’t do anything wrong and neither did the site that ranks in position 1, which in theory may lose some traffic to one of the sites in the PAA query refinement feature.
Google might also introduce more FAQ rich results which can impact site visibility in the search results (positively and negatively).
Those are just a few examples of how factors that are external to a website may negatively influence the rankings.
This idea that sites lose positions because of something “bad” they did is an outdated form of analyzing or conceptualizing what happened in an update.
So if your site has suffered a negative search performance change it’s a good practice to look outside your site first to try to understand what may have changed then return to your site and see if any insights are to be gained.
A vibrant elective program in middle and secondary schools should be considered just as precious as the core classes—after all, electives are the one or two periods a day that students have had a say in selecting. In a nationwide survey I conducted of sixth through 12th graders (for my most recent book), I asked what engaged them the most as learners. Across the nation, student choice ranked high in results. And according to education researcher Robert Marzano, choice “has also been linked to increases in student effort, task performance, and subsequent learning.”
Yet this very quality—student choice—seems to be one of the factors that make electives vulnerable.
For many schools, budget cuts and an ebb and flow of educational funding are par for the course. According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “As of the current 2023–18 school year, at least 12 states have cut ‘general’ or ‘formula’ funding—the primary form of state support for elementary and secondary schools—by 7 percent or more per student over the last decade.” In many cases, schools look to the classes they deem extras to be the first to fall.
For many, that means electives. However, I want to push back on this notion that electives are somehow expendable. In fact, some might argue they are just as vital as core content classes.
The Power of Connection
Students also reported in the nationwide survey I conducted that they need to be more connected to the adults on campus. We talk so much about differentiating students, but we need to differentiate teachers and schools too. It helps our students to connect with school if they learn that there are many diverse personalities on hand for them to learn from. Electives, many times, reflect the interests of the teachers that teach them as well as the students that choose them. This permits a student to automatically have a self-selected connection to the adult in the room.
The Journal of Educational Psychology recently reported that in a study of almost 400 students and their 25 teachers, researchers found that when teachers and students were given information about five similarities they shared, the knowledge helped improve student-teacher relationships and academic achievement.
Electives Support Core Classes
Electives can also do double duty as vehicles for core content standards. And teachers can help ensure that electives are not thought of as inferior to core classes by guaranteeing that they help carry the weight of teaching literacy along with core classes. Elective teachers can provide evidence of the learning happening by doing three key things:
Encourage annotation when students read texts related to the elective topic.
Utilize pre- and post-assessments to show growth in related informational reading comprehension.
Fold in writing and oral presentations to help students communicate the elective’s content.
Yearbook, robotics, film society, photography, world languages, theater, speech and debate, music appreciation, and current events—all of these classes can tap into reading, writing, listening, and speaking. And all of them attract a variety of students while adding a self-selected layer of engagement to those students’ learning of core standards.
I’d also like to make the push for electives to be more inclusive. I think it would help eradicate the myth of electives being nonessential if we dropped the grade-point average prerequisite and other requirements that grant students access. Student choice, after all, must be about the student, not the process of selection.
Elective programs can play a large role in our schools’ goals in preparing our students for college and career. Being able to select classes reflects the same process that they will see again in college.
When Teachers Are Engaged
The fact is, while many consider electives the B story in a school, they can, in fact, set the tone for a campus and play a huge role in engagement. And because they are highly engaging, electives play a role in keeping our students on campus—especially those reluctant learners and ones who struggle academically.
The power of engagement, however, is not limited to students alone. Elective classes can serve a purpose to continue teachers’ engagement as well. Feeling like you’re burning out? Pitch a class that you want to teach, that you’d love to teach. Teach one that helps fuel your teaching flame. Teachers are helping to create master schedules that reflect a variety of interests—from gardening to digital storytelling. Create a class that helps lure students to learning in a way that engages you as well.
From now on, everything worth of your interest that don’t have time to blog about will be summed up in a news roundup that we will publish here. So if we miss some of the cool iPhone news, you’ll still be able to know about it. We will give you a short snippet of what it’s about with a link to the source of the article.
Ford Makes Photo Editing iPhone App
In an unique attempt to spread the word about their upcoming crossover car, the Ford Flex 2009, the Ford Motor Company has developed a free native iPhone application for editing and enhancing photographs.
Apple officially surpasses 10 million iPhones sold in 2008
Apple announced today during its quarterly conference call that it has already surpassed its goal of 10 million iPhone sales in the calendar year of 2008. The company, which sold just under 7 million iPhones during the September quarter alone, said that this was the iPhone’s “breakout quarter.”
MapQuest aims towards iPhone
MapQuest, the creator of its namesake mapping website, has debuted a version of the site designed specifically for the iPhone and iPod touch. Whereas Apple handheld users were previously directed towards the desktop pages, the site now presents pages formatted for the size of the iPhone, with special controls and larger buttons and fonts.
School of Rock app released for iPhone, iPod touch
Paramount Digital Entertainment has launched the School of Rock app for the iPhone and iPod touch. The program is based on the School of Rock movie, and teaches users about the principles of music, while focusing on four main areas, divided into the School of Drums, School of Keys, School of Guitar and School of Bass.
Cooliris Comes To iPhone – Now You Can Surf The Mobile Web in 3D
BlackBerry app store to rival iPhone’s
Fring partners with Austria’s mobilkom for VoIP
fring’s press release states that “[t]his is the first time a leading network operator has integrated an open mobile VoIP communication and mobile internet community offering into their business model, and represents a sea change in the relationship between traditional mobile carriers and mobile internet communications offerings such as fring.”
Lala Unveils iPhone App, Unusual 10-Cent Song Sales
When we last checked in with Lala, the music service promised us access to our local collections from anywhere over the web. Using a unique combination of uploading and matching their collection to yours, you can sync your various libraries and listen to them any place where internet is available. Now they are back with some brand new features, including a vastly expanded catalog, an iPhone app and the unheard of 10-cent song.
Preview Video of synthPond Music Toy
An iPhone developer has forwarded a video of his upcoming synthPond iPhone application that provides a music toy to create 3d/4d sound effects through your iPhone or iPod Touch headphones.
Brightkite Location-Based iPhone App Now Available
Brightkite has released a native iPhone application to interface with their web service. Brightkite is a location-based social network in which you can see where your friends and what they are doing.
Let it snow: Snow Reports for iPhone
At a statewide forum on school safety sponsored by the NJ School Boards Association on January 18, 2013, more than 700 educational leaders discussed the issue of school safety and security in light of the unfathomable deaths in Sandy Hook Elementary School. Why it takes a tragedy to force us to think about things that were no less important the day before that tragedy, we can lament. But now, we must act, and act wisely.
The right question to ask is not simply about student safety. We must address the overwhelming wellbeing of our children and the climate and culture of the schools in which they spend 180 school days each year for so many years. I do not want to minimize the events in Newtown but children are most affected by what happens around them every day.
And every day, when children come to schools hungry, afraid of harassment, intimidation, or bullying, or of neighborhood violence, or if they are involved in alcohol or tobacco or other drug use, or if they are victims of unkindness, or consumed by their educators’ anxiety over standards and standardized tests, they are not able to learn to their potential. It will be the unusual child who will worry every day about a crazed gunman breaking down the school door. And for every child who may be reassured by the presence of armed guards, more children are likely to be more anxious. That is the dilemma we face.
Ultimately, the decision about how to increase security in schools is political and financial. From a public health perspective, there is no clear way to prevent the kind of determined and well-armed intruder who seeks to do harm to children in or around schools. At the conference, Raymond Hayducka, the Chief of Police and Coordinator of the Emergency Management Office in South Brunswick, NJ, was highly articulate about the importance of ensuring that anyone with weapons in the school is highly trained and fully coordinated with the policy.
This only comes from having a police officer in the school or from a well-regarded security agency with known relationships with the police force in one’s district. A retired officer or a private guard has no legal authority and the school has no assurance of how well versed they are in the current and ever-changing standards for dealing with armed intruders.
The Chief also spoke eloquently about how, if a decision is made to not have armed personnel in schools, it is wise to increase policy patrols around and in schools, as well as police involvement in emergency response and evacuation plans, including the conduct of a security audit.Helping Students Understand More Police Presence
From a social-emotional learning point of view, the question that looms is how do the inevitable increases in security, including greater police presence, affect children. It does not take special insight to realize that some kids will be put off, and others will hardly notice or, if they notice, will not care. A few are likely to feel a sense of reassurance. However, the greatest harm comes from not confronting the issues directly.
Handling changes in school safety procedures involves explicit, conversations with children and parents. Recognize first that for young children — through elementary school — the key goal is to provide reassurance. They should not have any sense of danger in their school and it is likely that the vast majority will have put the Sandy Hook shootings out of their minds.
For secondary students, the goal is to express prudent caution. Again, there should be no sense of imminent danger, but older students can be told that in light of Sandy Hook, the school wants to be extra careful and so certain steps are being taken. I believe this is the approach to take with parents, as well — there is no reason to expect assault in the schools and so a measured, appropriate response is being taken to be on the side of reasonable safety.
But there is more — from a SEL point of view. This is a tremendous learning opportunity to help children understand not only the role of the police in their lives, but other emergency services providers. These include firefighters, EMS technicians, and sanitation workers. If there is a greater police presence in the schools, ensure that this becomes a teachable moment and help students understand everything that police do, and invite other emergency service providers into the school to discuss what they do, walk around and be visible to students, and help all students understand that their safety in all respects is important. The community cares about them and they should appreciate this.
By so doing, we allow the focus to shift from security and danger to caring and concern. What happened in Newtown must not distract us from recognizing that the greatest safety for the greatest number of individuals comes from a safe, caring, supportive, academically challenging, healthy school culture and climate.
In such schools, students learn to be empathic to their classmates, including those who are different, and to be upstanders, not bystanders. They learn that violence is not a way to solve problems and they learn how to manage their strong emotions. These schools embrace students who are suffering from mental health difficulties, ensuring that they get needed services, and, should they drop out or otherwise leave, that they are followed.
A nurturing and positive school culture and climate provides the conditions that best allow schools to carry out their mission of educating children for success in school and life and preparing them to be responsible, productive, caring adult participants in their families, workplaces, and civic contexts.
With schools closed for weeks—and in some states and districts, until the end of the school year—to slow the spread of the coronavirus, principals are leading their school communities into the uncharted territory of K–12 distance learning, writes Denisa R. Superville for Education Week.
Many schools are working fast to attempt to offer students high-quality, equitable distance learning within a very short time. School leaders must not only support teachers figuring out how to translate classroom curricula into engaging virtual lessons, but also ensure that all students—including those who are tough to reach even on a regular school day and those who don’t have access to a reliable internet connection—continue learning and connecting with their teachers and peers. At the same time, they must see to it that students who depend on schools for food and other critical supports continue to receive these services.
Here are four ways principals say they plan to lead their school communities and support teachers.
Be a ‘Calm and Motivating Presence’
Kelly Corbett, principal of Otsego Elementary School in Otsego, Minnesota, told Superville that principals and instructional leaders must remain level-headed: “We need to be prepared. We don’t need to panic. We have the resources in front of us. We have great educators. We just need to plan…. There will be bumps in the road; there will be glitches. Things happen.”
Day-to-day, Corbett is busy “working on making sure that teachers are developing high-quality lessons, answering questions about content and teaching, and helping troubleshoot along the way when teachers start using a digital platform they’ve really only used for short periods—mainly snow days.” But beyond these everyday responsibilities, she said, “being that calming and motivating presence is essential.”
Be a Source of Information
In addition to handling questions from teachers related to taking lessons online and troubleshooting tech issues, it’s important that school leaders also take on the role of chief information officer for the school community.
Kerensa Wing, principal at Collins Hill High School in Gwinnett County, Georgia, tries to keep in touch daily with students and their families so that she’s regularly communicating—in a calm and measured way—her expectations for students’ learning. “We want to continue the learning. We want to keep it positive, be patient with folks,” Wing told Superville. “We want them to be patient with the students’ learning curve. This is the first time they will be online for more than two days in a row.”
Encourage Teachers to Create a Sense of Normalcy for Students
Corbett, the principal at Otsego Elementary, is guiding her teachers to recreate practices for their students that are similar to their previous ones, by doing things like greeting students each morning with a video message and building in mindfulness breaks. The goal is not to replicate the whole school day at home but to provide students with a sense that they are still connected to the school community.
To help students continue to benefit from some of the school’s support structures, Corbett has asked teachers to brainstorm how to bring those structures into students’ homes—giving kids access to a virtual “calming corner” like they have in classrooms, a cozy spot where kids can retreat for a few minutes to manage their emotions.
Corbett has asked her school counselors and social workers to come up with self-regulating exercises kids can do at home. “It could be everything from counting your breaths, different ways to regulate your breathing, physical activities. We’ll have to figure out the best way to keep those experiences going when the students aren’t here,” says Corbett.
Make Sure Teachers Feel Supported
When Paul Kelly, principal at Elk Grove High School in Elk Grove Village, Illinois, hosted an online staff meeting, his teachers peppered him with questions about how they could possibly meet all the different needs of their students. Kelly’s message to them, after expressing his confidence that they would do their best for students, was that teachers needed to first take care of their own emotional health. “You are only going to be able to help the kids if you are in the right emotional space. Take care of the stresses in your home, with your family, and we will work together to make the e-learning work for kids,” he told his staff.
As a principal, he told Superville, his responsibilities are evolving given the realities of life during a pandemic. “I think my role shifts completely into this symbolic keeper of hope,” Kelly said. “My role in this family is to make sure that we know that we are trying to get them whatever they need, having staff members feeling like we care about them as humans and as families, and all of the details of their professional lives will get resolved.”
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