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In this UML Notation Cheat Sheet, you will learn:

Things in UML

A thing can be described as any real-world entity or an object. Things are divided into various categories in UML as follows,

Structural things

Behavioral things

Grouping things

Annotational things

Structural things

Structural things are all about the physical part of a system. It is the noun of a UML model, such as a class, object, interface, collaboration, use case, component, and a node.

Class :- A class is used to represent various objects. It is used to define the properties and operations of an object.

Object :- An object is an entity which is used to describe the behavior and functions of a system. The class and object have the same notations.

Example of Object Diagram :-The below UML object diagram contains two objects named Ferrari and BMW which belong to a class named as a Car. The objects are nothing but real-world entities that are the instances of a class.

Interface :- An interface is similar to a template without implementation details. A circle notation represents it. When a class implements an interface, its functionality is also implemented.

Behavioral things

They are the verbs of a UML model, such as interactions, activities and state machines. Behavioral things are used to represent the behavior of a system.

Interaction diagram :- Interaction diagrams are used to visualize the message flow between various components of a system.

Grouping things

It is the package which is used to group semantically related modeling elements into a single cohesive unit.

Annotational things

It is like a note, which may be written to the model to capture some vital information. It is similar to the yellow sticky note.

Relationships type in UML

The relationship allows you to show on a model how two or more things relate to each other.

Reflexive association :- Reflexive association states that a link or a connection can be present within the objects of the same class.

Directed association :- Directed association, the flow is directed. The association from one class to another class flows in a single direction only.

Dependency relationship :- It is one of the most important notations of UML. It defines the direction of a dependency from one object to another.

Generalization relationship :- It is also called as a parent-child chúng tôi type of relationship is used to represent the inheritance concept.

Realization relationship :- Realization relationship is widely used while denoting interfaces.

Realization can be represented in two ways:

Using a canonical form

Using an elided form

Composition :- Composite aggregation is described as a binary association decorated with a filled black diamond at the aggregate (whole) chúng tôi is not a standard UML relationship, but it is still used in various applications.

Aggregation :- aggregation relationship, the dependent object remains in the scope of a relationship even when the source object is chúng tôi aggregation is a subtype of an association relationship in UML.

Abstract Classes

It is a class with an operation prototype, but not the chúng tôi UML The only difference between a class and an abstract class is that the class name is strictly written in an italic font.

Lets see a complete UML class diagram example :-

ATMs system is very simple as customers need to press some buttons to receive cash. However, there are multiple security layers that any ATM system needs to pass. This helps to prevent fraud and provide cash or need details to banking customers.

UML Use Case Diagram

Use Case Diagram captures the system’s functionality and requirements by using actors and use cases. Use Cases model the services, tasks, function that a system needs to perform.

Use-case :- Use-cases are one of the core concepts of object-oriented modeling. They are used to represent high-level functionalities and how the user will handle the system.

Actor :- The actor is an entity that interacts with the system. A user is the best example of an actor.

Example of Usecase diagram

In the below use case diagram, there are two actors named student and a teacher. There are a total of five use cases that represent the specific functionality of a student management system. Each actor interacts with a particular use case.

UML State Machine Diagram

State machine:- It used to describe various states of a single component throughout the software development life cycle.

Their are 4 type of state in state machine :-

Initial state :-The initial state symbol is used to indicate the beginning of a state machine diagram.

Final state :- This symbol is used to indicate the end of a state machine diagram.

Decision box :- It contains a condition. Depending upon the result of an evaluated guard condition, a new path is taken for program execution.

Transition :- A transition is a change in one state into another state which is occurred because of some event.

Example of State Machine Diagrams :- There are a total of two states, and the first state indicates that the OTP has to be entered first. After that, OTP is checked in the decision box, if it is correct, then only state transition will occur, and the user will be validated. If OTP is incorrect, then the transition will not take place, and it will again go back to the beginning state until the user enters the correct OTP.

UML Activity Diagram

Activity diagram :- activity diagram is used to represent various activities carried out by different components of a system.

Initial states: The starting stage before an activity takes place is depicted as the initial state

Final states: The state which the system reaches when a specific process ends is known as a Final State

Decision box: It is a diamond shape box which represents a decision with alternate paths. It represents the flow of control.

Example of Activity Diagram :-Following diagram represents activity for processing e-mails.

Sequence Diagram

The purpose of a sequence diagram in UML is to visualize the sequence of a message flow in the system.A sequence diagram is used to capture the behavior of any scenario.

Collaboration diagram

Collaboration :- It is represented by a dotted ellipse with a name written inside it

Example of Collaboration diagram :-

Timing diagram

A timing diagram specifies how the object changes its state by using a waveform or a graph. It is used to denote the transformation of an object from one form into another form.

Example of Timing diagram :-

UML Component Diagram

Component :- A component notation is used to represent a part of the system.

Node :- A node can be used to represent a network, server, routers, etc. Its notation is given below.

Port :- A port is an interaction point between a classifier and an external environment. It groups semantically cohesive set of provided and required interfaces.

Example of Component diagram :-

Deployment Diagram

Deployment diagram :- A deployment diagram represents the physical view of a system.

A deployment diagram consists of the following notations:

A node

A component

An artifact

An interface

Example of a deployment diagram :- Following deployment diagram represents the working of HTML5 video player in the browser.

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3D Cell Reference In Excel

What is 3D Cell Reference in Excel?

3D Reference in Excel allows users to choose the same cell from different and multiple worksheets. To use reference in Excel, we can choose the same cell or range of cells from different sheets by selecting the worksheet’s name. For example, we have 3 worksheets with different number values, and the name of the worksheets are First Second, and Third. Now, if we want to sum the values of this worksheet without selecting the cell from there, we can use their names like FIRST: THIRD with the cell with want to add. If we want to sum the value of cell location A1, we must use the range in the SUM function as FIRST: THIRD!A1.

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How to Use 3D Cell Reference in Excel?

You can download this 3D Cell Reference Excel Template here – 3D Cell Reference Excel Template

Example #1

Let us assume we have a list of prices for a group of products in Sheet 1, which has been renamed “Price List”, as shown below.

Now, we also have the number of products sold or the Sales Volume defined in another tab – Sheet 2, which has been renamed to Sales Volume.

Now we wish to calculate the total sales for each product in Sheet 3, renamed Total Sales.

The next step is to go to Cell B2 and type the formula = after this, we need to change the reference to sheet 1, where the price list is defined. Once the cell reference has been set, we will need to select the price for the first product; in this case, it is Product 1.

As we can see, in the function bar, we have the cell reference pointing to the Price List sheet, which is the first sheet. On closer examination, it refers to the Price List sheet and cell B2, the Sales of Product 1.

Now we need to put an asterisk (*) in the formula. Asterisk is the symbol for multiplication. We need to multiply Sales by the number of products sold to calculate the total sales for a product.

We need to change the cell reference to the second sheet – Sales Volume. Once we have changed the cell reference, we must select Quantity for Product 1.

Now we need to drag the formula to the rest of the rows in the table, and we will get the results for all the other products.

So basically, in the above example, we successfully gave references from two different sheets (Price List and Sales Volume) and pulled the data to calculate the total sales in a third sheet (Total Sales). This concept is called 3D Cell Reference.

Example #2

Now suppose we have a student’s data. We have his half-yearly and quarterly test scores for five subjects. Our objective is to calculate the total marks in a third sheet. So, we have the quarterly test scores for a student in five subjects, as shown below.

We also have the Quarter 2 test scores, as shown below.

We also have the Half Yearly test scores, as shown below.

Now we wish to calculate the total test scores in another worksheet using 3D Referencing in Excel. To do that, we will apply the formula as follows:

First, we shall write “=” for Marks in the Total Scores tab for the first subject, i.e., Physics.

Next, we shall change the cell reference to Quarter 1 and then select the marks for Physics from that tab.

Next, we shall add a “+” sign in the formula to add the next item to the Quarter 1 score. To do this, we shall change the cell reference using the 3D reference to the Quarter 2 tab and select the Quarter 2 marks for physics.

Next, we shall again add the “+” sign to the formula to add the next item, i.e., the Half Yearly score. To do that, we shall again change the cell reference by using the 3D reference to the Half Yearly tab and select the half-yearly score for Physics.

Now that we have the summation of all the scores for this student in Physics, we shall press enter key to get the total score.

Now, we shall drag this formula to the rest of the rows in the table to replicate the summation across all the subjects.

Example #3

So far, we have seen a 3D reference for performing calculations. But we aren’t limited to just that. We can use the 3D reference to make charts and tables as well. In this example, we shall demonstrate how to create a simple chart using this concept.

Suppose we have the sales data for a company.

We shall use this data to create a simple chart in another worksheet. So, we shall create a new tab, rename it to “Chart”, and go to the Insert tab in the ribbon on the top. Here, we shall select the Insert Column or Bar chart.

Next, we shall select a simple 2-D Clustered Column chart.

We shall get a dialog box to select the chart data source.

Here we shall select the source data from the Sales Data tab. We shall select the range of cells where we have defined the Sales for each product.

Thus, we have successfully created the chart by using the 3D reference.

Things to Remember

The data must be in the same format or pattern in all the tabs.

Even if the referenced worksheet or the cells in the referenced cell range are altered, moved, or deleted, Excel will continue to refer to the same reference. In case of alterations, moving, or deletion, it will result in the cell reference evaluating to NULL if appropriate values are not found.

Even if we add one or more tabs between the referenced and final worksheets, it will change the result as Excel will continue to refer to the original reference provided.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide on 3D Cell Reference in Excel. Here we discuss How to Use 3D Cell Reference in Excel with different examples and the downloadable Excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Uninterruptible Power Supply (Ups) � � Definition Block Diagram Types And Applications

In this article, we will discuss the uninterruptible power supply (UPS), its block diagram, types, and applications. So, lets’ begin with the basic definition of the uninterrupted power supply (UPS).

What is a UPS?

UPS stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is the case of a main power supply failure. A UPS or uninterruptible power supply uses batteries and supercapacitors to store electrical energy and delivers this stored electrical energy when the main input power supply fails. However, a typical UPS battery can supply electrical power for a short duration. Hence, UPSs are mostly used as short run time backup power sensitive equipment such as computers, data centers, TV sets, industrial process control and monitoring systems, and many other electronic devices.

A UPS is commonly used with computers that keep running a computer for a short time, about 15 to 30 minutes, after the failure of supply mains. Therefore, it prevents the sudden turn off of the computer and loss of data in the system, and other system failures. These days, there are several types of UPS systems available in the market. Some smart UPS systems are also available that come with software components that enables us to automate the switching function of the backup supply when we are away from the computer system.

Major Parts of an UPS

Following are the main components of a UPS system −

Battery − The battery works as the energy storage unit in the UPS system. It provides the stored electrical energy for a sufficient amount of time during main power failure.

Rectifier or Charger Circuit − It converts the supply voltage of 240 VAC into 12 V (or any other battery voltage) DC. It supplies this rectified DC power to the battery for storage.

Inverter − It converts the DC output power of the battery into ac power to supply the load during mains power failure.

Static Switch − It is a semiconductor device such as a thyristor which transfers the load from the utility to the inverter (and the inverter to the utility) without any interruption in the power supply to the load.

Primary Function of a UPS

When there is any failure in the main power supply from the utility, the UPS supplies emergency power to the load for a short duration of time. This is the primary function of a UPS. Modern UPSs can also provide protection against electrical faults such as short-circuit, voltage fluctuations, low voltage, instability of mains frequency, etc.

Types of UPS

The uninterrupted power supply (UPS) systems are broadly classified into the following three types −

Off-Line UPS

On-Line UPS

Line Interactive UPS

Now, let us discuss each of these three types of UPS systems individually along with their block diagrams.

Off-Line UPS

The Off-Line UPS is also known as Standby UPS. This type of UPS system gives only the most basic features. In the case of off-line UPS, the system will start operating only when there is a power failure in the supply mains. The block diagram of the off-line UPS is shown in Figure-1.

In an off-line UPS system, the ac power from the supply mains is first converted into DC power using a rectifier circuit and then stored in the battery connected to the output port of the rectifier. When, there is any power failure that occurs in the supply mains, the dc power of the battery is converted into ac power using a power inverter and is then transferred to the load connected to the ups system. The off-line ups systems provide surge protection in addition to the emergency power. These are the least expensive UPS systems available in the market.

On-Line UPS

The On-Line UPS system uses a double conversion method. That means, in this UPS system, the input AC power is first converted into DC power by a rectifier to charge the UPS battery, and then this DC power is converted back into AC power by a power inverter to power the load equipment. Therefore, the On-Line UPS systems are commonly used in such systems where electrical isolation is required between the input and output. The block diagram of a typical On-Line UPS system is shown in Figure-2.

In this system, the rectifier circuit receives ac power from the supply mains and directly drives the inverter circuit. Thus, it involves two simultaneous conversion processes and is hence referred to as a Double Conversion UPS System.

In the case of supply mains power failure, the rectifier circuit becomes inactive and the DC power stored in the battery is converted into AC by the inverter and supplied to the load. Once the mains power is restored, the rectifier circuit again starts charging the battery. A current limiting mechanism is also provided in the system to protect the battery from overheating. Although, on-line ups systems are slightly expensive due to their design and components used.

Line Interactive UPS

The Line-Interactive UPS systems are connected in parallel with the AC mains in a standby configuration so that these systems can interact with the AC input system. These types of UPS systems are mainly used in small businesses and offices. The block diagram of a line interactive UPS system is shown in Figure-3.

Under normal operating conditions, the load is supplied with AC power through a parallel connection of the AC source and the bidirectional converter. The converter charges the battery, and also provides AC power to the load in the situation of breakage of supply mains. In this type of UPS system, a bypass is also provided which transfers the load to a bypass AC input when the UPS fails to function. The line-interactive UPS systems are well suited for

Applications of UPS

These days, UPS systems are very common in almost all electrical and electronic systems. Following are some of the important applications of different types of UPS systems −

UPS systems are used in computer data centers.

UPS systems are used in industrial control and monitoring systems.

UPS systems are also used in telecommunication systems.

They are also used in hospitals, banks, insurance offices, and other commercial applications for backup power, etc.


From the above discussion, it may be concluded that the UPS is an electrical device used to provide emergency electrical power under the failure of supply mains. Modern UPS systems are also able to provide several types of protection such as short circuit, low voltage, voltage fluctuation, frequency variation, etc.

Based on the design and operation, the UPS systems are classified into three main types namely off-line UPS, on-line UPS, and line-interactive UPS. UPS systems are widely used in computer systems, houses, businesses, and industries as backup power supply systems.

Long Term Debt In Balance Sheet

Definition of Long-Term Debt in Balance Sheet

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Long-term debt is a debt item presented on the balance sheet. It is categorized as non-current liabilities because it is payable after more than one year. Long-term debts include 10,20,30 years of bonds, long-term bank loans, etc. Companies may have a portion that requires repayment within one year in long-term debt. That portion is shown as the “Current portion of long term debt” under Current liabilities in the balance sheet. For example, in 10-year bonds, Companies have to pay semiannual coupons to the debt holders. The coupon amount that needs to be paid in 1 year is kept as a “Current Portion of long term debt” under current liabilities.

Component of Long-Term Debt in Balance Sheet

As mentioned earlier, long-term debt has two components in the balance sheet. One under non-current liabilities and another under current liabilities. We know that long-term debts are payable in more than 1 year, such as 10 or 20 years bonds; As a result, companies categorize bonds under non-current liabilities, but a portion of these bonds is due for payment within a year. Therefore, that specific portion classifies under current liabilities.

Examples of Long-Term in Balance Sheet

Following are the examples are given below:

Example #1

Let’s assume Company XYZ was an unleveled company. It has just now taken a bank loan of $1,000,000 for 10 years. This bank loan will be equally amortized over 10 years. That means in the next 1 year, $100,000 must be paid, and the rest must be paid over 10 years. So below can be the liabilities portion of its balance sheet:

Liabilities  Amount

Accounts Payable $250,000

Accrued Liabilities $100,000

Current Portion of Long-term Debt $100,000

Current Liabilities $450,000

Long term Debt $900,000

Non-Current Liabilities $900,000

Total Liabilities $1,350,000

Pic: Liabilities portion of Company XYZ

Example #2

Walmart is a US multinational retail organization headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas. Walmart was founded in 1962. Below is a snippet of its balance sheet from its 2023 annual report.

Source: Wallmart Inc Annual Report

As we can see here, as of 31st January 2023, it has a long-term debt of $43,714 million, which is almost similar to the long-term debt on 31st January 2023. However, the Current portion of long-term debt increased from $1,876 million to $5,362 million.

Below is the break up of its long-term debt:

Below is the break up of its long-term debt:

Source: Wallmart Inc Annual Report

Modeling of Long Term in Balance Sheet

As we have seen, the company will pay back $100,000 from the loan each year. So that amount will be shown in the “Current portion of long term debt”. Long-term debt will also get reduced by $100,000 each year. This process repeats until year 10, when there is only $100,000 remaining to be paid, and since that amount will be paid in the 10th year, that amount will be shown under current liabilities, and the long-term debt amount will be zero.

Use of Long-Term Debt in Balance Sheet

The main purpose of any kind of financing, whether that is equity or debt, is to raise capital to buy assets. That asset will eventually generate revenue for the business. Long-term debt can also be used to leverage the company, buy back the shares, and convert the company from public to private. Also, debt financing is cheaper than equity financing, so the company can prefer to raise capital via debt and not by equity.


Companies use long-term debt for various purposes that align with their strategy. Companies benefit from long-term debt as it can be repaid gradually over the years, and the cost of debt is lower than the cost of equity. However, companies must remain cautious to avoid becoming overleveraged, as this can make it challenging for them to fulfill their obligations and repay investors.

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This is a guide to Long Term Debt in Balance Sheet. Here we also discuss the definition and component of long-term debt in the balance sheet, along with examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Top 10 Cheat Sheets For Data Analytics, Neural Network, And Machine…

For a deep understanding of any concept in 2023, clean sheets are essential

In the global tech market, cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence, neural net, machine learning, and data analytics are flourishing. ML professionals need cheatsheets to get a deeper understanding of the details. It is not easy to grasp these technologies in a short time. Advanced mechanisms make datasets and machinery concepts more complicated. ML cheatsheets, data analysis cheatsheets, and neuron cheatsheets are all necessary to be successful in this highly competitive market. Let’s look at the top ten cheatsheets for data analytics and neural networks in order to be successful in 2023.

The Top Cheat Sheets for the Neural Network in 2023 Terms to Understand Different Layers

It is important to be aware of the different layers in a neural network. The clean sheet for neural networks consists of three layers that can be used to help remember the smallest details of these networks. It includes an input layer and a hidden layer. Through the input layer, inputs are placed in the model. These inputs are processed by hidden layers, while the processed data can be accessed at the output layer.

Graphical Representations

It is important to have a clean sheet of neural network graphical representations. This includes topics like modeling physics systems, predicting protein interface, and non-structural data. This makes it easier to recall information quickly and effectively.

Many Important Formulae for Concepts

You will need to include multiple formulae that cover important concepts like linear vector spaces, linear independence, and Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization.

Also read:

How to choose The Perfect Domain Name

Top Data Analytics Cheat Sheets in 2023 Importing

Data professionals should have a complete cheat sheet that includes important imports. This could include importing Pandas, Matplotlib, and checking and monitoring the data type.

Information for Data Professionals

The data analytics cheat sheet should contain the essential information necessary to gain an understanding of data in a workplace. This section of the cheat sheet includes CSV, column names and column data types, a listing of the data, and manipulation of column data types.

Plotting Concepts

Data professionals need to be familiar with all types of plotting concepts in order to manage their data effectively. Data analytics can be done using line graphs and boxplots.

Understanding Statistics

Top Cheat Sheets for ML in 2023 Classification Metrics

The ML cheat sheets contain classification metrics that can be used to monitor and evaluate machine learning and ML model performance efficiently and effectively. The main metrics of classification include confusion matrix, accuracy, precision, and recall sensitivity. They also include the F1 score, ROC, AUC, and ROC. Regression metrics include basic metrics, coefficient of determination, and many others.

Model Selection

Experts in machine learning should include model selection on one of their cheat sheets for ML. It covers the most important details and parts of concepts like vocabulary, cross-validation, and regularization.

Scientists Create An Ai From A Sheet Of Glass

How to make artificially wise glass that can perceive pictures AI Glass

Things being what they are, you needn’t bother with a computer to make an artificial intelligence. Truth be told, you don’t require electricity.

In an unprecedented piece of left-field look into, researchers from the University of Wisconsin–Madison have figured out how to make artificially wise glass that can perceive pictures with no requirement for sensors, circuits, or even a power source — and it would one be able to day spare your phone’s battery life.

“We’re continually contemplating how we provide vision for machines later on, and envisioning application explicit, mission-driven technologies,” scientist Zongfu Yu said in an official statement. “This progressions nearly everything about how we configuration machine vision.”

Also read:- The Role of Network Evolution in Artificial Intelligence

Numbers Game

In a proof-of-idea concentrate published on Monday in the diary Photonics Research, the analysts portray how they made a sheet of “savvy” glass that could distinguish manually written digits.

To accomplish that accomplishment, they begun by setting various sizes and states of air rises at explicit spots inside the glass. At that point they included bits of deliberately set light-engrossing materials, including graphene.

At the point when the group at that point recorded a number, the light reflecting off the digit would enter one side of the glass. The air pockets and pollutions would dissipate the lightwaves in specific ways relying upon the number until they achieved one of 10 assigned spots — each relating to an alternate digit — on the contrary side of the glass.

The glass could basically tell the specialist what number it saw — at the speed of light and without the requirement for any conventional figuring power source.

“We’re familiar with digital figuring, however this has widened our view,” Yu said. “The wave elements of light proliferation provide another approach to perform simple artificial neural figuring.”

Related: – Artificial Intelligence to Double Innovation Speed in India by 2023: Study

Face Time

Teaching machines to precise “see” will be vital to accomplishing our objectives for artificial intelligence — machine vision assumes a job in everything from self-sufficient vehicles to conveyance robots.

This “savvy” glass probably won’t almost certainly complete estimations complex enough for those utilizations, however the group has one conceivable application for it as a top priority: smartphone security.

Currently, when you endeavor to open a phone utilizing face ID, an AI inside the gadget needs to run a calculation, depleting battery power simultaneously. Attach a prepared sheet of this keen glass to the front of the gadget, and it’ll have the option to assume control over the errand without pulling any power from the phone’s battery.

“We could conceivably utilize the glass as a biometric lock, tuned to perceive just one individual’s face,” Yu said. “When manufactured, it would keep going forever without requiring power or web, which means it could protect something for you even following a great many years.”

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