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Great teamwork in an organization entails a collection of people cooperating and collaborating with one another to accomplish a common result in the end. It needs good communication, appreciation for one another, and alignment on goals. Establishing a positive work atmosphere, encouraging trust and psychological empowerment, supporting equality and diversity, and offering chances for growth both personally and professionally are all important aspects of developing a great team.

The main component of teamwork is interpersonal interaction. Whenever an individual involved can combine their particular talents and strengths in productive ways, great collaboration results.

What is Teamwork?

Teamwork is the collaborative responsibility of a group to accomplish a common objective. The magic ingredient is what elevates a team’s production above one of its individual efforts.

It might be confusing to understand where this collaboration originates from, and not each grouping manages to get along successfully. In theory, you would believe that combining two of your brightest minds will increase their productivity by double. In practice, it may double, treble, or lead to another outcome.

Benefits of Teamwork

It’s reasonable to suppose that one of your primary objectives as a leader is the profitability of your company. Obtaining that objective may be more possible with teamwork. Teams that share information more swiftly address issues. Sharing tasks among teammates helps teams operate more effectively. Teams also foster better bonds among coworkers.

Individuals are motivated to produce excellent efforts in a helpful and friendly atmosphere if they are a member of a successful team. Individuals feel encouraged to strive towards both their own ambitions and the team’s common objective. Employees function best altogether when they feel more involved in the success of the company they work for, which fosters a sense of belonging.

Characteristics of Great Teamwork

The tracking techniques are frequently present in an organization where there is strong teamwork −

Goals and clear vision − All coworkers have a common idea of the overall organizational goals and a common vision of the goals they’re striving to accomplish.

Confidence and supportiveness − Team members are free to voice their ideas and take chances without worrying about repercussions or being judged.

Accountability and responsibility − Every group member accepts ownership for the duties they are given, as well as for their contributions and accomplishments to the team.

Support for each other − Team members treat one another with regard, appreciating and appreciating each other’s distinctive talents and viewpoints.

Collaboration and cooperation − Colleagues cooperate and work together in a coordinated manner, building on each other’s skills to accomplish common objectives.

Agility and versatility − The organization is able to alter plans and tactics as necessary to meet its objectives in light of varying conditions.

Improvements − The group is dedicated to ongoing change and success, routinely evaluating their work, and looking for chances to broaden their knowledge and boost their productivity.

Unique skill − Especially when participating in a high-performance group, everyone should contribute their own background, aspirations, and specialized knowledge to the table. Individual gifts fuel overall success and solidify a group member’s position.

Feeling a part of the team − Establishing community connections and fostering a sense of confidence and order within the unit will be made easier by knowing where you belong in the larger team and how your talents connect with those of others.

Designed simply − Facilitating collaboration requires a clear structure, which is a key component. Making decisions and resolving conflicts are made easier when you are aware of the team’s structure.

Attainable targets − Unrealistic goals may be the poison of effective collaboration. People may lose interest in the task at hand if they believe failure is certain. When coworkers express their bad sentiments to each other, they can compound and harm teamwork.

Positive mindset − Positive views can rapidly saturate a team, and enthusiasm is transmittable as long as it’s not excessive. When managers and staff members care about the company’s goal and want it to flourish, great teamwork results.

Organizations that concentrate on coming up with solutions − Nobody can anticipate the future, but effective cooperation enables organizations to adjust to difficult new circumstances and to keep their attention on finding answers rather than wallowing in the issues at hand.

Ownership − The fact that the high-performing team members own the group’s objectives and are invested in the project’s success serves as their primary source of inspiration. Every group member should participate in judgment procedures. As a result, the members have aspirations and defined goals, which become the common vision. Once a common vision has been established, each team member must take responsibility for it in order to set clear goals and objectives.

The Secrets of Great Teamwork

Proper communication, a common goal, and a culture of trust, as well as a desire to work together and make concessions, are all essential building blocks of great cooperation. Having a diverse range of viewpoints and abilities in the group is also critical, as is establishing a climate in which teammates are comfortable sharing their opinions and taking chances.

Furthermore, developing a healthy team atmosphere, defining clear objectives and goals, giving feedback, and recognizing accomplishment may all contribute to the development of an exceptionally successful team.

Points to Remember for Great Teamwork

Regarding effective cooperation, keep the following in mind −

Cooperation that works requires excellent communication.

To coordinate everybody’s activities, and create a unified mission and vision.

A top team depends on mutual respect and trust.

To encourage innovative thinking, embrace variety and many viewpoints.

Establish a secure setting where team members may freely share their opinions and take chances.

Collaboration, encouragement, and acknowledgment of individual and team accomplishments will help to foster a healthy team culture.

To stop a quarrel or issue from escalating, address it as soon as possible.

For the team to continue expanding and adjusting to new challenges, promote continuous learning and growth.

Are teamwork and Collaboration the Same?

Despite their certain similarities, teamwork and collaboration are two different ideas. A collection of people working together in a planned manner to achieve a single purpose or aim is referred to as a team. It highlights the value of each member’s contributions to the overall achievement of the team.

The definition of collaborations, in contrast, is wider and stresses the sharing of information, expertise, and ideas among people and organizations in order to accomplish a common objective. Collaboration can take place between people who do not belong to the same team or organization, and it can entail a number of activities like prototyping, drawback, and information exchange.


In conclusion, effective cooperation is essential for the success of any business or program. It needs open communication, a common goal and goal, mutuality, trust, teamwork, flexibility, diversification, and a secure environment. Teams may establish an atmosphere that is extremely productive and productive by establishing clear aims and expectations, offering feedback and recognition, and developing a healthy team culture. To keep the team expanding and adjusting to new difficulties, teams should support constant learning and growth and address disagreements or concerns as soon as they arise.

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Boruta With R Is A Great Way To Address The “Curse Of Dimensionality”.

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


Machine Learning is based on the idea that you receive back exactly what you put in. You will only receive trash if you offer trash. The term “trash” here refers to the noise. This is a common misunderstanding that the more features we have in our learning model, the more accurate it would be. However, this is not the scenario; not all of the features are equally important and will aid our model’s accuracy.

The number of features and model performance does not have a linear relationship, as seen in the following diagram. The model’s accuracy increases up to a certain threshold value, but after that, if we add more dimensions, the model’s accuracy will only get worse. The “Curse of Dimensionality” is the name given to this problem.

The drawbacks of adding unnecessary dimensions to data.

 It will be time-consuming. The model will take more time to get trained on the data.

The accuracy of the model may also be impacted.

The model is prone to a problem known as “Overfitting”.

Assume the two dimensions/features are strongly correlated, and that one can be found using the other one. In this case, iterating over the second feature would simply consume more time without adding improvement to the model’s accuracy.

This becomes one of the most challenging problems to deal with whenever we have a lot of features in our data. We use a technique known as “Feature Selection” to address this issue. Only the most significant features are chosen in this technique. As a consequence, accuracy may also get improved and lesser time will be consumed

Methods for Feature Selection

1) Filter Method

This approach takes all of the subsets of features and, after picking them all, attempts to determine the optimal subset of features using various statistical methods. Correlation Coefficient (Pearson, Spearman), ANOVA test, and Chi-Square test are examples of statistical techniques used.

All features that have a strong relationship with the target variable are picked. After picking the optimal subset, the machine learning algorithm is trained on it and its accuracy is evaluated.

2) Wrapper Method

It’s easier than the filter approach because statistical tests aren’t required. Wrapper methods are classified as follows:

Forward Selection: The method starts with no characteristics. Later continues to add characteristics to the model that increase its accuracy with each iteration.

Backward Selection: It starts with all the features and then eliminates those that increase the model’s accuracy in each iteration. The process will be repeated until no improvement in the elimination of any feature is detected.

Recursive Feature Elimination: This technique employs the greedy strategy. It doesn’t have all of the features. It tries to identify the most significant features. It will only accept them.

3) Embedded Method

This approach creates various subsets of features in all feasible combinations and permutations. It then chooses the subset that will provide the best accuracy.

We will learn about the ‘Boruta’ algorithm for feature selection in this article. Boruta is a Wrapper method of feature selection. It is built around the random forest algorithm. Boruta algorithm is named after a monster from Slavic folklore who resided in pine trees. 

But, exactly, how does this algorithm work? Let’s explore…

Working of Boruta

The independent variables’ shadow features are generated by Boruta. Shadow features are duplicates of the original independent features with adequate shuffling, as seen in the Figure below. This shuffle is performed to eliminate the correlation between the independent and the target attribute. Here S1, S2, and S3 are the shadow features of the original features F1, F2, and F3.

The algorithm would then merge both the original and shadow features in the second step.

Pass this combined data to the random forest algorithm. This provides the importance of the features via Mean Decrease Accuracy/Mean Decrease Impurity.

Random Forest determines the Z score for both original and shadow features based on this. Compare the shadow features’ maximum Z score to the individual original features’ Z score.

The algorithm uses the shadow features’ maximum Z score as the threshold value. The original features with a Z score higher than the max shadow feature are deemed “significant,” while those with a Z score lower than that are deemed “unimportant”.

This procedure is repeated until all the important and unimportant features have been identified, or other termination conditions have been met.

  Using R to implement Boruta

Step 1:

Load the following libraries:

library(caTools) library(Boruta) library(mlbench) library(caret) library(randomForest)

Step 2:

we will use online customer data in this example. It contains 12330 observations and 18 variables. Here the str() function is used to see the structure of the data

data <- read.csv(onlineshopping.csv, header =T) str(data)

Step 3:

Now we will use the ‘Boruta’ function to find the important and unimportant attributes. All the original features having a lesser Z score than shadow max (circled in the plot below) will be marked unimportant and after this as important.

set.seed(123) boruta_res <- Boruta(Revenue~., data= data, doTrace=2, maxRuns= 150) plot(boruta_res, las=2, cex.axis=0.8)

Step 4:

Split the data into ‘train’ & ‘test’. 75% for training and the rest 25% for testing.

set.seed(0) split <- sample.split(data,SplitRatio = 0.75) train <- subset(data,split==T) test <- subset(data,split==F)

Step 5:

Check the accuracy of the random forest model when all the features are used to train the model. Here all 17 independent features are used. It is providing an accuracy of 90.63%

rfmodel <- randomForest(Revenue ~., data = train) pred_full <- predict(rfmodel, test) confusionMatrix(table(pred_full, test$Revenue))

Step 6:

Get the formula for all the important features using the ‘getConfirmedFormula()’ function. Here 14 features are confirmed as important.


Step 7:

Checking the accuracy of the model when trained with only important attributes. In this case, the model is giving an accuracy of 90.77% which is slightly more than the previous model even though only 14 out of 17 attributes are used.

rfmodel <- randomForest(Revenue ~ Administrative + Administrative_Duration + Informational +                        Informational_Duration + ProductRelated + ProductRelated_Duration +                        BounceRates + ExitRates + PageValues + Month + OperatingSystems +                        Browser + TrafficType + VisitorType, data = train) pred_confirmed

<- predict(rfmodel, test)

confusionMatrix(table(pred_confirmed, test$Revenue))

Article by~

Shivam Sharma & Dr Hemant Kumar Soni.

The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used at the Author’s discretion. 


Stunning Jellyfish Galaxy Could Finally Spill Its Star Creation Secrets

Stunning jellyfish galaxy could finally spill its star creation secrets

NASA is preparing to study a mesmerizing “jellyfish” galaxy in unprecedented detail, with the James Webb Space Telescope aiming to unlock the secrets of how – and why – it formed. ESO 137-001 doesn’t have the most memorable name, but the distant galaxy has been the subject of longstanding investigation as astronomers explore the origins of stars.

ESO 137-001 is in the Abell 3627 cluster, a spiral galaxy much on the same scale as our own Milky Way. First discovered in 2005, it’s roughly 220 million light years away from Earth.

Look at it with the naked eye, were you close enough to perceive it, though, and ESO 137-001 might not prove immediately attention-grabbing. It’s only when you add in X-ray imaging to the visible light that the true impressiveness of the galaxy is clear. That, and why it earned its nickname as the “jellyfish” galaxy.

NASA combined visible light imagery from the Hubble Space Telescope, and X-ray light from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. That shows the tail of hot gas that follows the galaxy, as it races at over 4 million miles per hour toward the center of the Abell 3627 cluster. That tail is believed to be around 260,000 light years in length.

That process in itself isn’t unusual. Scientists know it as “ram pressure stripping,” where the hot gases between galaxy clusters drag at the gases and dust in the galaxy itself as it passes. Since stars require gas to form, if too much is removed then the life of the galaxy can be shortened.

At least, that’s the theory. What helps make ESO 137-001 so fascinating is that, despite its elongated tail of stolen gases, stars are still forming. The stripping process, NASA points out, should have heated the gas and thus prevented it from creating stars, but that’s not proved to be the case.

“We think it’s hard to strip off a molecular cloud that’s already forming stars because it should be tightly bound to the galaxy by gravity,” Stacey Alberts, a co-investigator at the University of Arizona who will be using Webb data to further examine the spiral galaxy. “Which means either we’re wrong, or this gas got stripped off and heated up, but then had to cool again so that it could condense and form stars.”

The Webb telescope will focus on different points of the tail, spanning the length from its point closest to the galaxy itself, to its end. In the process, Alberts and the team hope to track how materials being stripped have changed conditions over time. Specifically, it’ll be the Mid-Infrared Instrument, or MIRI, that’s tasked with the project.

That looks at mid-infrared light, and is particularly sensitive to the emissions from molecules of hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. At the same time, it will detect “more complex, sooty molecules,” NASA says, known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs. They’re typically found at points of star formation. Altogether, the expectation is that Webb’s MIRI will deliver 50x more spatial detail and 20x more spectral detail than previous infrared observations.

Combined with existing measurements, the hope is that the new data helps unlock better understanding of star formation in ESO 137-001’s tail. It should also help figure out just what may eventually happen to the fast-moving galaxy, such as how rapidly ram pressure stripping will take its toll.

Of course, for that to happen, the James Webb Space Telescope actually has to launch. That’s not expected to take place until 2023, with the project a combined effort between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency. The telescope will be launched as a folded bundle, roughly 16 feet wide. When it reaches space, however, it will unfurl as it makes its way to its final orbit, roughly a million miles from Earth. Eventually, it will have a primary mirror more than 21 feet across.

Getting Great Benefits On The Path To Create Cryptocurrency

Gone are the dark ages. Information travels nearly at the speed of light. Only you are master to either make use or let go of this item.

This is applicable even when you have the bright idea to float a new digital coin. Considering the complexity involved and the man hours involved, you are not setting foot in charted waters.

But don’t be alarmed, this article is just right to help you on how to create a cryptocurrency. These are proven guidelines and well thought about.

Beneficial steps when you consider to make your own cryptocurrency:

Sometimes a great infrastructure actually helps

You cannot always rely on human talent when you are out there to create own cryptocurrency. A great office with friendly resources will go a long way to keep your staff motivated.

Have a good taste and do not prefer a shady place for your office. Sometimes these minor things matter rather than a grand show.

Also read, Best Cryptocurrencies To Invest

Cut corners but do not be miserly

It is definitely important to manage money matters when launching a digital token or coin. After all, money is the key driver for a successful campaign.

You must develop the leadership ability to judge what is important to buy or invest and compromise on other luxuries. For example, investing on digital marketing subscriptions is good but not on a television which is not required for the staff.

It helps if you study the evolution of digital coins

When you make your own cryptocurrency you are essentially creating an alternate coin. So logic follows that a study of how other coins have evolved will add value to your undertaking.

Do not be put off telling there are thousands of coins and how can you possible study each of them. No, never do this. It does take effort and even if not word-to-word, build a generic awareness on coin development lifecycle.

Also Read, 7 Things You Should Know About Cryptocurrency Taxes

Give adequate technical support to your development team

Your development team has to be well updated with the latest techniques and tools. Invest in tutorials, knowledge transfers and other avenues to inform your team well.

With vibrant pieces of information, the development team can deliver well and fosters innovation. As software engineers working on digital coins, they should not be impaired by lack of scalability.

Website development, digital marketing skills are important

 Now we come to the most interesting phase in your endeavor to create your own cryptocurrency. Website creation is often thought about as dry and difficult. Rest these worries and think about:

Am I keeping a website attractive and simple?

Do I have enough analytics that can help me drive traffic?

Have I considered aspects that can help me prevent hacks to my website?

Above are some minute pointers to a great operation. For website development you have to invest a lot of time and your personal effort.

Another equally important consideration is digital transformation, also called as digital marketing. Digital marketing involves:

Search engine optimization that can rank your website high

Analytics to help you track your effort

Social media build-up

All these are just tip of the iceberg. The emphasis is to give you an idea on what you are put up with. If you master these skills, the learning is immense.

Work hard on security in the beginning to prevent nasty surprises

Remember security is a salient parameter especially in software field. With smart contracts being positioned to deliver your goods, even a simple breach will leave you at loss. You should have a broad design phase to factor security.

You must also have a plan that if your offering fails, you can back out and not lose heavily. Easier said than done, do not consider this un-doable.

Also Read, Cryptocurrency Analysis: Premonitions And Foreboding


We can as far take you to the water source but making the attempt to drink is entirely your call. Similarly, these points are a pep talk to help you discover the effort involved. The actual implementation would require your full attention and enterprising nature.

Awesome! If you feel we struck the chord, do write back. We value your feedback.

The Secret Superpower Behind Great Pr – A Business Communication Strategy

Why a Communication Strategy is Important to Supercharge Your Business

Ensures Your Message is Fearlessly Distinct:

In the vast ocean of information and content, a communication strategy acts as your trusty compass, guiding your PR efforts in the right direction. It helps you cut through the noise and grab the attention of your target audience. By crafting a clear and compelling value proposition, your messaging will stand out like a beacon in a sea of bland and forgettable content.

Aligns Your Efforts for Maximum Impact:

A communication strategy serves as a guiding light, ensuring all your PR efforts align harmoniously. It is a unifying force, combining various communication channels, platforms, and tactics. Whether it’s press releases, social media campaigns, or influencer partnerships, clearly defined messaging helps create a cohesive and impactful PR ecosystem that resonates with your audience at every buying cycle stage.

Shapes Your Brand’s Narrative:

Your brand’s story is a powerful tool; a communication strategy helps you shape and tell that story with finesse. It allows you to define your brand’s voice, values, and key messages, ensuring consistency across all PR initiatives. With a well-crafted narrative rooted in your positioning statement, you can captivate your audience, forge an emotional connection, and establish your brand as a unique and compelling entity in the market.

Builds Trust and Credibility:

Trust and credibility are the currency of PR success; a communication strategy is your passport to earning them. By consistently delivering accurate and valuable information to your audience, you establish yourself as a reliable source of knowledge and expertise. This trust and credibility not only attract customers but also creates a positive perception of your brand among stakeholders, influencers, and the media. Your communication strategy ensures your comms are focused and purposeful.

Helps Navigate Crisis like a PR Ninja:

In the unpredictable world of business, crises are bound to happen. But fear not! A well-crafted communication strategy acts as your armor, allowing you to navigate stormy waters with grace and agility. It outlines protocols, key messages, and channels for crisis communication, enabling you to respond swiftly and effectively. With a strategic approach, you can mitigate damage, protect your brand’s reputation, and emerge from the storm stronger than ever.

Helps Measure, Adapt, and Conquer:

A communication strategy enables you to measure the effectiveness of your PR efforts, gather valuable data, and make informed decisions for future campaigns. With a keen eye on analytics and feedback, you can adapt your campaign execution, refine your messaging, and achieve evolving ambitions.

The Best Communication Strategies Equal PR Success

A mighty communication strategy can amplify your PR efforts. A well-crafted plan is your secret weapon, from cutting through the noise to shaping your brand’s narrative, building trust, navigating crises, and adapting to the ever-changing landscape.

So, don’t leave your PR success to chance. Embrace the power of strategic communication and unlock your brand’s full potential. Craft a communication strategy that reflects your brand’s personality, resonates with your audience, and sets the stage for brand distinction.

With a well-executed communication strategy, you’ll captivate your audience, establish lasting relationships, and watch your distinct brand reputation amplify. Unleash the secret superpower behind successful PR and propel your business forward ahead of the hoard.

Some Great Wallet Cases For The Iphone 7 And Iphone 7 Plus

The wallet case is a popular choice for iPhone owners, as it combines two things that you’d normally have to carry separately—your phone and wallet—into one easy-to-cary item. Thus, we thought it would be helpful if we put together a list of some great wallet cases for the new iPhone 7 and 7 Plus.

As usual, we based our selections on factors like personal experience, price, and customer feedback. We also paid attention to design—we wanted a mix of slot and folio cases—and availability. Because the iPhone 7 was just released, a lot of case-makers don’t have wallet options available yet.

Silk Vault Slim Wallet Case for iPhone 7 and 7 Plus

Silk’s Vault Slim Wallet case line has been a favorite among iPhone users for years, and this one for the iPhone 7 is currently an Amazon Best Seller. It features a durable one-piece design with high-grip textured sides and comes with a premium scratch-resistant screen protector. The wallet portion of the case can comfortably fit 3 credit or ID cards plus some cash, and it comes in multiple colors.

You can buy the Silk Vault Slim Wallet case for iPhone 7 and 7 Plus for $14.99.

Speck Presidio Wallet Case for iPhone 7

The Silk is nice but if you’re looking for a more premium case from a recognizable brand, check out the Speck Presidio Wallet Case. It too features a side-loading slot that securely holds 3 cards and case, as well as a durable 10-foot drop-tested design that is 20% thinner than Speck’s previous cases.  Note that shipping estimates are longer on this case than the others, but for some folks the wait may be worth it.

You can buy this Speck Presidio Wallet case for iPhone 7 for $44.95.

Incipio Stowaway Wallet Case for iPhone 7 and 7 Plus

Now if the Speck is a little too expensive but you still want a name-brand wallet case, I’d recommend the Incipio Stowaway. The versatile case is the perfect solution for protecting your device and storing up to three credit cards or ID’s. It also comes with a built-in kickstand, and is available in multiple colors.

You can buy the Incipio Stowaway Wallet case for iPhone 7 for $29.99 and for the iPhone 7 Plus for $34.99.

Shieldon Leather Wallet Case for iPhone 7 and 7 Plus

To be honest I don’t know much about Shieldon, but if you’re looking for a genuine leather wallet case for your iPhone 7 on the cheap, this looks like a solid option. It has a full 5-star rating on Amazon on over 60 reviews, and their other case offerings have similar feedback. Their Wallet case has 3 credit card/ID slots and there is an extra side pocket for cash. Doubles as a stand and features a magnetic closure.

You can buy this Shieldon leather Wallet case for iPhone 7 and 7 Plus for $25.99.

OtterBox Strada Series Wallet Case for iPhone 7 and 7 Plus

The OtterBox name is synonymous with quality and durability, and it’s no different with their Strada Series. It’s a genuine leather folio-style case with a vertical cardholder and a dual-layer design that protects against drops and scratches. You’re going to get the 1-year case warranty from OtterBox here, and their great customer support. Note that like the Speck, shipping estimates for the Strada are much further out than other cases.

You can buy the OtterBox Strada wallet case for iPhone 7 for $49.95 and for the iPhone 7 Plus for $59.95.

Be sure to also check out our other iPhone 7 case and accessory roundups:

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