Trending December 2023 # The Best Vpn Clients For Your Favorite Operating System # Suggested January 2024 # Top 14 Popular

You are reading the article The Best Vpn Clients For Your Favorite Operating System updated in December 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 The Best Vpn Clients For Your Favorite Operating System

There are a host of strong VPNs out there for every different type of user. Picking the best VPN is a challenge in its own right. But once you have VPN service, how do you connect to your VPN provider?

Typically, you’ll do it through the VPN provider’s own application. These applications have varying degrees of functionality, stability and security. Some are excellent, but many are mediocre, with infrequent updates and a poor user interface.

But there’s hope in sight! You can connect to your VPN provider using your own client, bypassing the provider’s first-party client with your own third-party option. This is just like using your own email client to access Gmail instead of the Gmail web interface. For many folks the default is fine. But for those with more demanding needs, let’s find the best OpenVPN clients for your favorite operating system.

Note: this article mainly focus on the OpenVPN client, though most of them do support other VPN protocols like PPTP, L2TP/IPSec, etc. You can find out more about the various VPN connections here.

Windows: OpenVPN

OpenVPN is one of the best-known VPN clients, and for a good reason. On top of being free and open source, it’s stable, secure and frequently updated. Open source means that code-savvy users are free to investigate the application’s source code and confirm that it’s working to spec, but less code-literate users still benefit from other users’ scrutiny. The OpenVPN GUI is easy to use, with convenient auto-connect options and support for many different configurations.

Android: OpenVPN Connect

OpenVPN also makes mobile clients. Their Android client, called OpenVPN Connect, is the best VPN client for Android. It benefits from the strength of the OpenVPN project, with a strong primary code base and coding expertise to build off from. Because OpenVPN is an open-source project, you’ll notice that OpenVPN Connect is not the only OpenVPN-branded client on the Play Store. The other OpenVPN client is a fork of this project and is reasonably reliable in its own right.

iOS: OpenVPN Connect

Unlike Android, iOS provides an acceptable VPN client built in to the operating system. Most VPN service providers develop their own apps for connecting to their services, which are typically buggy and unreliable. OpenVPN Connect offers a better experience after a short setup. You’ll need to connect your iOS device to your computer to transfer the .ovpn files, but after that it’s smooth sailing.

Linux: NetworkManager

NetworkManager (which is included in most distros) is designed to provide automatic connectivity through whatever channels are available. With a little setup, you can configure NetworkManager to connect to any OpenVPN-compatible VPN provider. NetworkManager uses a series of plugins to interface with various network surfaces, so you’ll need to download the OpenVPN plugin. In Ubuntu or Debian-based distros, you can use the command


OpenVPN makes some of the best VPN clients out there. Depending on the platform you’re using, you’ll want to choose the best VPN client for your platform.

Alexander Fox

Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.

Subscribe to our newsletter!

Our latest tutorials delivered straight to your inbox

Sign up for all newsletters.

By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

You're reading The Best Vpn Clients For Your Favorite Operating System

Why You Should Upgrade Your Operating System To Windows 10/11

Why you should upgrade your operating system to Windows 10/11




Microsoft continues to work on improving the overall PC experience, which is why it’s making the great Windows 10 available to users.

This OS comes with significant differences in the Start Menu and brings the personal assistant to the PC.

It also introduces more task viewer desktops and a bright new default web browser.

Most importantly for fans, gaming in Windows 10 will revolve around the new Xbox app.



Try Outbyte Driver Updater to resolve driver issues entirely:

This software will simplify the process by both searching and updating your drivers to prevent various malfunctions and enhance your PC stability. Check all your drivers now in 3 easy steps:

Download Outbyte Driver Updater.

Launch it on your PC to find all the problematic drivers.

OutByte Driver Updater has been downloaded by


readers this month.

Everyone is talking about Windows 10 for months, news and updates about the system are coming out every day.

Windows 10 Technical Preview is already very popular with more than 5 million insiders. Many more millions of users are currently running the stable Windows 10 OS versions.

But if you still have some confusions whether you should upgrade your system to Windows 10, we’re going to present you the most important features and reasons to upgrade to this innovative OS.

Why should I upgrade to Windows 10? 1. Start Menu differences

Start menu was one of the most recognizable features of Windows operating systems for decades, and Microsoft’s decision to remove it in Windows 8 definitely represented a big change.

But Windows users definitely weren’t ready for such a change. They were unsatisfied with the new Metro environment, and a lot of users complained about the lack of start menu.

Microsoft was well-aware of the situation and the company decided to fulfill the wish of millions of users and return start menu in the next Windows.

But what to do with all those apps designed for Metro environment? The company couldn’t just throw them away.

So Microsoft came up with a compromise, as it combined traditional start menu with Metro apps to get a brand-new look of Windows 10 Start menu.

Reviews are positive, and Microsoft definitely made the right move with returning start menu to Windows platforms, because it satisfied users who were against start screen, as well as users who loved Metro apps.

If you’re looking to upgrade your OS, we definitely recommend making the jump to Windows 10. Check out the best Windows 10 editions, and find which one is right for you.

2. Cortana

Besides start menu, Cortana is also one of the most notable additions to Windows 10.

Microsoft firstly introduced Cortana to its Windows Phone platform with 8.1 update, and was the last of major manufacturers who released a virtual assistant for its mobile platform.

But Microsoft was first to bring the personal assistant to PC platforms, which is definitely a noteworthy innovation.

With Cortana you can search web, but also local files and folders on your computer.

It is also very customizable and very personal virtual assistant, as it recognizes things you like and provides you with content based on your interests.

Cortana will also be integrated with Microsoft’s new browser, Project Spartan or Edge, so you can use its help while you’re browsing, right on the webpage.

Cortana is a very useful assistant, so if you decided to remove it, we can help you bring it back. Just check out our detailed guide and see how to enable Cortana after disabling it.

3. Multiple desktops and Task view

Cortana isn’t the only thing Microsoft took from portable devices, because Windows 10 features a brand-new Task Manager and the option of creating multiple desktops.

Virtual desktops feature allows users to create multiple desktops, and pretend like they’re working with multiple monitors.

This feature could be extremely useful if you want to work with multiple programs at once.

Next is the Task view feature which allows us to easily control our tasks, just like we do on mobile devices.

Task view button is present in the taskbar, next to the search bar, but you can also access it by pressing alt + tab buttons.

With this task manager, you’ll be able to swiftly switch between tasks, manage and close them, and it will definitely increase the productivity of Windows 10 users.

4. Xbox and gaming features

Microsoft is preparing a lot of great, new things for gamers with Windows 10.

Basically, gaming in Windows 10 is going to be all around the new Xbox app, but this app offers a lot of features.

Expert tip:

Also, you’ll be able to stream your Xbox One games on your PC, which means that you could play and watch all your Xbox One games on your computer.

Xbox app goes to the point where it will allow you to play Xbox games on PC with friends who play the same game on the console.

This is another addition to Microsoft’s Windows 10 cross-platform philosophy.

Also, we expect the new DirectX 12 to be released for Windows 10. The new DirectX will definitely improve graphics of the games and bring the new experience to PC gamers whose graphics cards could support it.

If you don’t know how to enable DirectX 12 in Windows 10 for any game, take a closer look at our comprehensive guide and find the best solution.

5. Windowed apps

Along with Start Screen, Microsoft introduced Metro apps in Windows 8, Windows 8.1.

There are a lot of useful Metro apps in the Store, but users simply don’t like the fact that these apps use the whole screen.

So a lot of people disapproved this feature, just like it was the case with start menu. Luckily, Microsoft fixed this as well.

Of course, the company couldn’t allow itself to simply remove all those apps from the store, because a lot of effort and a lot of money were put in them.

So Microsoft decided to redesign them a little, as they’re now available in the windowed mode, just like other regular programs.

This is much better for PC users, because previous design of apps just wasn’t desktop-friendly, and some users had hard time using it.

But in Windows 10 size of apps’ window is easily customizable, so you can adjust it by your desire.

6. Default web browser

It looks like Microsoft developed a habit of ending an era with its new operating system.

Like it was the case with start menu in Windows 8 (luckily, the company decided to revive it), Microsoft sent Internet Explorer to history after nearly 20 years of lasting.

Internet Explorer will be replaced by new Microsoft’s browser, Project Spartan/Edge in Windows 10.

This Microsoft’s move might actually be good, because although Internet Explorer is the most famous browser in the world, it’s not famous for great performances.

People are mocking Internet Explorer for years, because it’s slower than competitors, and introducing a new browser could attract users’ attention in a good way.

As for Microsoft Edge, we can’t tell you much about the performance, because like the system itself, it’s still in its early testing phase, but it surely offers some new, refreshing features.

It is powered by EdgeHTML engine, a new layout engine, created from Internet Explorer’s Trident.

It also has some other Microsoft’s products integrated, like personal assistant Cortana, which will improve your searching, and Microsoft OneDrive.

It also has a new Reading View option, which will bring a new dimension to the reading experience.

7. Conclusion

Microsoft is putting big hopes into Windows 10, as it’s the company’s most innovative operating system ever.

It combines something from every previous Windows with new additions, so whether you liked Windows 8 or not, you’re going to love Windows 10, because it offers a lot.

Microsoft also announced that Windows 10 is going to be the last version of Windows, so you definitely should be a part of such a huge and historic project.

If you decide to upgrade to Windows 10, check out our detailed guide and see how to install the Windows 10 May 2023 update.

Was this page helpful?


File Systems In Operating System: Structure, Attributes, Types

What is File System?

A file is a collection of correlated information which is recorded on secondary or non-volatile storage like magnetic disks, optical disks, and tapes. It is a method of data collection that is used as a medium for giving input and receiving output from that program.

In general, a file is a sequence of bits, bytes, or records whose meaning is defined by the file creator and user. Every File has a logical location where they are located for storage and retrieval.

In this operating system tutorial, you will learn:

Objective of File management System

Here are the main objectives of the file management system:

It provides I/O support for a variety of storage device types.

Minimizes the chances of lost or destroyed data

Helps OS to standardized I/O interface routines for user processes.

It provides I/O support for multiple users in a multiuser systems environment.

Properties of a File System

Here, are important properties of a file system:

Files are stored on disk or other storage and do not disappear when a user logs off.

Files have names and are associated with access permission that permits controlled sharing.

Files could be arranged or more complex structures to reflect the relationship between them.

File structure

A File Structure needs to be predefined format in such a way that an operating system understands. It has an exclusively defined structure, which is based on its type.

Three types of files structure in OS:

A text file: It is a series of characters that is organized in lines.

An object file: It is a series of bytes that is organized into blocks.

A source file: It is a series of functions and processes.

Reading Suggestion:-What is Operating System? Explain Types of OS, Features and Examples.

File Attributes

A file has a name and data. Moreover, it also stores meta information like file creation date and time, current size, last modified date, etc. All this information is called the attributes of a file system.

Here, are some important File attributes used in OS:

Name: It is the only information stored in a human-readable form.

Identifier: Every file is identified by a unique tag number within a file system known as an identifier.

Location: Points to file location on device.

Type: This attribute is required for systems that support various types of files.

Size. Attribute used to display the current file size.

Protection. This attribute assigns and controls the access rights of reading, writing, and executing the file.

Time, date and security: It is used for protection, security, and also used for monitoring

File Type

It refers to the ability of the operating system to differentiate various types of files like text files, binary, and source files. However, Operating systems like MS_DOS and UNIX has the following type of files:

Character Special File Ordinary files

These types of files stores user information.

It may be text, executable programs, and databases.

It allows the user to perform operations like add, delete, and modify.

Directory Files

Directory contains files and other related information about those files. Its basically a folder to hold and organize multiple files.

Special Files

These files are also called device files. It represents physical devices like printers, disks, networks, flash drive, etc.

Functions of File

Write to file, requires positioning within the file

Read from file involves positioning within the file

Reposition: move read/write position.

Commonly used terms in File systems Field:

This element stores a single value, which can be static or variable length.


Collection of related data is called a database. Relationships among elements of data are explicit.


Files is the collection of similar record which is treated as a single entity.


A Record type is a complex data type that allows the programmer to create a new data type with the desired column structure. Its groups one or more columns to form a new data type. These columns will have their own names and data type.

File Access Methods

File access is a process that determines the way that files are accessed and read into memory. Generally, a single access method is always supported by operating systems. Though there are some operating system which also supports multiple access methods.

Three file access methods are:

Sequential access

Direct random access

Index sequential access

Sequential Access

In this type of file access method, records are accessed in a certain pre-defined sequence. In the sequential access method, information stored in the file is also processed one by one. Most compilers access files using this access method.

Random Access

The random access method is also called direct random access. This method allow accessing the record directly. Each record has its own address on which can be directly accessed for reading and writing.

Sequential Access

This type of accessing method is based on simple sequential access. In this access method, an index is built for every file, with a direct pointer to different memory blocks. In this method, the Index is searched sequentially, and its pointer can access the file directly. Multiple levels of indexing can be used to offer greater efficiency in access. It also reduces the time needed to access a single record.

Space Allocation

In the Operating system, files are always allocated disk spaces.

Three types of space allocation methods are:

Linked Allocation

Indexed Allocation

Contiguous Allocation

Contiguous Allocation

In this method,

Every file users a contiguous address space on memory.

Here, the OS assigns disk address is in linear order.

In the contiguous allocation method, external fragmentation is the biggest issue.

Linked Allocation

In this method,

Every file includes a list of links.

The directory contains a link or pointer in the first block of a file.

With this method, there is no external fragmentation

This File allocation method is used for sequential access files.

This method is not ideal for a direct access file.

Indexed Allocation

In this method,

Directory comprises the addresses of index blocks of the specific files.

An index block is created, having all the pointers for specific files.

All files should have individual index blocks to store the addresses for disk space.

File Directories

A single directory may or may not contain multiple files. It can also have sub-directories inside the main directory. Information about files is maintained by Directories. In Windows OS, it is called folders.

Single Level Directory

Following is the information which is maintained in a directory:

Name The name which is displayed to the user.

Type: Type of the directory.

Position: Current next-read/write pointers.

Location: Location on the device where the file header is stored.

Size: Number of bytes, block, and words in the file.

Protection: Access control on read/write/execute/delete.

Usage: Time of creation, access, modification

File types- name, extension

File Type Usual extension Function

Executable exe, com, bin or none ready-to-run machine- language program

Object obj, o complied, machine language, not linked

Source code c. p, pas, 177, asm, a source code in various languages

Batch bat, sh Series of commands to be executed

Text txt, doc textual data documents

Word processor doc,docs, tex, rrf, etc. various word-processor formats

Library lib, h libraries of routines

Archive arc, zip, tar related files grouped into one file, sometimes compressed.


A file is a collection of correlated information which is recorded on secondary or non-volatile storage like magnetic disks, optical disks, and tapes.

It provides I/O support for a variety of storage device types.

Files are stored on disk or other storage and do not disappear when a user logs off.

A File Structure needs to be predefined format in such a way that an operating system understands it.

File type refers to the ability of the operating system to differentiate different types of files like text files, binary, and source files.

Indexed Sequential Access method is based on simple sequential access

In Sequential Access method records are accessed in a certain pre-defined sequence

The random access method is also called direct random access

Three types of space allocation methods are:

Linked Allocation

Indexed Allocation

Contiguous Allocation

Information about files is maintained by Directories

Does Vpn Affect Routers? What Is The Best Router Vpn?

Does VPN Affect Routers? What is the Best Router VPN? Learn how the VPN impacts your router and use the best one here








VPNs are wonderful little tools designed to protect your online privacy against prying eyes. However, using them on your default network might have some drawbacks.

If you’re considering deploying a VPN network-wide by installing it on your router, there are a few things you must take into consideration.

You may consider that your regular Internet connection can get slower because of the VPN server and complex data encryption. 

To learn more about how these privacy tools determine your devices, dive deep into this useful article. 



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

VPNs are wonderful little tools designed to protect your online privacy against prying eyes. There are truly the multi-tool of the modern era world wide web enthusiasts.

Truth be told, aside from protecting your privacy, a VPN can do so much more.

For instance, it encrypts all of your traffic, circumvents geo-restrictions as easily as pie, and can even help you improve ping and reduce packet loss.

So, long story short, VPNs tend to reduce Internet speed because there’s so much going on with them, including encryption, decryption, and not to mention the extra distance they add to your connection.

Can a VPN mess up your Internet?

Unfortunately, all these security and privacy perks come with a price, and we’re not talking about paying the subscription plan.

It will also affect your connection if you’re using WiFi and it can access your data just like your ISP.

The good news is that using a VPN will render your ISP unable to see your data, so it’s a matter of who you trust most.

Does VPN affect your internet speed? 🌐

Badly for the users, it is well-known that using a VPN will affect your Internet speed. The reasons why that problem may happen are the complex processes of encrypting your data.

In addition to that, the server location where you connect can decrease your Internet speed because of the actual server distance between you and the location.

Does VPN affect router performance? 1. Using a VPN on your PC

A common misconception is that using a VPN on your network will subsequently affect everyone else on the network, including your router.

If you’re not exactly tech-savvy, this might not be too hard to believe, so we’re going to debunk that right away.

That also applies to your router. Using a VPN on your personal device will only affect the router in the sense that your router will receive encrypted traffic from your computer, but that’s it.

Also, any other speed or performance limitation will only apply to your device.

2. Using a VPN on your router

This situation is wildly different than the one above.

If you install your VPN directly on a supported router or create a passthrough to connect to routers that don’t have native support such as Eero routers, then the VPN will have a great impact on your connection.

All of your devices connect to your router, so in a sense, it’s not exactly accurate to say that using a VPN on your router will only affect this device.

In fact, since your router is downstream of every other device on your network, all network traffic gets routed through it. That’s why it’s called a router.

Your router, like any other flashable device, has memory that it uses to run various processes. For instance, any additional security option you toggle might take additional memory (RAM). The same goes for any additional device you connect through it.

Then there’s the fact that it must connect to a specific VPN server every once in a while, which also takes some processing power.

In conclusion, the answer is yes, if you’re using a VPN on your router, it will affect both its speed and performance.

But don’t expect it to tank suddenly. Depending on your router, the shift in its performance might be subtle or more noticeable, but it won’t all happen at once.

Does VPN affect all devices on WiFi?

If you’re using a VPN on your device, whether it’s a phone, desktop PC, or tablet, it will affect all. No other user on your network will be affected by your VPN, security, speed, or performance-wise.

So, a VPN on your router will subject it to additional network management tasks. For once, a VPN encrypts and decrypts traffic, which is a pretty intense memory and CPU-consuming process.

Is VPN for WiFi only? 📶

No, it is not. Your VPN connection can be established using either WiFi, mobile data, or an Ethernet cable. Thus, it doesn’t matter if you don’t connect directly through WiFi.

Home routers with VPN are the way to go

Generally speaking, most modern routers support VPNs, but you’ll have to get your hands a bit messy with manual configurations and whatnot. However, there’s a special category of routers that are VPN-ready.

If you choose to go with such a device, you won’t have to spend a lot of time configuring them, or at least you don’t have to come up with creative ways to deploy your favorite VPN on your entire network.

We believe that ExpressVPN is one of the best VPNs you can use to shield the entire batch of devices on your network.

It allows you to install it on up to 6 devices on the same account, so you might not even need to deploy it on your router.

If you have more than 10 devices on the same network (kudos, by the way), you’ll have to install it on the router.

However, note that these devices are wildly different from one another, both hardware- and software-wise. Thus, you might want to see the official recommendations from ExpressVPN on deploying their VPN on your router.


Looking for a router VPN? This choice offers the greatest connection and speed.

Check price Visit website

It’s also worth mentioning that certain devices that are not VPN-ready might need open-source firmware such as DD-WRT, Tomato, or PFsense.

Should I put a VPN on my router?

So, while using a VPN service network-wide will do wonders for your security and privacy, it comes with some drawbacks.

If you install a VPN service on your router, expect to face some limitations regarding speed and device performance.

Make sure to check if your router supports VPN before attempting to deploy this type of service on your device. If it’s not compatible, you might need to flash your router with custom, open-source firmware such as DD-WRT, or Tomato.

You can go to our best VPN-ready routers to simplify VPN installation. Visit the VPN Hub to discover more tools and guides to keep your online identity safe.

Last, but not least, always check all the steps before you perform them, since flashing your router with unsupported firmware can do irreversible damage to it (you can turn it into an expensive paperweight).

Frequently Asked Questions

Does VPN affect router performance? Yes, you can expect your router to be affected speed- and performance-wise if you install a VPN on it.

What are the best VPN routers? If you want to deploy a VPN on your entire network, it would be a wise thing to invest in a VPN router. Check out our best VPN routers if you don’t know where to start.

Your connection is not secure – websites you visit can find out your details:

Use a VPN to protect your privacy and secure your connection.

We recommend Visit Private Internet Access

We recommend Private Internet Access , a VPN with a no-log policy, open source code, ad blocking and much more; now 79% off.

Was this page helpful?


Start a conversation

Make These Diy Wooden Kitchen Utensils For Your Favorite Cook

Sometimes being a woodworker is a lot like being a genie. The other day, my wife was using a curved wooden stirring spatula to make cheese sauce for mac ’n’ cheese. “I wish I had one of these, but way longer,” she said to me. So I went downstairs, found a scrap of maple about the size she wanted, and made her a bigger one. Though I’d never made a kitchen utensil before, it took about two hours, and was far easier than I had anticipated.

No matter your skill level, making a wooden spatula, spoon, or some other kind of utensil offers lots of options for creativity with a wide range of shapes and styles. You can copy something you already have like I did, find a template online to use as a base, or create a style that is completely new. Whether you’re looking for a relatively quick present or trying to enhance your kitchen arsenal, whatever you craft is sure to be a crowd pleaser.

Warning: DIY projects can be dangerous, even for the most experienced makers. Before proceeding with this or any other project on our site, ensure you have all necessary safety gear and know how to use it properly. At minimum, that may include safety glasses, a facemask, and/or ear protection. If you’re using power tools, you must know how to use them safely and correctly. If you do not, or are otherwise uncomfortable with anything described here, don’t attempt this project.


Time: 1 to 2 hours

Material cost: $5 to $10

Difficulty: Easy

Materials How to make a wooden spoon, or any other utensil

1. Draw your design on the wood. Because I made a larger version of an existing utensil, I freehanded the design with the original as a reference. If you purchased a template, cut it out and trace it onto your board.

Remember that a template has two profiles. There’s the main shape that you’d see when you put the utensil down flat, but there’s also the narrow edge profile. You’ll need to draw both of these.

Pro tip: I always prefer drawing on the wood rather than taping a template to the board. This helps me avoid losing my design partway through if the paper falls off or gets shredded while I’m cutting.  

2. Cut out the rough shape on the band saw. Start cutting the largest profile, as though the utensil is lying flat. Try to get the general shape in one or two large cuts, rather than many small ones—this will make the second profile easier to trim.

[Related: The surprising woodworking tools you already have around the house]

3. Tape the cutoff pieces back onto the rough-cut block. This may seem counterproductive, but putting these edge pieces back in place stabilizes the board so you can cut out the second profile more safely and accurately. You may need to redraw sections of the edge profile over the tape, but you’ll thank yourself later.

4. Refine the shape. Once you have the general shape, use your band saw to trim the more intricate and detailed areas. You can also use chisels or hand saws for this, depending on your comfort, the cuts required, and your access to tools. Notch out the tighter angles and corners, start to shape the handle, and form whatever curves you can. If you have a spoon gouge (I do not), scoop out the spoon head as needed.  

Any material you remove now is material you won’t have to sand off later. If you’re using only an orbital sander, like I did, get as close as you can, because the orbital sander is slow. A belt sander removes more material faster, so if you have access to one of those, you can be a bit less precise with this step.

Warning: Be careful while making these more intricate cuts, both for your physical safety and to avoid removing too much material. Better to spend 10 extra minutes sanding than to accidentally cut your handle (or fingertip) off. 

5. Sand until you can’t feel your hands, then sand some more. Sanding will be by far the longest and hardest part of this project. Rather than simply smoothing the wood like when you’re building a cutting board or piece of furniture, you’ll be using sanding to actually finish shaping the utensil. I sanded my entire spoon using just an orbital sander and my quickly-cramping hands, so it’s absolutely doable if that’s all you have. However, manual sanding will take a long time, and—as I said above—a belt sander will definitely speed up the process.  

Start with 60-grit paper to maximize material removal. Don’t be afraid to change sanding discs regularly when they start to dull. With this grit, your goal will be to remove all of the saw and chisel marks and refine the shape to near-finished dimensions. 

Most of my time was spent working on the handle, trying to find a comfortable shape and size. I actually went back to the bandsaw to remove more material several times during the sanding process, just to speed it along.  

Once you’re satisfied with the shape, move through the remaining grits, up to 220. I used 80-, 120-, 150-, and then 220-grit paper.

6. “Water pop” the wood. The first time your spoon gets wet, the wood fibers will absorb the water and expand. No matter how well you’ve sanded, this will cause the wood to feel rough and unsanded. The way to avoid this is called “water popping.” All you have to do is get the wood wet, then let it dry. Lightly hand-sand the resulting roughness off of the spoon with 220-grit paper, or whatever grit you finished with. This will knock down those bloated fibers, and bring back the nice smooth texture. You may have to water pop your project two or three times to achieve a perfect result.

Warning: Don’t use a powered sander for this. If you do, you might take off too much material, and you’ll have the same roughness the next time your spoon gets wet. 

7. Apply finish. Because this is a cooking spoon, you’ll need to use a food-safe finish. I use cutting board conditioner, which is a mixture of mineral oil and beeswax. Squeeze some on and gently wipe it all over the spoon with a clean rag. Let the oil soak in for 15 to 20 minutes, then wipe off the excess. If you find that the wood absorbed all of the oil and feels dry, apply another coat.

And with that, you’re done. Wooden spoons are a fun, relatively straightforward project that really impress. They’re excellent holiday gifts, and a good way to use up some of that scrap wood I know you have stacking up in various corners of your shop. So grant some wishes and help your friends and loved ones cook in style.

Operating Cycle Vs Net Operating Cycle

What is Operating Cycle?

The term “operating cycle” refers to the duration between the time when a company purchases inventory and the time when the company realizes sales. In other words, it is the time a business takes to purchase inventory stock, convert it into finished goods, and then sell it in the market. The operating cycle is a very important factor in the assessment of the operational efficiency of any business.

Start Your Free Investment Banking Course

Download Corporate Valuation, Investment Banking, Accounting, CFA Calculator & others

Explanation of  Operating Cycle

The duration is known as the operating cycle because it covers the entire blockage of cash in the purchase of inventories and recovery of the cash after achieving customer sales. The next cycle is started once the cycle is over, wherein that cash is used to purchase a new set of raw materials to produce more inventories, and the cycle continues.

The formula for op. The cycle can be expressed as a summation of the inventory and accounts receivable periods. Mathematically, it is represented as,

Operating Cycle = Inventory Period + Accounts Receivable Period

Examples of  Operating Cycle

Following are examples are given as follows:

Example #1

Let us take the example of the below company to compute its op. Cycle for the financial year 2023 on the basis of the following information:

Particulars Amount

Average inventory $400,000

Average accounts receivable $50,000

Sales $1,200,00

Cost of goods sold $900,000

The inventory period can calculate as,

The inventory Period calculates as

Inventory Period = Average Inventory / Cost of goods sold * 365

Inventory Period = $400,000 / $900,000 * 365

Inventory Period = 162 days

Accounts Receivable calculates as

Accounts Receivable Period = Average Accounts Receivable / Sales * 365

Accounts Receivable Period = $50,000 / $1,200,000 * 365

Accounts Receivable Period = 15 days

Op. The cycle calculates as

Operating Cycle = Inventory Period + Accounts Receivable Period

Op. Cycle = 162 days + 15 days

Op. Cycle = 177 days

Therefore, the company’s op. The cycle for the year 2023 is 177 days.

Example #2

Let us take the example of SDF Inc. to illustrate the computation of op. Cycle. The following information is available per its annual report for the December 31, 2023, financial year.

Particulars Amount

Opening inventory $300,000

Closing inventory $500,000

Opening accounts receivable $300,000

Closing accounts receivable $400,000

Sales $1,800,000

Cost of goods sold $1,500,000

Inventory Period = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory)/2 / Cost of Goods Sold * 365

Inventory Period = ($300,000 + $500,000)/2 / $1,500,000 * 365

Inventory Period = 97 days

The accounts Receivable Period calculates as

Accounts Receivable Period = (Opening Accounts Receivable + Closing Accounts Receivable)/2 / Sales * 365

Accounts Receivable Period = ($300,000 + $400,000)/2 / $1,800,000 * 365

Accounts Receivable Period = 71 days

Op. The cycle calculates as

Operating Cycle = Inventory Period + Accounts Receivable Period

Op. Cycle = 97 days + 71 days

Op. Cycle = 168 days

Therefore, SDF Inc.’s op. The cycle for the year 2023 is 168 days.

Components of the Operating Cycle

The op. cycle can be broken down into two major components –

Inventory Period

Accounts Receivable Period

The inventory period refers to the current inventory level and the assessment of how quickly it will be converted to a finished product and sold in the market. Mathematically, it is calculated as the average inventory divided by the cost of goods sold multiplied by 365, as shown below.

Inventory Period = Average Inventory / Cost of goods sold * 365

Accounts Receivable Period = Average Accounts Receivable / Sales * 365

Duration of Operating Cycle

The duration of an op. The cycle can influence by the following:

Higher-order fulfillment rates increase inventory levels, eventually leading to a longer op. Cycle. Similarly, a lower-order fulfillment rate means a shorter op. Cycle.

Loose policies pertaining to payment collection result in delayed customer payment, which prolongs the op. Cycle. Stronger policies can help in shortening the op. Cycle.

Importance and Uses of Operating Cycle

The concept of op. The cycle formula is very important as it is useful in assessing a company’s operational efficiency. A shorter op. Cycle means that the company can recover its investment in inventory faster during a longer op. Cycle means that the company takes longer to transform inventory into sales and cash. A shorter op. The cycle is always preferable as it indicates better control of working capital management.

Operating Cycle vs Net Operating Cycle

Although most analysts use op. Cycle and net op. Cycle interchangeably, they are not the same and have a subtle difference. Op. Cycle refers to the duration from the purchase of inventory to the collection of cash from sales. It is represented as a summation of inventory days and accounts receivable period.

Operating Cycle  =  Inventory Period + Accounts Receivable Period

On the other hand, the net operating cycle also refers to the duration between the purchase of inventory and the collection of cash from sales. Still, it is adjusted for the time offered by the suppliers, resulting in a lower value than op. Cycle. It is represented as inventory days plus accounts receivable period minus accounts payable days.

Net Operating Cycle  =  Inventory Period + Accounts Receivable Period –  Accounts Payable Period


Over a period of time, the trend in op. The cycle can indicate a change in the bargaining power of a company.

It can be linked to an incentive system encouraging employees to shorten the op. Cycle.

Few critics believe that op. The cycle is not the best measure of a company’s efficiency as it merely covers the liquidity profile in terms of working capital.

There are no defined standards for op. Cycle and is subject to variation based on market conditions.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Operating Cycle. Here we discuss the introduction and examples along with the importance and uses of the operating cycle. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

Update the detailed information about The Best Vpn Clients For Your Favorite Operating System on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!