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From Dame Zaha Hadid to Anne Lacaton, these six female Pritzker Prize laureates have made an unforgettable impact on the man-dominated field of architecture.

In the 44 years that the Pritzker Architecture Prize has been granted, only six women have received the most distinguished award in architecture. Zaha Hadid was the first woman laureate in 2004, followed by Kazuyo Sejima (with SANAA partner Ryue Nishizawa) in 2010, Carme Pigem (with partners Rafael Aranda and Ramon Vilalta for RCR Arquitectes) in 2023, Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara in 2023, and Anne Lacaton (with Jean-Philippe Vassal) in 2023.

This year David Alan Chipperfield received the 2023 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

Anne Lacaton – 2023

Anne Lacaton’s academic teaching focuses on architecture from an ideological and sociopolitical standpoint. Lacaton’s ideas and constructions are concerned with the individuals involved rather than the iconic exhibition. Her designs strive to encourage user interaction, such as among inhabitants in redeveloped regions.

She co-founded the architecture firm Lacaton & Vassal with Jean-Philippe Vassal. The work of Lacaton and Vassal focuses on low-cost construction. Many projects are hybrids of a contemporary architectural concept with more diversified approaches, unsettling the conventional practices of building contractors. The practice has also worked on the École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture in Nantes; the art collection project FRAC Nord-Pas de Calais in Dunkirk; the Cap Ferret residential building in Cap Ferret, and the Grand Parc Bordeaux (with Frédéric Druot and Christophe Hutin).

Lacaton & Vassal has been awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award, Trienal de Lisboa (2024); and the Fundació Mies van der Rohe, European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture (2024) along with Frédéric Druot Architecture and Christophe Hutin Architecture for the transformation of 530 Dwellings at Grand Parc, Bordeaux. Also, Lacaton was one of the laureates of the 2023 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara – 2023

Yvonne Farrell earned a bachelor’s degree in architecture from University College Dublin in 1974. Grafton Architects was founded in Dublin in 1977 by her and Shelley McNamara. She was a founding member of Group 91, which was responsible for the revival of Dublin’s Temple Bar neighborhood in the 1990s. Farrell is also a member of the Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland, an Honorary Member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and an elected member of Aosdána, Ireland’s cultural organization.

Shelley McNamara earned a Bachelor of Architecture from University College Dublin in 1974. McNamara has been teaching architecture at University College Dublin and other colleges since 1976. McNamara defined her approach to architecture as “rather than conceiving of a space and then finding a structure for it, we construct a structure and that, in turn, makes a space” and “the satisfaction in architecture is the sense of weight being borne down or sustained”.

The Grafton practice received the Royal Institute of British Architects Royal Gold Medal in 2023. Their building at the Universidad de Ingeniera y Tecnologa in Lima, Peru, received the 2024 RIBA International Award as the best new building in the world that year. Also, McNamara, together with Yvonne Farrell, published the book Dialogue and Translation: Grafton Architects in 2014. They are the laureates of the 2023 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

Carme Pigem – 2023

Between 1977 and 1979, Carme Pigem studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Olot. He graduated as an architect from Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura del Vallés in the Catalonia region of Spain in 1987. In 1988, Pigem founded RCR Arquitectes with Ramon Vilalta and Rafael Aranda. She was one of the laureates of the 2023 Pritzker Prize together with Ramón Vilalta and Rafael Aranda.

Kazuyo Sejima – 2010

After graduating from the Japanese Women’s University, Kazuyo Sejima established his own office in Tokyo, the capital of Japan, in 1987, and 1995, she founded SANAA Sejima + Nishizawa & Associates), a Tokyo-based company, together with Ryue Nishizawa.

In 2010, Sejima was appointed head of the Venice Biennale’s architecture sector, which she curated at the 12th Annual International Architecture Exhibition. Also in 2010, she was one of the laureates of the Pritzker Architecture Prize together with Ryue Nishizawa, one of the most prestigious awards in the field of architecture.

Zaha Hadid – 2004

Zaha Hadid graduated from the Department of Mathematics at the American University of Beirut before studying architecture at the London Architectural Association school. After her graduation, he started to work with his teachers at the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, with which she became a partner in 1977. In 1980 Hadid established his own London-based office. She has taught at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, the University of Illinois, the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Hamburg, and the Knowlton School of Architecture. Zaha Hadid has been an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Before his death, he was a professor at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna.

She became the first female architect to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2004.

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Complete Guide To The Rmi Architecture

Overview of RMI Architecture

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

RMI stands for Remote Method Invocation. Java provides an API allowing an object residing in one JVM (Java Virtual Machine) to access or invoke an object running on another. The other JVM could be on the same machine or a remote machine. This is an interesting feature because, in real-time applications, it becomes very easy for Java applications to communicate directly with each other without any external communication mechanism. Also, it is always a need for secure communication between applications based on distributed application architecture.

RMI Design

Before we go into detailed architecture, we will understand the basic design of RMI architecture.

RMI API is provided in the package chúng tôi Let’s introduce two terms for the understanding of RMI design architecture. First is the client, the JVM that will call the remote object; second is the server, the JVM contains the remote object. So, the client will call the server, in this case, on the object for method invocation.

The server will then return the reference of the object to the client. The catch here is both the objects, i.e., local and remote, will appear as a local object on the server. There will be no differentiation between the two. The syntax of the methods of both objects is also the same. Therefore, the server JVM acts like a normal JVM without knowing of any object, whether it is local or remote.

The same object can be both a server and a client. The program obtains the remote object’s reference and utilizes it as a local object. The RMI infrastructure is responsible for finding the remote object, intercepting method calls, and processing the remote request remotely. The client invokes methods on the object only after obtaining a reference to a remote object.

RMI Architecture

Below is a diagram of RMI architecture in a simple way. You will find various forms of the same architecture on the internet, but we have a simple one to help explain it better.

The client and server applications are the respective JVMs of the client machine and server machines. In the RMI application, we write two programs: the client program, which resides on the client, and the server program, which resides on the server machine.

1. Application Layer

This layer is the actual systems, i.e. client and server, which are involved in communication. The Java program on the client side communicates with the Java program on the server side.

2. Stub

We have client objects from the design intro; In RMI architecture, it is known as Stub. It is an object that resides on the client machine and acts as a proxy for the remote object. It is like a gateway for the client program.

The stub has the same methods as a remote object. When the client calls on the stub object, the stub forwards this request to a remote object (Skeleton) via RMI infrastructure, which is then executed on the server.

Initiates connection with remote JVM.

Writes and transmits (Marshals) parameters to remote JVM.

Waits for the result.

Pass the received result to the caller.

3. Skeleton

The server object, which is located in a server machine, is referred to as the Skeleton. Stub communicates with the server application with the help of an intermediate Skeleton object.

The responsibility of the skeleton object is to send parameters to method implementation and send the return values back to the client.

Skeleton Performs the following events:

Invokes the method on an actual Remote object.

Transmit/pass the result to the caller.

4. Stub / Skeleton layer

The Proxy Layer, also known as the Stub/Skeleton layer, intercepts calls made by the client and redirects them to the remote object. Stub and Skeleton are the proxies for the client and server. The Stub and Skeleton objects are like an interface between an application and the rest of the RMI System.

This layer aims to transfer data to Remote Reference Layer by Object Serialization. This process of converting data/objects into a byte stream is known as Marshalling, and the reverse is known as Unmarshalling. Marshaling is performed when requesting the object from the server, and Unmarshalling is performed when data/object reference is received from the server.

5. Remote Reference Layer

The Remote Reference Layer connects the proxy layer to the RMI mechanism. This layer is responsible for communicating and transferring objects between client and server. This layer defines and supports the invocation semantics of the RMI connection.

The remote Reference Layer maintains the session during the method call. i.e., It manages the references made by the client to the remote server object. This layer is also responsible for handling duplicated objects.

6. Transport Layer

The transport layer is responsible for setting up communication between the two machines. This layer uses standard TCP/IP protocol for connection. This layer performs the actual transportation of data. This layer is part of the Remote Reference Layer.


The Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is a highly useful API provided in Java that facilitates communication between two separate Java Virtual Machines (JVMs). It allows an object to invoke a method on an object residing in another address space.

It provides a secure way for applications to communicate with each other. It achieves this functionality using concepts Stub (Client calling object) and Skeleton (Remote object residing on the server).

RMI is used to build distributed applications. It preserves the type of safety. RMI architecture minimizes the complexity of the application in a distributed architecture.

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This has been a guide to RMI Architecture. Here we discussed the basic concept, RMI design, and architecture. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

The Pixel 5 Is Google’s Smartest Phone Since The Nexus 5

When Google unveiled the Pixel 5 alongside the Pixel 4a 5G at its Launch Night In event on September 30, I was perplexed. On paper and in pictures, the $699 Pixel 5 made little sense compared to the $499 Pixel 4a 5G, not to mention the Pixel 4 XL.  I struggled to understand why Google made a smaller phone with very similar specs for more money.

Michael Simon/IDG

A hole-punch camera helps Google keep the bezels nice and uniform on the Pixel 5.

I also get what Google is trying to do. Google is calling it “the ultimate 5G Google phone,” but its focus isn’t on gimmicky features like Motion Sense or Active Edge, or even niche camera tricks that show off Google’s AI prowess. Rather, the Pixel 5 is about taking the high-end Pixel experience and distilling it in a smart and stylish package that challenges the very definition of a flagship.

A design without compromises

Much like the Galaxy S20 and S20 FE, the Pixel 5 and 4a are extremely similar phones. Both have a small hole-punch camera in the upper left corner that looks a lot better than the Pixel 4’s giant forehead or the 3 XL’s notch.

The Pixel 5 has subtle enhancements that give it an almost luxurious feel. The aluminum back, Simply Sage color, and chrome power button all add a touch of luxury compared to the plastic 4a. It doesn’t quite feel as metallic as the original Pixel duo to the paint over the wireless-charging-friendly plastic, but it has a very nice texture. It’s downright Apple-like, a comparison I never thought I’d make for a Pixel phone. It’s like the iPhone 11 versus the Pro, or the XR versus the XS. 

Michael Simon/IDG

The camera bump is a lot less bumpy on the Pixel 5.

The Pixel 5 is also the first Android phone I’ve used that actually has uniform bezels around the screen. Google is using a flexible OLED to bend the display under itself and reduce the chin, a surprising and impressive bit of engineering for a phone that doesn’t cost a thousand bucks. While it seems like a small thing, once you turn it on for the first time, you won’t look at another Android phone the same way. Even the Galaxy Note 20 Ultra doesn’t have quite the same visual appeal after switching over from the Pixel 5.

Altogether, the $699 Pixel 5 is the first phone Google has made that actually feels like a premium device. At just $200 more than the Pixel 4a 5G, it’s a smart addition to the lineup.

The same but different

The Pixel 5 has the same Snapdragon 765G processor as the Pixel 4a 5G, but overall, the Pixel 5 feels like the faster phone. That’s because it has a bit more RAM (8GB vs 6GB) and a faster display (90Hz vs 60Hz), more seemingly small changes that make a big difference.

Michael Simon/IDG

The chrome power button brings a touch of class to the Pixel 5.

But what really gives the Pixel 5 its edge over other phones in its class (and higher, to be honest), as always, is its camera. The Pixel 5 has the same general dual-camera array as the Pixel 4 XL, though the secondary telephoto lens has been swapped out for an ultra-wide one. It’s something of a matter of preference, though I’d personally like both of them in the Pixel 6. But even with a different lens, the results aren’t categorically different from those of the Pixel 5 versus the 4XL. Photos take a touch longer to process due to the slower CPU, but for the most part, the experience is very similar to that of the previous Pixels.

Michael Simon/IDG

The back of the Pixel 5 isn’t quite metallic, but it has a nice texture.

The feature is Android

As expected, the Pixel 5 ships with Android 11 on board, and it feels very much like Google designed it strictly for the new Pixels. The gesture navigation feels better than ever with less bottom bezel, and the optimizations make the Pixel 5 feel like a phone with a much faster chip and much bigger battery. A new Extreme Battery Saver mode will help your Pixel last for up to two days by disabling features, throttling the processor, and limiting notifcations by prioritizing apps.

Michael Simon/IDG

The Pixel 5 dispenses of the ugly chin that previous Pixel phones had.

With the Pixel 5, Android is the premium feature. It reminds me of the last great Nexus phone, the Nexus 5. At the time it was the launch device for Android 4.4 KitKat, and it showcased the new design, improved performance, and Google now Launcher. It wasn’t flashy or over-the-top, but it got the job done. 

And so it is with the Pixel 5. I’ll get into the camera and performance in my full review, but on a high level, Google dispensed with the gimmicks and focused on the things that matter. We finally have a true alternative to the Galaxy S20 and iPhone 12 that leans on the things Google does best. It could lead to some truly impressive phones to come.

What Are The Challenges Women Face In Web3 Industry?

Women face challenges in the Web3 industry, including a lack of representation and bro culture

Web3 has created new opportunities for individuals to participate in a more open, transparent internet while also creating wealth. Women, however, face unique challenges in the Web3 industry, despite the potential benefits of this emerging technology. Women face significant obstacles that can make it difficult for them to thrive in the decentralized web, ranging from a lack of diversity in the industry to gender bias in funding. Continue reading this article know about the challenges women, face in the web3 industry.

Cointelegraph interviewed several challenges women face in the Web3 industry to better understand these challenges. Devon Martens, the principal blockchain engineer at Sweet NFTs, observed that the cryptocurrency industry, like many other technology and financial sectors, is dominated by men.

Martens stated that when she examines new Web3 companies and their management, she rarely sees women in the C-suite, noting: “It is hard to pursue something as a concept and feels a little more realistic when you see people in those roles already. That is why it is so important to talk about what we can do to cultivate talent across the board, including encouraging women to get into the space.”

Similarly, Sandy Carter, chief operating officer and head of business development at Unstoppable Domains, stated that women make up only 12.7% of the Web3 workforce, emphasizing the need for greater industry diversity. According to her observations, there is a significant gender gap among job applicants. Carter revealed: “When I announced I was joining Unstoppable Domains, I included a link to apply for another role at the company. Out of over 1,500 applications for that job, only 3% of the total applicants were women, and this stuck with me.”

Briana Marbury, CEO of the Interledger Foundation, addressed the issue of gender stereotypes in the crypto industry, noting that the industry is frequently perceived as being dominated by men and characterized by a strong “bro culture” that is unwelcoming to anyone who does not fit into the “pale and male” demographic. Unfortunately, this stereotype may discourage women from entering space. Marbury went on to say:

“People, women especially, often self-deselect themselves from pursuing potentially lucrative, rewarding and purposeful career pathways in crypto — or technology more broadly — because they believe ‘it’s not for people like them.’ Intentionality is key here. There needs to be a lot of intention in the crypto space in shifting old tropes into new and inclusive narratives.”

Diversity is critical in technology development, according to Daniela Barbosa, executive director of the Hyperledger Foundation. “Study after study shows that diversity in technology creation produces more robust technologies and some better outcomes — that diverse communities are simply stronger communities,” she said. She did, however, acknowledge that exclusionary behaviors can have an impact on community cultures and that this is a challenge in the crypto industry.

Barbosa emphasized that the crypto industry places a strong emphasis on developers and finance/traders, two communities where women are still underrepresented. “I still see a lot of toxic behavior in crypto, which includes aggressive language and insinuation towards specific groups or individuals,” she said. This toxic behavior can discourage women from entering the industry, creating a double-whammy challenge for gender inclusivity in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space.

History, Architecture & Design, Facts

About Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza is one of the new seven wonders of the world. The northern part of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula is home to this collection of Mayan ruins. It was a bustling city in the pre-Colombian periods, home to several Mayans from different ethnic backgrounds. The iconic pyramid, which monopolizes the location’s center, is one of the numerous historic Mayan buildings still present today. The central portion of the Chichen Itza complex is about 5 square kilometers (1.9 square miles), and nearby residential structures can see for quite a long past that point.


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Findings of products from other parts of Mesoamerica, such as jade from the north, golden discs from the south, and ebony from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, provide indications that Chichen Itza was a prosperous commercial hub with a harbor at Isla Cerritos. The settlement likely controlled the prosperous salt beds on the nearby northern shore, while cacao farming was widely practiced and recognized.

Around 1200 CE, it began to deteriorate, and Mayapán replaced it as the capital. On the contrary, Chichen Itza remained cherished and respected as a home of lineage and worship well into the Postclassic era and even afterward, unlike all the alternative places, and it did not vanish from history.

Why was Chichen Itza Built?

In the ninth century, when the Mayan settlements got deserted, the people restructured into sparsely populated centers or relocated northward. It comprised elegant pavilions where they cultivated the sciences and the arts. Around this time, the Mayans established new settlements on the Yucatan peninsula, many of which included elements of central Mexican architecture. The much more significant of these is Chichen Itza, whose structures and sculptures are evocative of the city of Tula. Many areas of Chichen Itza still hold these ruins as a sign of a rich cultural past. From power to trade, Chichen Itza became the most significant hub of its time.

Architecture and Design

The magnificent structure, in its entirety, shows a lot about the Maya and Toltec conception of the cosmos, which closely connects to what was apparent in the Yucatán Peninsula. The Temple of Kukulkan, sometimes called El Castillo, is the most well-known building in this area. This magnificent pyramid shows the precision and significance of Maya’s astronomy and the strong impact of the Toltecs, whose invasion caused a fusion of the two traditional cultures.

What is there to do at Chichen Itza?

There are several fun and informative things you can do at Chichen Itza.

Some of them are:

Hire a guide to explain the complete history behind the Mayan Site of Tulum.

Take an afternoon tour of the yellow city, Izamal. Make sure to remain hydrated and prepared. There are many restaurants that you can rest at while on your journey.

You must visit the Celestun Biosphere Reserve in the city of Celestun and remember to see its pink flamingos.

Be at the Chichen Itza sound and light show at night. The nighttime temperature remains very pleasant, and you can enjoy the serenity of the show with a smooth breeze on your hair.

Interesting Facts about Chichen Itza

An image of a feathered snake is present in the Chichen Itza Pyramid. It is an image of Kukulcán, also renowned as Quetzalcóatl to the Maya. Quetzalcóatl, the feathered snake, is one of the main gods in historic Mexican mythology.

It was a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988 for being “one of the most significant instances of the Mayan-Toltec civilization in Yucatán.”

Spring and autumn equinoxes each year coincide with the sun casting the silhouette of a serpent on the pyramid of the Temple of Kukulkan.


However, If you are visiting Chichen Itza in Mexico, hire a professional guide who will assist you in exploring the historical site. It is a place of historical importance, and it would be imprecise to leave without having gained knowledge about the site and its several other structures. Moreover, This article was your guide toward the details of Chichen Itza. Packaging your bags and discovering all the context yourself is now up to you.

Pov: With Chauvin Found Guilty, “We Must Keep Our Eyes On The Prize”

POV: With Chauvin Found Guilty, “We Must Keep Our Eyes on the Prize”

Photo by Julio Cortez/AP Photo

Voices & Opinion

POV: With Chauvin Found Guilty, “We Must Keep Our Eyes on the Prize” Andrea Taylor, BU’s senior diversity officer, says the verdict is not the end of the journey—it’s the beginning

Once again, the nation has been forced to look into “the face of history” during the trial of Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer found guilty Tuesday on all three counts of murder by a jury of his peers. This is good news after decades of racial injustice resulting in the wrongful deaths of countless Black men, women, and children by law enforcement officers who have not been held accountable. Indeed, it’s the first conviction of an officer in Minnesota under these circumstances. 

Let’s be clear, though. This is a bittersweet moment. I, like many others in this country and around the world, had been riveted by the trial.

The decision, made by the diverse group of seven women and five men in the Hennepin County Courthouse, will not bring George Floyd, who was 46 when he died, back to his family, friends, and community. Neither will it change the reality of the profound losses endured by the families of Daunte Wright—killed by police four days ago in a nearby town, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, Philando Castile, Eric Garner, Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, Tamir Rice, and many, many other Black and brown people who also did not survive encounters with law enforcement officials who were not convicted and/or held accountable for their crimes.

However, in a moving statement in Minneapolis Tuesday by Floyd’s brother following the conviction, he declared: “Justice for George Floyd means freedom for all. We can’t bring him back, but we can make a difference.” This was his message to the crowds that gathered in George Floyd Square to celebrate the victory. Tears of joy and powerful emotions were distinctly detected among many of the speakers, who also included local and national community leaders, statewide elected officials, and ultimately a televised statement from the nation’s capital by Vice President Kamala Harris and President Joe Biden, who had pledged his support of police reform during the election campaign.

Vice President Harris, an early proponent of the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act while she was a US senator, urged passage of the Act Tuesday, making it clear that this is not just an issue for people of color, but a problem for every American. She warned that it’s keeping us from fulfilling the promise of liberty and justice for all and holding us back from realizing our full potential.

The George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2023 has broad support from leading civil rights and social justice organizations and individuals, including survivors of victims. It passed the House of Representatives by a bipartisan vote of 236 to 181 on June 25, 2023—the first-ever bold, comprehensive approach “to hold police accountable and change the culture of law enforcement, empower our communities, build trust between law enforcement and our communities by addressing systemic racism and bias.”

The whole world was watching this trial and awaiting a verdict that they hoped would recognize the injustice that occurred on May 25, 2023, when George Floyd’s life was snuffed out in front of eyewitnesses, young and old, black and white. Indeed, this horrific event became a global tragedy amidst a pandemic, due to COVID-19, that heightened awareness of racial, economic, and health inequities at home and abroad.

Jerry Blackwell, prosecuting attorney, cited two contributing factors surrounding the trial: first, “justice by video” that documented the reality of the case that was captured by a civilian witness. Second, the fact that the quarantine “trapped everyone into reality.”

Where does the community go from here? Amid all the celebration and the collective sigh of relief that the jurors’ decision may have avoided the inevitable burning, looting, and potential violence in the Twin Cities and across the nation, and perhaps around the world, what comes next is the central question. Realistically, most informed observers, community organizers, and changemakers recognize that there’s a lot more work to be done. Black Lives Matter and other civil and human rights groups, as well as youth and adults in many parts of the globe, played a key role in maintaining the visibility of the issue with protests and rallies.

Amidst the celebration of yesterday’s victory, we must keep our “eyes on the prize” and demonstrate a commitment to addressing systemic racism, eliminating bias, and creating a future that fulfills the promise of liberty and justice for all.

I want to close with a salute and thanks to Darnella Frazier, the teenager who used her cell phone to record George Floyd’s arrest in front of Cup Foods in Minnesota. Although she was initially harassed online and criticized for filming the video and not intervening, it’s widely believed that the ex-officer may never have been prosecuted without her footage. Though she testified in the trial about the guilt she lives with, saying, “It’s been nights I stayed up apologizing and apologizing to George Floyd for not doing more,” she is largely being hailed as a hero for making sure Derek Chauvin’s actions did not go unpunished. The nation is indebted to her foresight in using the tools of technology to capture this horrific moment, and upon receiving the news about Tuesday’s verdict, she exclaimed:

 “George Floyd, we did it!! Justice has been served.”

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