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Justice Sabyasachi Mukharji was born on June 1st, 1927. He is an Indian lawyer who subsequently became a judge. Justice Lahoti authored 315 decisions and part of 597 benches during his 6-year tenure at the Supreme Court. Justice Mukharji passed away in London on September 25, 1990, from a heart attack (which made worse by diabetes). He was the second Chief Justice to pass away while serving. He was preceded by Justice E. S. Venkataramiah and succeeded by Justice Ranganath Misra.Early Life and Education
Justice S. Rajendra Babu was born in Calcutta, (now Kolkata), West Bengal. His father Rai Bahadur Bejoy Bihari Mukharji was the first Indian director general of land records for the Bengal Presidency. His older brothers were Dr. Aurobindo Bihari Mukharji, a renowned cardiologist, and Justice Prasanta Bihari Mukharji, the Chief Justice of the Calcutta High Court. He completed his secondary education at the Mitra Institute in Bhowanipore, Kolkata, and went on to get a degree from Presidency College. In 1946, he graduated with honours in Economics from Calcutta University.Career
Justice Sabyasachi Mukharji began his legal career during the following time period −
In 1949, he started practising law as an attorney in the Calcutta High Court, where he specialised in civil, tax, and constitutional issues.
He was appointed to the Calcutta High Court as a judge in July 1968.
In 1982, he served as a member of the Eighth Finance Commission.
He was appointed as the Calcutta High Court’s interim Chief Judge on March 1, 1983.
Mukharji was appointed to the Supreme Court of India on March 15, 1983
On December 18, 1989, he was appointed as Chief Justice of India.
Name Sabyasachi Mukharji
Date of Birth 1st June, 1927
Alma Matar Calcutta University
Official Tenure 18th December, 1989 – 25th September, 1990
President Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Preceded E. S. Venkataramiah
Succeeded Ranganath Misra
Judge of the Calcutta High Court
Acting Chief Justice of the Calcutta High Court
Judge of Supreme Court
Chief Justice of IndiaNotable Judgement
The notable judgments are −Charan Lal Sahu vs. Union of India
In the current case, The Bhopal Gas Leak (Processing of Claims) Act, 1985 was affirmed by a five-judge panel chaired by Mukharji J. The Act granted the Government sole authority to speak on behalf of the victims. It was stated that they could not assert that they were speaking for victims impacted by accidents in these firms because the government had allowed the construction of factories without the required protections.A.R. Antulay vs. R.S. Nayak
In the present case, the Supreme Court’s five-judge Bench heard the case. But, instead of using a Special Trial Court, it also moved the several legal cases involving the corruption charges to the Bombay High Court. As a result of an unfair trial, Antulay contested this ruling. He emphasised that if the High Court presided over his trial, he would only be able to appeal to the Supreme Court once. But, if the trial took place before a Special Court, he had two options for appealing: the High Court and the Supreme Court.
A seven-judge panel presided over by Mukharji J concluded that by sending the matter to the Bombay High Court in 1984, the five-judge panel had restricted Antulay’s ability to utilise an appeal remedy. He decided that the Supreme Court cannot provide jurisdiction to a High Court that has not been granted by statute or the constitution in his majority judgement.P.N. Duda vs. P. Shiv Shankar
In the present case, a speech by P. Shiv Shankar, Minister for Law, Justice, and Corporate Affairs, claimed that criminals and antisocial elements had “discovered their heaven” in the Supreme Court and benefitted from its rulings. He was accused of violating the 1971 Contempt of Courts Act.
In Mukharji J’s view, the definition of contempt of court was limited. These remarks needed to interfere with the “administration of justice” in order to qualify as contempt. He pointed out that legislative flaws were to blame if criminals and anti-social groups benefited from the Court’s ruling. Furthermore, when considered from this “correct perspective,” these remarks had no impact on how justice is administered, so there was no justification for starting the contempt process.Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. Who was the first Chief Justice of India who died in office?
Ans. The first Chief Justice of India to die in office is Justice H. J. Kania.
Q2. Which is the oldest high court in India?
Ans. The oldest high court in India is the Culcutta High Court.
Q3. Who is the longest serving Chief Justice of India?
Ans. The longest serving Chief Justice of India is Justice Y.V. Chandrachud.
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The Apple design chief role long held by Jony Ive is a hard one to fill, says a new report today, as so many of the core designers have left the company.
Of the three options open to the company, none seem likely to provide the leadership and team buy-in required for such a high-profile position …Background
British industrial designer Jony Ive developed an extremely close working relationship with Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, giving the design chief almost free reign.
Apple originally split hardware and software design, each having a different lead. However, Ive had long argued that the two were inseparable – and in 2012, he added human interface design to his responsibilities. The decision caused a great deal of friction within the company, leading former software UI head Greg Christie to leave the company in 2014.
After Ive’s departure, Apple returned to a split leadership role, with Evans Hankey in charge of hardware design, while Alan Dye led the software side. However, Hankey’s stint at the top was relatively brief, with her upcoming departure reported last month.Most of Ive’s design team has left
Bloomberg reports that the company is struggling to fill the role, given that most of the members of Ive’s core design team have also left.
The departures began when Ive moved to a part-time role — officially known as chief design officer — around the time the Apple Watch launched in 2023. That year, longtime Ive lieutenant Danny Coster departed for GoPro Inc. Two years later, another top Ive deputy, Christopher Stringer, left to found Syng, a high-end speaker maker.
In early 2023, there was another exodus, with key designers Rico Zorkendorfer, Julian Hoenig, Miklu Silvanto and Daniele De Iuliis leaving. That June, Apple announced that Ive would exit to found LoveFrom, a design consulting firm working with Ferrari, Airbnb, Moncler and other brands.
More recently, key team members Jody Akana, Joe Tan, Anthony Ashcroft, Andrea Williams, Jeremy Bataillou and Eugene Whang departed, with the latter four heading to Ive’s firm. Altogether, at least 15 members of Ive’s core senior design team at Apple have exited since 2023.
A key reason for so many departures is that the autonomy the team enjoyed under Ive has been significantly reduced, with Operations reportedly having a bigger say, and greater emphasis on reducing manufacturing costs.Three options for Apple design chief role – none good
Insiders say there are three options for appointing a new design lead – but all are problematic.
Appoint one of the few remaining Ive-era hardware designers
Give software lead Alan Dye responsibility for hardware too
The obvious candidate for the first option would be Richard Howarth, but he hasn’t proven successful at making the transition from designer to manager, and it’s unclear whether he would want the change of role. Additionally, after 26 years, he may be eyeing retirement sooner rather than later.
Giving the job to Alan Dye would likely alienate hardware designers, who would see him as an outsider to their team. This is especially so given that hardware and software design teams inevitably clash from time to time, so his appointment may be resented.
Similarly, an outside candidate – for example, from Google or Microsoft – is seen by many as a non-starter.
Apple has struggled to integrate executives from rivals into leadership positions. “It would need to be someone internal,” the longtime member of Apple’s design group said. Bringing in someone from another company would be the “death of the team.”
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Let’s look at how India is progressing in the field of artificial intelligence.
In a recent event arranged by Nasscom, Infosys Chairman Nandan Nilekani has stated that India is on the cusp of majorAI in Economy
With the emergence of the ‘Made in India’ drive, US$1 billion in funding has been allocated to semiconductor companies using AI. The scheme is also encouraging the local chip makers of India with the assurance that theAI in Healthcare
The use of AI in the Indian healthcare system is growing a lot faster with the pandemic in the background. The Indian IT firm, Thalamus Irwine, has reported building up an Artificial Intelligence (AI) andAI in Education
In 2023, Niti Ayog introduced the Atal Mission Innovation to help young entrepreneurs with the adaptation of AI technology. The year 2023 has seen a lot of introduction ofAI in Products
In a recent event arranged by Nasscom, Infosys Chairman Nandan Nilekani has stated that India is on the cusp of major artificial intelligence innovations. He is confident that both the business side and the government side are well placed to apply AI uniquely. To further understand the statement, one must take a look at the latest AI-based innovative operations taking place in the education, economy, and health sector of chúng tôi the emergence of the ‘Made in India’ drive, US$1 billion in funding has been allocated to semiconductor companies using AI. The scheme is also encouraging the local chip makers of India with the assurance that the government will buy their locally made chips. It would also raise the scope of jobs in this field. This would eventually have a great impact on the growth of the economy in India, making the Indian market more independent. Business giants like Reliance and TATA have agreed to provide their complete support in helping the government to be successful in this chúng tôi use of AI in the Indian healthcare system is growing a lot faster with the pandemic in the background. The Indian IT firm, Thalamus Irwine, has reported building up an Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) solution to help the central and state governments to test and recognize weak communities that should be prioritized for the COVID-19 vaccination so the legislatures can put brakes on the continued spread of the pandemic. The survey platform is named Garuda. On the other hand, Co-WIN, an augmentation of eVIN, is a cloud-based solution for arranging, monitoring, and assessment of the COVID-19 vaccine in India. This platform is believed to have elevated the capability of emerging innovations, like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and the Internet of Things (IoT) in improving the healthcare chúng tôi 2023, Niti Ayog introduced the Atal Mission Innovation to help young entrepreneurs with the adaptation of AI technology. The year 2023 has seen a lot of introduction of EdTech companies amidst the pandemic situation. Companies like Stemrobo technologies, Whizrobo are providing the latest technologies in the welfare of education. Roboakart, Avishkaar is encouraging students to learn about robotics that uses AI technologies. They help students to create tech-based projects and flexible layout designs that can be customized according to the school’s requirements.Several Indian products are using AI technology these days. The National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI) has recently launched an AI-enabled product, specifically an AI-based chatbot , named Pai, to create real-time awareness of different services such as RuPay, AePS, FASTag, etc. In 2023, SigTuple was founded as an AI-based healthcare startup to provide an automated review of visual data using artificial intelligence. The company has launched an automated digital microscope called AI100 that converts physical samples into digital images. On the other hand, AskDisha is the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation’s (IRCTC) AI-powered chatbot. It was launched in 2023 supporting the English language, however, recently, the chatbot was launched supporting the Hindi language as well. All of these new inventions and the introduction of AI in India justify Nilekani’s statement and hope for a furthermore innovative future for India.
Have you been seeking the Content Creators of Instagram in India? That’s great! You have finally arrived at the right blog. These top 20 content creators of India that we have shortlisted will definitely inspire you to explore and understand the realm of content creation and creative content writing.
In reality, content creators of Instagram in India are very well educated and knowledgeable. These tech-savvy personalities are mindful of every slight trend that goes around the social media market. They consistently conduct market research and collaborate with reputed companies seeking to promote their goods and services.The Top 20 Content Creators of Instagram in India! 1. Jannat Zubair Rahmani- @jannatzubair29 2. Anushka Sen
Soon to make her first Korean debut, Anusha Sen has 38.2 million followers on Instagram. Even Anusha, just like Jannat Rahmani, started her career as a child actor. She is best known for playing Rani Lakshmi Bai in the Indian historical drama television series Jhansi Ki Rani and Meher in the children’s fantasy show Baal Veer.4. Faisal Sheikh
Mr. Faisu, also known as Faisal Shaikh, is an internet fashion model influencer and social media sensation. Currently, with over 28 million followers on Instagram, he then started off by creating funny and romantic videos on TikTok. He made his acting debut on the Ott platform in an action-thriller web series.5. Mahira Sharma
A well-known Punjabi TV actress and content creator is Mahira Sharma. She was born in Jammu and Kashmir and today has more than 5 million Instagram followers. She relocated to Mumbai after completing her schooling to seek a career in acting and modeling. She gained notoriety for taking part in “Bigg Boss 13,” an Indian game reality show.6. Gaurav Taneja
Gaurav Taneja is another top content creator on Instagram in India. He is a well-known pilot called the Flying Beast. He makes funny reels and is a motivated gym enthusiast. With over 3 million followers on Instagram, he has interviewed several famous celebrities like John Abraham. He is one of the famous and growing content creators on Instagram in India.7. Sayyed Arishfa Khan
Indian actor and social media influencer Arishfa Khan has over 29 million followers on Instagram.. She is well-liked on social media for her appearances as a fashion blogger. In addition to “Jeannie Aur Juju” in 2012, “Uttaran” in 2008, and “Meri Durga” in 2023, Arishfa featured in a variety of other productions. She has also made appearances in a number of “Crime Patrol” and “Papa By Chance” episodes on Star Bharat.8. Mohsin Khan
Mohsin Khan was born on October 26, 1991, in the Gujarati village of Nadiad, and has over 4 million followers on Instagram. He became an actor because he loved creating and directing short films. He still produces short movies. Mohsin served as the second assistant director on “Koyelanchaal,” a Bollywood movie from 2014. Approximately $2 million is his current estimated net worth in the US.9. Naman Mathur
An Indian professional PUBG Mobile player – Naman Mathur, goes by the name SouL MortaL. In PUBG Mobile, he is renowned for his fast reactions and expert-level gaming abilities. More than any other player, he is adored by the public, who wholeheartedly supports Team Soul in his honor. He is one of the top content creators on Instagram in India.10. Dheeraj Dhoopar
Another famous personality and content creator in India is Dheeraj Dhoopar. He has over 4 million followers on Instagram and is known to have an attractive personality as a to-be father of a kid. He is a television actor and model. He is well known for portraying Prem Bharadwaj, the main character, in the Colors TV television series Sasural Simar Ka.11. Barkha Singh
Indian television hostess, model, and actress – Barkha Singh has 2.8 million followers on Instagram. At the early age of 10, she started her career as a child artist. She frequently collaborates with reputed companies and Coca-Cola and Amazon. She is recognized for her work on the television shows Engineering Girls, Home Sweet Office, and more.12. Shweta Tiwari
The 40-year-old actress Shweta Tiwari is a mother to two children, Riyansh Kohli and Palak Tiwari, all of whom are under the age of four. Her appearance in serials in the late 2000s was observed by everybody. Her 40-year-old physique and captivating photos have the internet in awe. On Instagram, she has more than 3 million followers.13. Robin Jindal
Robin Jindal is another top content creator on Instagram in India, having over 6 million followers on Instagram. He is well known for his funny reels on Instagram and is recognized. The 26 year has a Youtube channel, ‘Oye Indori – Ab Hasega India.’14. Priyanka Deshpande
In Karnataka, India, Priyanka Deshpande was born on April 28, 1990. She is well recognized as “Vijay Tv Priyanka or Super Singer Priyanka” and gained recognition from the most popular reality show, “Super Singer.” Currently, she has over 2.5 million followers on Instagram. Priyanka is a sociable anchor who connects with people quickly.
Shakti Arora is an Indian television actor best known for portraying Kunal Malhotra in Silsila Badalte Rishton Ka, Ranveer Vaghela in Meri Aashiqui Tum Se Hi, and Taposh Banerjee in Tere Liye. In Baa Bahoo Aur Baby and Pavitra Rishta, he also played Jigar and Dr. Onir Dutt, and more, respectively. He has over 2.5 million followers on Instagram.16. Ahsaas Channa
Ahsaas Channa is an actress from India. She began acting professionally as a youngster in Vastu shastra (2004). Her mother Kulbir Kaur Badesron works as a TV personality, while her father Iqbal Singh Channa is a Punjabi filmmaker. Currently, she has over 3 million followers on Instagram.17. Aathmika
Aathmika is a 25-year-old Indian content creator who was born in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Aathmika has also hosted a few TV shows and appeared in a number of television commercials. She has two small roles in movies like Magic and Magic 2. Aathmika is really attractive and is most known for her incredible acting. Currently, she has over 2 million followers on Instagram.18. RJ Abhinav
RJ Abhinav is a Hindu who was born on August 23, 1994, in Delhi, India. He is a popular Indian content provider. He is a well-known voice actor and plank celebrity. He is a YouTuber as well. In addition, he has a YouTube account where he posts joke videos. He has over 2.5 million followers on Instagram.19. Noorin Shereef
Indian actress, dancer, and model Noorin Shereef is another content creator in India who is most frequently seen in the Malayalam (Mollywood) film industry. She rose to recognition after winning the 2023 Miss Kerala Fitness title. She presently works as a model and receives Mollywood possibilities. She appears in the film Chunkzz. Currently, she has over 3 million followers on Instagram.20. Gaurav Chaudhary
One of the most tenacious YouTubers from India is Gaurav Chaudhary, commonly known as Technical Guruji. For technological understanding, we must all have come across his videos on YouTube. He currently works as a researcher in nanoscience, a security engineer for the Dubai Police, and operates a family company in Dubai, in addition to his work on YouTube.In conclusion,
That’s all. The people mentioned above are the top content creators in India who are recognized by a majority of people. Content creators and content creation is growing abundantly as a result of growing digital marketing techniques and strategies.
What do you think about these content creators on Instagram in India? Are you aware of any other content creators?
The primary goals of the Trademark Act are to protect trademark owners from the unauthorised use of their marks and to prevent confusion among consumers. This can be accomplished by ensuring that trademarks are distinctive and are not similar to existing trademarks. Additionally, the Trademark Act seeks to protect trademark owners from the unauthorised use of their marks. These objectives may be fulfilled by ensuring that trademarks are unique and do not resemble any other trademarks that are already in use.What does Exactly Trademark Act Define?
The Trademark Act is a comprehensive rule book that defines trademark as “any sign or combination of signs, including words, logos, slogans, colours, and shapes that are capable of being represented graphically and are capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others.” Likewise, a trademark can be any sign or combination of signs, including words, logos, slogans, colours, and shapes.
Besides, the Act also includes, the process of registering the trademark, maintaining the trademark, re-annual of trademark, enforcement of trademark, and if someone violates the rule or infringes someone’s trademark right, then also decides the punishment.Registration Process
The mark that is going to be registered as trademark must encompasses the unique feature and capability of having a graphical representation. An application must be made to the Trademark Office in India in order to get a registration for a trademark in that country. The proposed trademark, a list of products or services for which the trademark will be used, the applicant’s name and address, and the list of goods or services for which the trademark will be used are required to be included in the application.Filing Protocol for Trademarks in accordance with Legislation
When a trademark application is submitted, it is reviewed by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (Trademark Office) to determine whether or not it satisfies all of the legal requirements, such as being distinctive and not being too similar to other trademarks that are already in use. If it is determined that the application does satisfy all of the legal requirements, the application is granted a trademark registration. After the trademark has been approved, it will be published in the Trademark Journal. At this point, any parties who have an interest in doing so will have the opportunity to lodge an objection to the trademark’s registration. If there are no objections, the registration of the trademark will be authorised, and the trademark will be added to the Register of Trademarks. If there are any objections, the registration of the trademark will be denied.
Registrations of trademarks in India are valid for a duration of ten years beginning on the date of registration and can be renewed for further periods of ten years. The owner of a registered trademark is granted the only permission to make use of that trademark in relation to any products or services for which the trademark was originally registered. In addition, the proprietor of the registered trademark has the authority to pursue legal action against any individual or entity that makes unauthorised use of the trademark.Infringement of Trademark
Those who are found guilty of infringing on the trademark of another person in India are subject to a monetary fine and/or probable incarceration for their actions. This is because India recognises trademark infringement as both a civil and a criminal offence. In the event that someone infringes on your trademark, you can seek restitution under the Trademark Act in a few different forms, including monetary damages, injunctions, and an accounting of profits.Conclusion
Trademark registration is an important step for businesses operating in India because it provides a legally enforceable right to use the trademark and the ability to take legal action against anyone who uses the trademark without permission. This is because the Trademark Act provides a comprehensive framework for the protection of trademarks in India, and trademark registration is an important step for businesses operating in India. To summarise, the Trademark Act establishes an all-encompassing legal framework for the protection of trademarks in India, and registering a business’s trademark is an essential step for companies that conduct their operations within the country.FAQs
Q1. In India, what precisely does it mean to be able to say that one possesses a trademark?
Ans. A phrase, a symbol, or a logo that is added to a brand or product in order to identify it and set it apart from other things on the market that are similar to it is known as a trademark. Trademarks can take many different forms.
Q2. Who is eligible to file an application for a trademark in India?
Ans. Any person who is operating a business in India or has the intention of utilising a trademark in connection with a product or service in the near or distant future, they are eligible to file an application for trademark registration in India.
Q3. What are the requirements that must be met before a trademark may be registered in India?
Ans. In order to successfully register a trademark in India, the mark in issue must be distinctive, it must not be the same as or too similar to an already registered mark, and it must not be included in any of the categories that are expressly prohibited by the Trademark Act.
Q4. How long should one normally anticipate the process of registering a trademark in India to take in its entirety?
Ans. The process of registering a trademark in India can take anywhere from one year up to three years, depending on how complicated the case is and how efficiently the Trademark Office operates.
Q5. How much does it set you back to have your trademark registered in India?
Ans. The cost of registering a trademark in India might change based on the kind of application that is filed and the services that are requested. The fee to submit an application for a trademark in a single class to the government is 9000 for company and 4500 for individual and sole proprietor.
Q6. In India, after how many years, a trademark can be renewed?
Ans. In India, a trademark can be renewed after every 10 years, starting from the day it was first registered.
Q6. What are the legal repercussions of violating someone’s trademark in India?
Ans. Infringing on another person’s trademark in India is considered a criminal violation, which can result in incarceration and/or monetary fines. The owner of the trademark also has the option to pursue civil remedies, such as injunctions and monetary damages.
This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.
Today’s world is data-driven. Data has the potential to unlock the success of every industry, from releasing ideas to enhancing decision-making processes. Data has profoundly changed the world as we know it, to the point that it’s impossible to function without the insights gained from data in every discipline.
In India, data science has proven to be a lucrative career. The reason for this is a scarcity of qualified candidates to fill the positions. Processes, algorithms, scientific methods, and systems are used in data science to acquire knowledge and insights in the form of structured and unstructured data using mathematics, statistics, and machine learning to collect data and then apply the knowledge and actionable insights to any given application domain.
Organizations use data and analytics for a variety of purposes. Let us analyze the data on the salaries of various Data Professionals in India and understand the job market.The Data
The data is collected from Glassdoor.
The data has 5 features:
The job title
The number of salaries reported for the job title
Location of the job
Job salaryAnalysis and Study
First, we’ll import the python libraries.import numpy as np # linear algebra import pandas as pd # data processing, CSV file I/O (e.g. pd.read_csv) import seaborn as sns import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import re import plotly.graph_objects as go import chúng tôi as pio import plotly.express as px %matplotlib inline
Now, we’ll read the data and have a look at the data.df = pd.read_csv("/kaggle/input/analytics-industry-salaries-2023-india/Salary Dataset.csv") df.sample(10)
We can see that the data is well-formatted.
Let us see the shape of the data.df.shape
So, we can see that the data has over 4000 entries and 5 features.
Let us check the column names.df.columns
Output:Index(['Company Name', 'Job Title', 'Salaries Reported', 'Location', 'Salary'], dtype='object')
So, as we saw, there are 5 columns in the data.df.info()
Output:RangeIndex: 4344 entries, 0 to 4343 Data columns (total 5 columns): # Column Non-Null Count Dtype --- ------ -------------- ----- 0 Company Name 4341 non-null object 1 Job Title 4344 non-null object 2 Salaries Reported 4342 non-null float64 3 Location 4344 non-null object 4 Salary 4344 non-null object dtypes: float64(1), object(4) memory usage: 169.8+ KB
Let us check if there are any missing values in our data.df.isnull().sum()
Output:Company Name 3 Job Title 0 Salaries Reported 2 Location 0 Salary 0 dtype: int64
So, there is some missing data.
Let us see the unique job titles.df["Job Title"].unique()
Output:array(['Data Scientist', 'Data Science Associate', 'Data Science Consultant', 'Data Science', 'Senior Data Scientist', 'Junior Data Scientist', 'Lead Data Scientist', 'Data Science Manager', 'Data Scientist - Trainee', 'Data Science Lead', 'Data Analyst', 'Data Engineer', 'Machine Learning Engineer', 'Machine Learning Software Engineer', 'Software Engineer - Machine Learning', 'Machine Learning Engineer/Data Scientist', 'Machine Learning Consultant', 'Machine Learning Data Associate', 'Machine Learning Data Associate I', 'Machine Learning Associate', 'Machine Learning Data Associate II', 'Associate Machine Learning Engineer', 'Machine Learning Data Analyst', 'Senior Machine Learning Engineer', 'Machine Learning Scientist', 'Machine Learning Developer'], dtype=object)
There are a wide variety of job descriptions. We will discuss more on these later.
The job locations are as follows:df["Location"].unique()
Output:array(['Bangalore', 'Pune', 'Hyderabad', 'New Delhi', 'Mumbai'], dtype=object)
We remove the data points with missing values.df=df.dropna()
Now, in some data points, currencies vary from INR. We convert everything to USD so that there is uniformity, and then we can compare it to global standards.
First, we get the wage unit values.df['Salary'].apply(lambda c: c.split('/')[-1]).unique()
Output:array(['yr', 'mo', 'hr'], dtype=object)
The wages are calculated on a yearly, monthly and hourly basis.
Now, we get the currencies.df['Salary'].apply(lambda c: c).unique()
Output:array(['₹', '$', '£', 'A'], dtype=object)
The currencies are Indian Rupee, US Dollar, Great Britain Pound and Afghan Afghani.
The currencies value will be converted to US dollars and hourly wages to yearly wages. For hourly wages, the number of working days is taken as 240 and 8 hours daily work.def convert(sal): currency = sal time = sal.split('/')[-1] salary = float(sal.split('/')[1:].replace(',','').replace('FN',''),) if currency == '₹': salary = salary * 0.013 elif currency == '£': salary *= 1.36 elif currency == 'A': salary *= 0.011 if time == 'mo': salary *= 12 elif time == 'hr': salary *= 1920 return salary df['Salary($)USD /Year'] = df['Salary'].apply(convert)
The function is applied to the data.df=df.drop('Salary', axis=1)
The old salary column is removed from the data.
The data looks like this now.df.head()
Let us see which companies are the most frequent in the data.# Verify the First 50 Companies in the dataset. df['Company Name'].value_counts().head(50)
Output:Tata Consultancy Services 41 Amazon 31 Accenture 30 Google 27 IBM 26 Fresher 26 First Student 25 Infosys 23 DONE by NONE 21 Cognizant Technology Solutions 21 ABC 20 Capgemini 17 Microsoft 17 Wipro 17 Deloitte 16 LTI 16 Tech Mahindra 16 Nones 15 HCL Technologies 14 Quantiphi 14 Wipro Technologies 14 Fractal 14 Genpact 13 Optum 12 Freelancer 11 Honeywell 10 PwC 10 ZS Associates 10 DXC Technology 10 Anonymous 9 NTT DATA 9 EY 9 Dell Technologies 9 Mu Sigma 9 TCS 9 Jio 9 ICICI Bank 9 Reliance Industries 9 American Express 9 KPMG 9 XYZ 9 Virtusa 9 Optum Global Solutions 8 WNS 8 Mindtree 8 J.P. Morgan 8 Tata Consultancy Services (North America) 8 Atos-Syntel 8 Oracle 8 EMPLOYERS 8 Name: Company Name, dtype: int64
Tata Consultancy Services, Amazon, Accenture, etc., are the companies that appeared the most in the data.
Now, let us analyze the data.Salary Counts
First, we start with the distribution of salary.plt.figure(figsize=(15, 6)) plt.hist(x=df["Salary($)USD /Year"], bins=2000) plt.xlim(0,200000)
We can see that most salaries are in the range of 10k to 15k USD per annum.Positions by Mean Salary
Now, let us see the mean salaries for a particular position.data = df.groupby('Job Title')['Salary($)USD /Year'].mean().sort_values(ascending=False) fig = px.bar(data) fig.show()
Output:Top 20 Highest Paying Companies
Here, we check the companies giving out the highest pay.x = df.groupby('Company Name').mean()['Salary($)USD /Year'].sort_values(ascending=False).head(20) fig = px.bar(x, title="Top 20 High Paying Companies") fig.update_traces(textfont_size=12, textangle=0, textposition="outside", cliponaxis=False) fig.show()
Output:Average Salary by Location avg_sal_loc = df.groupby("Location")['Salary($)USD /Year'].agg('mean').reset_index() fig = px.bar(avg_sal_loc, x="Location", y="Salary($)USD /Year", color='Location', title="Average Salary by Location") fig.update_traces(textfont_size=10, textangle=45, textposition="outside", cliponaxis=False) fig.show()
Salaries in Mumbai and New Delhi are lower than those in other cities.Number of Jobs by Location sns.set_style('whitegrid') px.histogram(x=df["Location"])
The maximum number of the jobs listed here are from Bangalore.Field of Work
Now, we shall group the job descriptions into fields of work.df['Field'] = 'Data' wData = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Data") wScience = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Science") wScientist = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Scientist") wMachine = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Machine") wLearning = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Learning") wEngineer = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Engineer") wEngineering = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Engineering") wAnalyst = df['Job Title'].str.contains("Analyst") df['Field'].loc[wMachine & wLearning & ~(wData & wScientist)] = 'Machine Learning'
Now, we check what the data looks like.df.head()
Now, we can see that the field of work has been incorporated into the data.
Field of work Average Paypx.histogram(data_frame=df,x='Field',y='Salary($)USD /Year',histfunc='avg',barmode='group')
Field of work Average Pay (By city)px.histogram(data_frame=df,x='Field',y='Salary($)USD /Year',histfunc='avg',color='Location',barmode='group')
Data Science and Data Engineering fetch more salary than the other fields.
Link to code.
Let us try to understand the roles. A data professional is supposed to be an expert in statistics, machine learning, and, in certain cases, economics. They must have a deep understanding of the data’s commercial uses.
They concentrate on developing and deploying AI-based algorithms to tackle business challenges in a variety of areas. To discover trends and patterns in enormous volumes of data, some data scientists concentrate on data visualization and dashboarding technologies. The Data Scientist serves as a link between the examined data and the final projections.
A Data Analyst is someone who has the expertise and abilities to transform raw data into information and insight that can be utilized to make business choices. An effective data analyst must have both technical and business skills. A background in Mathematics, Statistics, Computer Science, Information Management, Engineering, or Economics can provide a good basis for a job as a data analyst.
A Data Engineer creates the framework and structure for a company’s data analytics pipeline. These pipelines play a critical function in the company because they transform raw data into structures that data scientists can work with. Data engineers also ensure that data flows smoothly from servers to apps, and they frequently cooperate with the company’s data scientists. They provide new data analysis tools for business analysts and are also responsible for ensuring that the data security regulations should be followed.
They build, test, and manage data-storage architecture, such as databases and large-scale data processing systems. A big data engineer constructs continuous pipelines that flow to and from vast pools of filtered information from which data scientists may draw relevant data sets for their analysis, much like a physical structure.
When a database fails, it throws the entire IT system to a standstill. A data engineer’s skills are especially valuable when it comes to managing large-scale processing systems with ongoing performance and scalability challenges.
Data engineers can also assist the data science team by creating dataset methods to aid data mining, modeling, and production. In this sense, their involvement is critical in improving data quality.
Machine Learning Engineer
Machine Learning Engineers are highly skilled programmers that do research, develop, and construct self-running software in order to automate predictive models. A machine learning (ML) engineer creates artificial intelligence (AI) systems that use large data sets to produce and construct algorithms capable of learning and generating predictions.
Engineers that specialize in machine learning teach software and systems how to learn on their own, without the need for human interaction.
A bachelor’s or master’s degree in computer science, engineering, mathematics, statistics, or a related discipline is required for most machine learning engineering employment. However, whether or not a person is hired for a machine learning engineering position is mostly determined by whether or not they have the necessary expertise, experience, and project portfolio to demonstrate that they can execute the job.Conclusion
There are a wide variety of data jobs. All of these positions have a great deal of overlap. Some are more concerned with pure number-crunching, while others are more concerned with applying data analysis findings to business decisions. If someone works in the field of data science, they will be required to participate in a variety of processes along the data-driven product development cycle, regardless of their particular job title.
The field of data science is new and not well-defined. Within the umbrella of data science, people encounter job descriptions under several job titles that seem eerily similar. Companies very often, recognize they have data or have the ability to obtain data, which they may then utilize to better their business strategy.
A data engineer at one firm may do the same tasks as a data analyst at another. All of these jobs entail gathering or validating data, performing some type of analysis, and then communicating the findings to non-technical coworkers with the help of reports, projections, or visualizations.
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