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Restoro License Key: How Much Does It Cost? Restoro can fix almost any PC issue and improve its performance




Restoro is a widely-used and popular third-party restoration tool; it enhances your PC’s performance and fixes the damages caused by viruses.

You might be confused about the total cost and expense of purchasing a Restoro license key.

Here, we will see the cost of the Restoro key, how to renew it, and where to get it cheaply.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

Technical bugs caused by various viruses and malware are inevitable; you can do nothing to shield your PC against these troublemakers completely.

However, you can take the burden off your shoulder using the Restoro tool to fix these errors and bugs automatically.

What is Restoro, and how does it help you?

Restoro is a PC repair and optimization software that can help you speed up your slow computer and fix common errors. The software is available for both Windows and Mac computers.

It is an all-in-one solution to improve your system’s performance by fixing errors, optimizing settings, and improving overall stability.

How do I find the Restoro license key?


Enhanced scanning and repairing software to increase your device’s state and performance.

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How do I renew the Restoro license key? How much does Restoro cost?

Restoro offers a free version too, which is limited to scanning your files to identify errors and bugs; troubleshooting these errors isn’t included in the free version.

When it comes to the paid version, you will need to spare a few bucks, although the features that come with the paid version justify every penny that you spend to access Restoro.

Furthermore, if you don’t look forward to constantly stressing yourself out regarding the general health of your PC, getting access to a paid Restoro version is your best bet.

Have a look at various pricing and subscription plans offered by Restoro, and you can opt for any plan that suits your budget and needs.

Basic PlanPremium PlanExtended Plan

OS restoration OS restoration OS restoration

Complete PC scan and analysis Complete PC scan and analysis Complete PC scan and analysis

Identifies and eliminates viruses presently Identifies and eliminates viruses presently Identifies and eliminates viruses presently

Optimization of Windows registry Optimization of Windows registry Optimization of Windows registry

Services regarding Windows damageServices regarding Windows damageServices regarding Windows damage

Around the clock customer support Around the clock customer support

Limitless usage for a yearLimitless usage for a year

Where to get Restoro for cheap?

You can also search online for coupon codes that you can use to get a discount on the software. Finally, you can use some extensions to apply the best discounts to your Restoro purchase automatically.

Along with the Restoro, if you want some other tool to optimize the performance of your PC, you can check our guide on the best PC optimization software for Windows.

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How Much Does It Cost To Replace A Foldable Phone’S Screen?

Eric Zeman / Android Authority

While most smartphones do little to stand apart in terms of design or form factor, foldable smartphones promise to usher in a new paradigm. So far, we’ve seen Samsung, HUAWEI, Motorola, OPPO, and Xiaomi all launch foldable devices, at least in select markets.

However, the average foldable costs a pretty penny compared to the vast majority of other handsets on the market. The last thing you want to do is drop your new purchase, as foldable displays represent cutting-edge technology. But what’s the damage to your wallet if your foldable phone needs a screen repair? We’ve got you covered with our rundown, including the first-gen foldables from 2023.

Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3

Eric Zeman / Android Authority

The Galaxy Z Flip 3 picks up where the older release left off, delivering the same basic form factor. However, we do get a $999 price tag, water resistance, and a larger secondary display.

As for repair costs, Samsung’s own website states that replacing the interior foldable screen on the Z Flip 3 costs $349. If you’ve only broken the outer secondary screen, however, Samsung will bill you $99.

Samsung Galaxy Flip 4

Ryan Haines / Android Authority

Samsung’s fourth-generation Galaxy Flip 4 retains the same design as its predecessor with some subtle durability improvements like a stronger adhesive for the pre-applied screen protector. Hopefully, this should translate to fewer display replacements.

The cost to replace the Galaxy Flip 4’s displays hasn’t changed either. It’ll cost you $349 for the inner folding display and $99 for the outer display.

Samsung Galaxy Fold

The first foldable phone from a major brand saw a massive delay from April to September, as Samsung fixed flaws found by reviewers. Nevertheless, the ~$2,000 Galaxy Fold eventually landed in quite a few markets, bringing the foldable concept to commercial reality.

Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 4

Ryan Haines / Android Authority

Z Fold 4 (unfolded)

The latest and greatest Galaxy Z Fold 4 delivers better battery life, a faster processor, and a host of new software features that also made their way to older Samsung foldables.

The cost to replace the Z Fold 4’s inner screen has increased slightly this year, coming in at $499. You’ll still pay $149 for the outer glass screen. If you’re concerned about potentially breaking your brand-new foldable, the Samsung Care Plus subscription will lower the cost substantially.

Read more: Here’s how much it costs to replace a damaged Galaxy Z Fold 4


Huawei’s first foldable phone was only available in China, but made for a different approach to Samsung’s device. The Mate X packed an out-folding design, with the screen folding back. Meanwhile Samsung’s foldable had an in-folding display that folded like a book.

In any event, HUAWEI’s website pegs a replacement screen at 7,080 yuan (~$1,010). That’s almost half the price of the Mate X in China, currently retailing for around ~$2,400. This seems like the price for the screen only rather than any labor, so it’s possible the final price will change.


The Chinese brand is taking the Galaxy Fold route with the Mate X2, featuring an in-folding design with an external display rather than the Mate X/XS’s out-folding design. HUAWEI is also charging almost $3,000 for the device, which is expensive for foldables too.

Dropping the foldable could be an expensive mistake, as Huawei’s website notes that you’ll be paying 5,699 yuan (~$883) for an inner screen replacement. That’s essentially the same price as a vanilla HUAWEI P40.

The outer screen will cost 799 yuan (~$124) to replace though, which seems in line with (if not cheaper than) screen repair costs for traditional flagship phones.

Motorola Razr

Motorola’s first foldable phone is a tribute to the Razr of yore, offering a clamshell design that opens up to reveal a tall screen. It’s the cheapest foldable device from a major brand, coming in at $1,500, but it’s still pricey compared to traditional flagships (especially with its mid-range specs otherwise).

What Is Metaverse? How Does It Work?

If you have heard the Metaverse term and are wondering what exactly is it, here is your answer. In this guide, we are going to discuss what is Metaverse and how does it work. In short- Metaverse can be considered as a parallel virtual universe on the Internet!

What is Metaverse and how does it work?

Metaverse is a term that is formed by combining the two different words including Meta and Universe. It is basically a digital space in which digital objects and things represent the digital people. It is hypothesized concept to combine aspects of several technologies including social media, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), online gaming,  and cryptocurrencies. And, enable people to interact with each other virtually. In layman’s terms, it is a virtual world in which users can socialize, shop, perform different activities, and learn new things.

The term “Metaverse” is credited to Author Neal Stephenson. He was the one who visualized people as avatars meeting in different virtual reality environments (e.g., realistic 3D buildings) in his 1992 science fiction novel “Snow Crash.”

In a way, Metaverse already exists in several online gaming platforms including Minecraft, Fortnite, and Roblox. Even apps like Microsoft Teams or Zoom can be called a form of Metaverse since a group of people come together and interact in a virtual world. However, Metaverse is a wider concept of digital space representation in order to bring people together from virtual trips to concerts and conferences.

It is being a hot topic currently as Facebook and Microsoft are rebranding the term and concept. These two most popular organizations are focusing on utilizing the concept of Metaverse to the fullest.

Is Metaverse a new concept?

No, not really. It is not really a new phenomenon, especially for gamers. People who know about Fortnite and Ready Player One can understand and comprehend the concept and its functioning easily. However, the term has just recently got the buzz since Facebook took over it and rebranded itself as “Meta.”

What is Metaverse used for?

As we already described above that metaverse is used for creating a virtual world to bring people together. Instead of viewing the content, the users will actually be into this virtual world.

Future meetings could move to the metaverse Barbados to establish the world’s first Metaverse embassy

This tiny country in the Caribbean called Barbados is all set to become the first sovereign country in building an embassy in the metaverse. It has signed an agreement on November 14 with Decentraland to establish its metaverse embassy.

Gucci to Announce Its New “Metaverse Design” Category

Roblox to come up with a new category called “Metaverse Design” in association with Gucci. The gamers can buy exclusive outfits on Roblox. Recently, a digital Gucci bag sold for US$4,000 on gaming platform Roblox indicating that virtual fashion could well become a million-dollar industry!

Games move to the Metaverse

A metaverse game is one that allows millions of players to interact with one another within a single virtual world. Roblox, Fortnite, Acknoledger, Crucible Network, Ex-Populous, Netvrk, Meta Spatial, Sandbox, etc are some of the metaverse games that are currently available.

What are the current implementations of Metaverse?

The current implementations of Metaverse largely include internet video games like Roblox, Active Worlds, Decentraland, and Fortnite. It even focuses on enhancing Virtual reality technology and Facebook has recently launched Facebook Horizon which is basically a VR world. In addition to that, several organizations are focussing on making use of metaverse in enhancing work productivity.

Read: Facts, Myths, Debate about Artificial Intelligence.

What does Zuckerberg mean by metaverse?

Mark Zuckerberg has already announced his plans of establishing the “Metaverse.” This is what he had to say about Metaverse:

I believe the metaverse is the next chapter for the internet.

An embodied internet, where instead of just viewing content — you are in it.

What I think is most interesting is how these themes will come together into a bigger idea. Our overarching goal across all of these initiatives is to help bring the metaverse to life.

All these quotes of Facebook CEO clearly give an idea of how Metaverse is going to be the prime focus for Facebook in the future.

Is Microsoft working on Metaverse?

Microsoft has its own plan of branding the Metaverse. It has planned to roll out Mesh for Microsoft Teams which is somewhat like a Metaverse. Several new features like Together Mode are aiming to make virtual spaces with better collaboration.

What will I be able to do in Metaverse?

Metaverse is touted to be a game-changer in creating a virtual world that brings people across the globe together. It can be used for things like virtual concerts, virtual trips, shopping, leisure activities,  and much more. The scope of Metaverse is not limited to a specific action. It is more relevant in today’s world which is affected by coronavirus pandemic and having people go through Work from Home (WFH) shifts. In such cases, employees can join in a virtual office rather than seeing individual workers on a video call grid.

As Mark Zuckerberg says:

A lot of the metaverse experience is going to be around being able to teleport from one experience to another.

The users will be able to flit between distinct virtual worlds generated by different organizations. However, big tech brands and organizations are still working on how separate virtual worlds will connect with one another. They have to agree on the same set of standards to connect different virtual worlds.

What is Metaverse Cryptocurrency?

Each metaverse platform is expected to have its own cryptocurrency or tokens that users can buy and use online on their platform. Currently, Decentraland (CRYPTO:MANA) and The Sandbox (CRYPTO:SAND) are two of the popular metaverse cryptocurrencies that can be used in their respective metaverse games

That’s it!

Now read: What is Windows Mixed Reality & why is it important to Microsoft?

Async In Js: How Does It Work

In JavaScript, code execution is single-threaded, which means that only one thing can happen at a time. The JavaScript engine executes code in a sequential and synchronized manner, one line at a time.

This means that if there is a time-consuming task in the code, such as an API call or a long loop, the execution of the entire code will be blocked until the task is completed. During this time, the application will not be able to respond to any user input or execute any other code.

The problem with synchronous code

Synchronous code is easy to understand and follow, as it executes exactly as written, one line after the other.

console.log('one') console.log('two') console.log('three')

We can further illustrate this using the delay() function:

function printDelay() { console.log('Phew!') } delay(5000) printDelay()

In the example above, the code requires a delay of 5 seconds before printing a greeting message to the console. However, the delay function is synchronous, which means that the execution of the entire code is blocked for 5 seconds until the delay function is completed. During this time, the JavaScript engine cannot execute any other code, making the application unresponsive.

Therefore, to avoid blocking the execution of code, developers use asynchronous programming techniques such as callbacks, promises, and async/await to handle long-running tasks in a non-blocking manner.


Asynchronous code, on the other hand, is executed in a non-sequential manner, meaning that the execution of the next line does not wait for the completion of the previous line. Instead, it continues to execute the remaining code while performing other tasks in the background.

Here’s an example of asynchronous code that uses the same setTimeout function to delay the execution of the code for two seconds:

console.log('Start'); console.log('End');

In this example, the setTimeout function is called with a delay of two seconds, but the execution of the code continues without waiting for it.

Therefore, the ‘End’ message is printed immediately after the ‘Start’ message, and the ‘Inside Timeout’ message is printed after two seconds.

Asynchronous code is useful when dealing with time-consuming tasks, such as network requests, file operations, or user interactions. By executing these tasks asynchronously, the rest of the code can continue to execute without being blocked, improving the overall performance and responsiveness of the application.

The call stack

In JavaScript, the call stack is a mechanism used by the interpreter to keep track of the current execution context during code execution. It is essentially a data structure that stores the execution context of a program in a stack-like manner.

Whenever a function is called, the interpreter pushes the function call onto the top of the call stack, along with its associated arguments and variables. The interpreter then executes the function, and when it finishes executing, it pops the function call off the top of the call stack and continues executing the code from where it left off.

This process continues for each function call in the program, with the call stack growing and shrinking as functions are called and returned.

For example, consider the following code:

function foo() { function bar() { console.log('Hello!') } bar() } foo()

In this code, there are three nested functions, foo, bar, and a console.log function that logs the message ‘Hello!’. The foo function calls the bar function, which in turn calls the chúng tôi function.

When the code is executed, the foo function is called first, and the interpreter pushes the foo function call onto the top of the call stack. Within the foo function, the bar function is called, and the interpreter pushes the bar function call onto the top of the call stack, above the foo function call.

When the bar function is called, it executes the chúng tôi function, which logs the message ‘Hello!’ to the console. Once the function is executed, the interpreter pops the function off the top of the call stack and continues executing the bar function.

After the bar function finishes executing, the interpreter pops it off the call stack, and control returns to the foo function, which finishes executing and is then popped off the call stack as well.

Therefore, the call stack would look something like this during execution:

| console.log() | | bar() | | foo() |

After executing the entire block, the stack will become empty.

The entire chain of function calls is stored on the call stack in synchronous code. When a function calls itself repeatedly without any condition to stop, it is called recursion without a base case. This can cause a stack overflow, as each recursive call adds a new function call to the top of the stack, and if the recursion continues indefinitely, the stack will eventually run out of memory, and the program will crash.

Let’s see how the call stack works with asynchronous code:

function main() { setTimeout(function welcome() { console.log('Welcome!') }, 3000) console.log('Goodbye!') } main()

Calling the main() function, the call stack is:


Calling the setTimeout() function, the call stack is:

setTimeout(); main();

setTimeout has finished, it exits the stack:


Calling console.log('Goodbye!'):

console.log('Goodbye!'); main();

The task is complete, exiting the stack:


The main() call is also finished, and the stack becomes empty.

After 3 seconds, the welcome() function is called, and it goes on the stack:


This will call console.log('Welcome!'):

console.log('Welcome!'); welcome();

After it is done, it leaves the stack.


After executing the entire block, the stack becomes empty again.

One thing you might not have noticed right away is that setTimeout() was terminated immediately, even though the callback function wasn’t yet executed, it wasn’t even called!

This has to do with a mechanism known as the event loop, so let’s move on to that!

Event Loop

In JavaScript, setTimeout() is a function that allows developers to schedule a callback function to be executed after a specified delay. However, setTimeout() is not actually part of the JavaScript language itself.

It is a Web API, which means it is a functionality provided by the browser environment rather than the JavaScript engine.

Web APIs are additional features provided by the browser environment that allow JavaScript to interact with the browser and its features, such as timers, intervals, and event handlers. When we use setTimeout(), it interacts with the Web API to schedule the callback function to be executed after the specified delay.

The event loop is a mechanism that is responsible for executing code, collecting and handling events, and executing subtasks from the queue. When an asynchronous event is triggered, such as a setTimeout() callback, it is added to the event queue. The event loop continuously checks the event queue for new events, and when it finds an event, it dequeues it and executes the associated callback function.

Therefore, when we use setTimeout(), it is not executed immediately, but instead scheduled to be executed in the future by the Web API. The event loop is responsible for managing the execution of the callback function by dequeuing it from the event queue and executing it when it is the appropriate time.

It is the event loop that is responsible for setTimeout() missing from the stack in the last example. Now, let’s take the previous example we examined and draw a clear picture of what is happening:

function main() { setTimeout(function welcome() { console.log('Welcome!') }, 3000) console.log('Goodbye!') } main()

To best illustrate how this works, let’s include not only the stack but also the Web API and the task queue that the Web API uses to store what needs to be executed.

Calling: main()

StackWeb APITask Queuemain()

Web API and task queue are empty for now.

Calling: setTimeout()

When setTimeout() disappears from the stack, it enters Web API visibility, where the interpreter understands that there is a welcome() function inside it to be executed after 3 seconds:

StackWeb APITask Queuemain()setTimeout(welcome)

This is followed by a console.log('Goodbye!') call. The setTimeout(welcome) function remains in the Web API. It will be there until 3 seconds have elapsed:

The console.log() has been processed, the main() call ends:

StackWeb APITask Queuemain()setTimeout(welcome)

The main() call has ended, so the stack is emptied, but because 3 seconds haven’t passed yet, the setTimeout(welcome) function is still inside the Web API:

StackWeb APITask QueuesetTimeout(welcome)

Finally, 3 seconds have passed – the welcome() function moves to the task queue:

StackWeb APITask Queuewelcome()

The event loop now moves the welcome() function from the task list to the call stack:

StackWeb APITask Queuewelcome()

This then calls console.log('Welcome!'):

The stack is now empty.

In JavaScript, the call stack and the task queue are two key components of the event loop. The call stack is a last in, first out (LIFO) data structure that tracks the current position of code execution. The task queue, also known as the event queue, is a first in, first out (FIFO) data structure that holds callback functions waiting to be executed.

The call stack and the task queue are named stack and queue because they work on LIFO and FIFO principles, respectively. This means that the most recently added function to the stack is the first to be executed (LIFO), while the first added function to the queue is the first to be executed (FIFO).

This is Loupe, a tool built by Philip Roberts. It is designed to help developers understand how JavaScript’s call stack/event loop/callback queue interact with each other.


In the context of the setTimeout() example, the callback function is the welcome() function, which is executed after a 3-second delay. When the timer expires, the setTimeout() function invokes the welcome() function as a callback.

Initially, callbacks were the only way to handle asynchronous code in JavaScript, and many chúng tôi APIs were designed specifically to work with callbacks. The mental model of callbacks is simple: “execute this function when this event happens.”

However, callbacks can lead to a phenomenon called “callback hell,” which occurs when multiple nested callbacks are used, making the code difficult to read and maintain. This can result in code that is hard to debug and prone to errors.

⇢ Callback Hell

Suppose we have a number of asynchronous tasks that depend on each other: that is, the first task starts a second task when completed, the second task starts a third, etc.

function task1(callback) { /* .. */ callback(); }, 1000); } function task2(callback) { /* .. */ callback(); }, 1000); } function task3(callback) { /* .. */ callback(); }, 1000); } console.log("All tasks completed"); }); }); });

In this example, we have three asynchronous tasks (task1, task2, and task3) that depend on each other. Each task takes a callback function as an argument, which is executed when the task is completed. As you can see, the code becomes deeply nested and harder to read as we chain these tasks together.

The answer to this problem? Promises.


A Promise is a wrapper object for asynchronous code that represents the eventual completion or failure of a single asynchronous operation.

A Promise has three states:

pending – The initial state, neither fulfilled nor rejected.

fulfilled – The operation completed successfully, resulting in a value.

rejected – The operation failed, resulting in an error.

In terms of the event loop, a Promise is similar to a callback. The function to be executed (either resolve or reject) is in the Web API environment, and when the event occurs, it goes to the task queue, from where it goes to the call stack for execution.

Promises introduce a division between macro-tasks and micro-tasks.

A Promise’s then method is a micro-task, which means it is executed before any macro-tasks such as setTimeout. Micro-tasks are added to the micro-task queue, while macro-tasks are added to the macro-task queue.

Here’s an example that demonstrates the use of both resolve and reject in Promises. In this example, we’ll simulate the process of fetching user data based on a user ID. If the user is found, we’ll resolve the Promise, otherwise, we’ll reject it.

function getUserData(userId) { const users = { 1: { id: 1, name: "Alice" }, 2: { id: 2, name: "Bob" }, }; const user = users[userId]; if (user) { resolve(user); } else { reject(new Error("User not found")); } }, 1000); }); } getUserData(1) console.log("User data:", userData); }) console.error("Error:", error); }); getUserData(3) console.log("User data:", userData); }) console.error("Error:", error); });

In this example, getUserData returns a Promise that simulates an asynchronous operation to fetch user data. After a 1-second delay, the Promise is either fulfilled with the user data (using resolve()) or rejected with an error message (using reject()).

We call getUserData() with two different user IDs: 1 and 3. For user ID 1, the Promise is resolved and the user data is logged. For user ID 3, the Promise is rejected and the error message is logged. We use the then() method to handle the fulfilled Promise and the catch() method to handle the rejected Promise.

Here’s a comparison between the callback-based code and the Promise-based code:

Callback-based code:

console.log(“All tasks completed”); }); }); });

Promise-based code:

task1() return task2(); }) return task3(); }) console.log("All tasks completed"); });

Code conciseness – Although Promises improve code readability compared to callbacks, they can still result in more verbose code than desired, especially when dealing with multiple chained operations.

Debugging limitations – When using arrow functions and chaining Promises, you might face difficulties in setting breakpoints for debugging since there is no function body. To overcome this limitation, you would need to expose the function, which makes the code less concise.

Error stack – When an error occurs within a Promise chain, the error stack may contain several then() calls, making it harder to pinpoint the exact location of the error.

Nested conditions – Handling complex conditional logic within Promises can lead to nested structures, increasing the amount of code and reducing readability.

To address these issues, JavaScript introduced async/await, a more concise and readable syntax for working with Promises. With async/await, you can write asynchronous code that looks and behaves like synchronous code, making it easier to read, debug, and maintain.

Asynchronous functions

In short, asynchronous functions are functions that return promises.

An asynchronous function is marked with a special keyword async:

async function request() {} class MainClass { async request() {} }

They always return a Promise. Even if we didn’t explicitly specify it, as in the examples above, they would still return a Promise when called.

async function request() {}

However, asynchronous functions can be handled without then().

Bundling async/await

Within asynchronous functions, you can call other asynchronous functions without using then() or callbacks, but with the help of the await keyword.

async function loadUsers() { const response = await fetch('/api/users/') const data = await response.json() return data }

In the example above, we use the fetch() method inside the loadUsers() function.

We call all asynchronous functions inside with await - that way, the Promise function returns are automatically expanded, and we get the value that was inside the Promise.

The pros of async/await

Async/await provides several benefits over using Promises with then() chains when working with asynchronous code:

Cleaner and shorter code - Async/await helps you write cleaner and shorter code by eliminating the need for chaining then() methods. It flattens the structure, making it more readable and resembling synchronous code.

Improved handling of conditions and nested constructs - With async/await, it becomes easier to work with conditional statements and nested constructs, as you can use familiar constructs like if, else, and loops in conjunction with await. This improves the readability of the code and simplifies its structure.

Familiar error handling with try-catch - Async/await allows you to handle errors using try-catch blocks, similar to how you would handle errors in synchronous code. This brings consistency in error handling and makes it easier to reason about the flow of the code when an error occurs.

Here's an example demonstrating the benefits of async/await:

async function fetchData(id) { const data = { 1: "Success", 2: "Error", }; if (data[id] === "Success") { resolve(data[id]); } else { reject(new Error("Fetch error")); } }, 1000); }); } async function main() { try { const id = 1; const result = await fetchData(id); if (result === "Success") { console.log("Data fetched successfully"); } else { console.log("Data fetch failed"); } } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } } main();

In this example, we have an async function fetchData() that simulates an asynchronous operation. The main() function uses async/await to call fetchData(). We use a try-catch block for error handling and a simple if statement to check the result of the data fetch.

The code structure is clear, flat, and easy to read, showcasing the benefits of async/await over Promise chaining.


In conclusion, asynchronous programming is an essential aspect of JavaScript, as it enables handling tasks such as network requests, file I/O, and timers without blocking the main thread. Throughout the years, various techniques have been introduced to manage asynchronous code in JavaScript, including callbacks, Promises, and async/await.

Callbacks were the initial approach, but they led to issues like callback hell, where deeply nested and hard-to-read code structures emerged. To address these problems, Promises were introduced, providing a more manageable way to work with asynchronous operations. Promises led to cleaner, more readable code and improved error handling. However, they still had some drawbacks, such as verbosity and difficulty in handling complex nested conditions.

To further simplify asynchronous code, JavaScript introduced async/await, a syntax that allows writing asynchronous code resembling synchronous code. This approach offers several benefits, including cleaner and shorter code, better handling of conditions and nested constructs, and familiar error handling with try-catch blocks.

By understanding the evolution of asynchronous programming in JavaScript and how each technique works, you can learn to write more efficient, maintainable, and readable code. Embracing async/await can significantly improve the overall experience of working with asynchronous operations in JavaScript applications.

Fyi: How Much Caffeine Would It Take To Kill You?

A wrongful-death lawsuit filed last week against the makers of Monster energy drinks claims that 14-year-old Anais Fournier drank two 24-ounce cans of Monster in the day before she unexpectedly died late in 2011. The coroner’s report described “caffeine toxicity” as contributing to her death. Just what does it take to ingest a lethal dose of caffeine?

The answer is hard to pin down, in part because it happens so rarely, but it’s clearly a hell of a lot. In an email, Jack James, the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Caffeine Research, says that overdose for adults requires roughly 10 grams of caffeine. (People typically ingest just 1 to 2 mg/kg of caffeine per beverage.) A 2005 Forensic Science International article on two fatal caffeine overdoses in New Mexico pegs the figure closer to about 5 grams–an amount that would still require drinking more than 6 gallons of McDonald’s coffee. Whereas a normal cup of coffee might bring the concentration of caffeine in your plasma to 2.5 to 7 mg/L, the two people who died in New Mexico–a woman who might’ve used caffeine to cut intravenous drugs, and a man whose family said he ingested a bottle of sleeping pills–both had concentrations 100 times higher. (A web application called “Death By Caffeine” uses a benchmark around 6 grams per hundred pounds of body weight to estimate death, but it’s “for entertainment purposes only.”)

So if a true caffeine overdose is so rare, why has caffeine–perhaps the most widely used drug in North America–been blamed for contributing to a handful of deaths over the years? Perhaps because it almost always works in concert with other far more nefarious factors such as alcohol or heart conditions. Indeed, the suit filed in California points out that Fournier suffered from Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. According to the autopsy report, the cause of death was a cardiac arrhythmia that the caffeine brought on. But the arrhythmia was also complicated by “mitral valve regurgitation in the setting of Ehrlers-Danlos syndrome,” which affects collagen synthesis and thus multiple body systems, including the cardiovascular system.

“Caffeine toxicity of the kind experienced by Ms. Fournier (if, indeed, that is what she experienced) is not well understood,” James says. “There is speculation in the literature regarding the possibility of some individuals having a peculiar sensitivity to caffeine, but there is no clear definition or understanding of what such sensitivity might be.”

Caffeine almost always works in concert with other far more nefarious factors.

One thing is clear: Anais’s caffeine intake simply would not be harmful for most people. Two cans of Monster each contain 240 mg of caffeine, which the lawsuit equated with the caffeine of 14 12-oz. cans of Coca-Cola. While drinking 14 Cokes sounds positively disgusting, the caffeine therein is actually well within the bounds of what many people consume in a day. For instance, Starbucks Pike Place coffee would deliver that 480 mg of caffeine with just 24 ounces of joe. As Mark F. McCarty, an applied nutritionist in San Diego, said: “I don’t see another case of a child who died from acute exposure to the equivalent of four coffee cups of caffeine. That strikes me as extremely rare. I can’t imagine that Monster was worried about this, because there’s nothing in the literature to suggest this would happen.”

That’s not to say there aren’t close calls, especially in children. A girl in Ohio suffered seizures, heart problems and fluid in her lungs after she ate her mom’s diet pills, containing 2 to 3 grams of caffeine (the equivalent of eight or 12 cans of Monster). She was transported by helicopter to the pediatric hospital in Columbus and survived, despite the high dose and her age: just a year old. In another instance, a 16-year-old boy in Toronto ingested something like 6 or 8 grams of caffeine (25 to 33 Monsters) via 30 or 35 pills called “pink hearts.” He suffered chest pain, elevated blood sugar and irregular heartbeat, but was treated and survived. The physicians who published on the case noted: “On examination, he was alert, oriented, nervous, agitated and irritable”–exactly how you’d imagine a teenager on way too much caffeine.

Caffeinated energy drinks are designed for, and marketed to, children, with the aim of recruiting long-term consumers.

A 2010 study analyzed seven years of databases from Australian poison information centers, and found nearly 300 callers reporting “exposure” to energy drinks, often in tandem with alcohol or other caffeine sources, that led to symptoms such as hallucinations, seizures and arrhythmias. At least 128 of those people were hospitalized. In the United States in 2010, about 150 people were treated for exposure to energy drinks, according to American Association of Poison Control Centers statistics (pg. 130); coffee is nowhere on the list. This year, toxicologists in Boston recommended further study on the “novel exposure” that is energy drinks, citing ingredients such as taurine, niacin and pyridoxine as potential targets. Caffeine may be the star in most energy drinks, but among so much chemical detritus, it’s hardly the only stimulant in play.

Including caffeine in soft drinks and energy drinks piggybacks on the dependence that coffee, tea, cola and chocolate have created with their natural caffeine content. The effect most people conflate with caffeine stimulation, James wrote, is primarily “withdrawal reversal,” which lends the sensation of a small high when, in reality, “the person is merely restored to how they would have been feeling had they not been a caffeine consumer in the first place.”

What Is Freedom Gpt? How Does It Work?

Are you tired of being censored while conversing with AI chatbots? Do you want to explore the breadth of conversational AI freely and securely without any partiality? If yes, you must check out FreedomGPT, the AI GPT chatbot launched by the Age of AI Capital LLC.

Unlike ChatGPT, FreedomGPT is an LLM-based AI chatbot that guarantees complete privacy and neutrality without censorship. It is the perfect solution for those who want to ask questions without worrying about their content being flagged or deleted. This article will explore how FreedomGPT differs from ChatGPT and how it can revolutionize conversations.

FreedomGPT is an AI chatbot developed by the age of AI Capital LLC, an Austin-based AI Venture firm. It is an open-source Large Language Model (LLM) chatbot dedicated to privacy, neutrality, and customization. The AI GPT is based on the LLaMA and Alpaca open-source models and is developed and hosted by CellStrat AI Research Lab.

According to the creators, the AI chatbot aims to be censor-free and willing to answer any question without partiality. It is a technology that empowers users to explore the breadth of conversational AI freely and securely while uncovering new use cases.

FreedomGPT has been known to provide uncensored answers to questions that mainstream AI language models would never touch, such as tips on cleaning up crime scenes, making bombs, and even praising Hitler as a good leader. While some may find these answers troubling, it showcases the chatbot’s dedication to freedom of information.

The potential benefits are that it is an open-source AI chatbot free from censorship and safety filters. It can provide answers to sensitive topics and maintain ethical considerations. It is also available for anyone to use and join the revolution of open-source AI. However, the potential drawbacks of using FreedomGPT are that it can sometimes give offensive responses and disregard human decency. The development of GPT can also lead to limitations on freedom of speech and threaten privacy rights. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that individuals have the right to express their thoughts and ideas freely without fear of government censorship or retaliation. While FreedomGPT can be a powerful tool, it comes with potential risks and ethical considerations.

Also read: How does Auto-GPT work?

To download and install FreedomGPT, the user can follow the steps below:

Visit the FreedomGPT GitHub repository.

Extract the ZIP file to a folder on the computer.

Open the extracted folder and run the “yarn install” command to install the dependencies.

FreedomGPT is different from ChatGPT in several ways. Here are some of the key features that set it apart from its competitors:

1. Censorship-Free AI

Unlike ChatGPT, FreedomGPT is completely censorship-free. It guarantees that all conversations with the AI chatbot are private and secure. You can ask any question without worrying about your content being flagged or deleted.

2. Desktop Local Execution

Another unique feature of FreedomGPT is that it can run locally on any computer without internet connectivity or reliance on third-party servers. This ensures complete privacy and security of your conversations.

3. Customization

Age of AI Capital LLC has also announced that they will release an open-source version of the AI GPT, allowing individuals and companies to fully customize it to help with specific high-stakes and confidential workflows. This will be a game-changer for businesses that rely on AI chatbots for their day-to-day operations.

In conclusion, FreedomGPT is an AI chatbot revolutionising how we converse with chatbots. It offers complete privacy, neutrality, and customization, unlike its competitors. If you’re tired of being censored while conversing with AI chatbots, you must check it out . It is the perfect solution for those who want to explore the breadth of conversational AI freely and securely while uncovering new use cases. So what are you waiting for? Try out FreedomGPT today and revolutionize your conversations!

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