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In a previous article, I went over some of the basic functions of ssh. In that article, I mentioned that simple remote shell access was not the most interesting thing you can do with ssh. I pointed out that remote command execution was more interesting than mundane remote shell access. In this article, I’ll discuss something that I think is even more interesting than remote shell access or remote execution: tunneling.

Reasons for Tunneling

There are two primary reasons to use ssh for tunneling. Before I give those reasons, I’ll describe what tunneling is.

Tunneling with ssh is the process of wrapping some network communication with the encrypted ssh protocol. Tunneling involves an ssh client connecting to an ssh server, just as in “regular cases.” But when the ssh client connects to the server, the client specifies the source and the destination for the tunnel.

The source is simply a bound network port that other processes can connect to. This port must either be managed by the ssh client or the ssh server.

The destination is another bound network port; but this time, it’s some other network server that the other end of the ssh tunnel can communicate with. If this seems a bit unclear, don’t worry; I’ll get into more detail shortly with an example. For now, you can just think of ssh tunneling as secure port forwarding.

You may be able to derive from this description one or both reasons I’m about to give for using ssh tunneling. The first reason I’ll give for using ssh tunneling is to connect two networks that do not have open access to one another. As an example, suppose you have an imap server setup on your home LAN. Also suppose that you have a laptop and want to be able to connect to your home imap server regardless of where you are. You could just open access on your home imap server to the world, but that’s a scary proposition. You could setup a VPN on your router, but that’s probably overkill. Or, you could create an ssh tunnel from your laptop to your home network when you want imap access. I’ll give an example of this in the next few paragraphs.

The second reason for using ssh tunneling is that it encrypts the network communication. In the imap example, an added benefit of using ssh is that the email data is encrypted. Your private communications with friends, family, and potential employers are secure as they travel over the tunnel on the internet. But be aware that communication before it hits the tunnel and after it leaves the tunnel are not encrypted.

There are two types of secure port forwarding using ssh: local forwards and remote forwards. For local forwards, the ssh client manages the source port. For remote forwards, the ssh server manages the source port. Whether you select a local or remote forward will depend on which system is able to initiate the connection, which has an ssh server running on it, and where you need the source of the tunnel.

Here is an example of a local forward. Continuing the imap connection, suppose that I have a laptop named “dink” and I want to access an imap server on a machine named “ezr.” Why not just connect directly to “ezr?” If “ezr” is behind a firewall and you can’t connect to port 143, then using ssh tunneling is a great alternative. Here is an ssh command that will allow you access to imap on “ezr”:

The “-L” in the command specifies that this is a local forward. The “8143” specifies that I want to bind 127.0.0.1:8143 as the source of the tunnel. The “localhost:143” specifies where to forward traffic on the remote end of the tunnel. While I specified “localhost” on the remote end, I could have specified any address and port that the remote machine could communicate with. Finally, “ezr” is the machine I want to ssh into.

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Resources Used For Creating– Webnots

Every website existing on the web should use lot of resources besides human effort. For example, creating images and videos need special tools and investment of money and time from site owner. On this site we use many tools, some we had changed over the period of time but some are being used for years. We want to share such valuable resources so that a new blogger can choose correct resource for building a site.

Choosing Premium Resources

We strongly recommend choosing a good and premium resource for your blog from the start. Otherwise, you will be stuck in the middle spending too much time in migration. Many bloggers also quit at this point as taking a website beyond certain level needs huge effort. Free resources, especially for WordPress, will not come with restrictions and will limit your ability to scale up your site. So, make sure to allocate some budget and go for premium items.

Platforms – chúng tôi Weebly and Bootstrap

Our core interest is building sites on WordPress, Weebly and Bootstrap platforms. We have a dedicated testing and demo sites in order to create how-to articles and demonstration. All our WordPress content is stored and checked on the local environment using MAMP setup and we also use Local from Flywheel. Learn 500+ WordPress tutorial and 200+ Weebly tutorial to take your site to next level.

SiteGround Cloud Hosting with Email

SiteGround Cloud Hosting Plans

GoDaddy Domain

We bought this domain name on GoDaddy a decade back. There are no complains though they discarded their free webmail service. Nowadays, you have plenty of domain name registrars to get a cheap price. Note that SiteGround does not offer a free domain with Cloud hosting plans.

Caching and Optimization

SiteGround comes with in-built caching, however, their SG Optimizer plugin lags many features like removing unused CSS. We use WP Rocket for page level caching, removing unused CSS and other optimizations. For removing scripts and bloat from WordPress, we use Perfmatters. This plugin is useful especially when you have heavy theme and plugins like WooCommerce. You can disable WooCommerce styles and scripts on all blogs posts with Perfmatters to speed up your site.

Note: If you are using multiple optimization plugins, make sure to disable the duplicate features and use them on one place.

Theme and CDN

We use a premium Highend theme for more than 7 years. We are planning to change the theme as this theme is not updated with new features. From speed perspective, you can consider using the free GeneratePress or Astra theme with premium add-on. Cloudflare CDN and WAF works well to speed up and protect this site.

Images & Videos – Techsmith

Snagit is the useful image processing tool from TechSmith having many features. We use it mainly for the following purposes:

Creating feature images and other images on this site.

Capture image on the screen or from the web.

Capture a short video capturing screen activities.

Camtasia is a top video processing tool from TechSmith to create effective videos. You can edit, trim, zoom and do many other simple tricks on the videos to make it more user friendly and sharable. Fuse is a free app from TechSmith used to easily share the photos on the iPhone to Snagit and Camtasia. Since all three tools Snagit, Camtasia and Fuse are from the same company, they work seamlessly without much effort.

Code Editor – Brackets and VSC

Since we need to practice lot of CSS and HTML coding – one of the best editors available WAS Brackets from Adobe. Brackets with extract allows you to integrate the preview of your coding on Chrome browser. And on top of all it’s a free tool!!! Unfortunately, Brackets was discontinued in favor of Visual Studio Code editor from Microsoft. At this point, we use VSC and look for a simple alternative.

FTP – FileZilla for Mac

FileZilla is the life saver for our site to backup and modify the WordPress files easily. We love to try new plugins and site modifications which most of the time will result in white screen of death. It is difficult to troubleshoot from the hosting account and we use FileZilla to reset the files quickly.

Also, from the backup point of view FileZilla on Mac works seamlessly to download the complete site to local environment. If you are new to FTP, learn how to use FileZilla.

Devices for Technology Stuff

Using latest devices is always fun to learn new stuffs. For writing how-to and trouble shooting articles, we had/have the following devices.

iMac 24 inch desktop

MacBook Pro Retina

Huawei MatBook with Windows 11

Acer TravelMate with Windows 10

Windows 11 running in iMac with Parallels Desktop for Mac

We use all popular browsers like Chrome, Edge, Safari and Firefox.

Other Resources

Besides the resources mentioned above there are additional resources like VPN without which we can’t run this website. These resources are bought from different vendors and evaluated time-to-time for the quality and pricing. At this point of time we use the followings:

ExpressVPN and Star VPN

Parallels Desktop for Mac

Microsoft 365 for Word, Outlook and other apps

Google AdSense for monetization

Google Analytics for monitoring traffic

Semrush for keyword research and tracking

WordPress plugins like Yoast SEO, Akismet, TablePress, WP Coupons, Ad Inserter, Redirection and Contact Form 7.

Summary

In summary, its not an easy task to run a website both from money and time perspective. This is the reason you could see millions of sites started and dropped off in-between. We wish all the bloggers and webmasters to evaluate the need right at the beginning and choose the required tools from long-term thinking. Also, having right tools will save huge time, which can be spent on the core activity of site creation.

Lx Group: Creating Next Generation Iot

LX is an innovative IoT electronics design and development company specializing in the creation of next-generation IoT products for a better world. In a disrupt or be disrupted the world, anticipating the future is the best way to own it. The company transforms ideas into action at scale and expands what’s possible in IoT. LX’s full-stack platform, IoT Cores, accelerates the development of new bespoke IoT devices from custom IoT hardware design through to the cloud backend. LX offers a range of tracking & sensing solutions (CATM1, NB-IoT, LoRaWAN, Bluetooth and WiFi) to help enterprises focus on generating value, not implementation. The company’s award-winning full stack development team constantly designs, prototypes and tests better solutions to existing and emerging business challenges. The company also undertakes the design of custom embedded systems and wireless technologies. LX offers clients a professional turnkey experience, with services designed to take a new product idea from concept through to production. They focus on fully understanding all aspects of the clients’ requirements (both technical and business) and works on a tailored solution to ensure these requirements are met on time and within budget. LX’s high calibre engineering team has over 150 years of combined product development experience, undertaken 500+ IoT products & projects and has won national and international awards. The company has experience across a wide range of technologies and industries, and works with clients both in Australia and abroad.  

The Inception Story

Founded in 2006, LX was formed on the basis of two core beliefs. The first was that ultra-low power wireless sensing networks were the future and that everything would “go wireless” over the next few decades. At this stage, ultra-low power wireless sensing lived largely in the research domain of mesh networks, motes, and smart dust. The second core belief was that the operation of every organization, the mechanics behind every process and the performance of every human is ultimately a complex combination of control systems, and, that every control system can be optimized with more granular & real-time feedback. Every day trillions of dollars rattle around the global economy and billions of people run around doing things, and this can all be optimized in a way that has never been possible before. Essentially, the company saw IoT, the vision and what was possible before it had a name. LX was passionate about both the magic of wireless sensing and seemingly unlimited potential to help the world do things better. This drive to help the world do things better was not just to drive a P&L harder, but also to reduce emissions, to help the world to produce food more efficiently, and to enhance the overall human experience of life.  

Visionary Leader with a Strong Background

The LX Founder, Simon Blyth, is an Electrical Engineer by background. He started LX in 2006 from his garage with only $750, growing the company organically to the business it is today. He and his wife, Kelly Blyth won the international IET thesis competition in 2005 with their pioneering work in the development of an ultra-low power wireless (IoT) full-stack sensor platform. They became thought leaders and evangelizers of IoT, passionately leading people to open their eyes to the optimization benefits existing across various industry verticals. After years of developing bespoke IoT products and solutions, Simon went on to lead the development of IoT Cores, a highly versatile full-stack IoT platform to accelerate and de-risk the development of IoT products (devices through to dashboards & API). The launch of IoT Cores was transformational for LX and enabled the company to rapidly launch a cutting-edge range of IoT products. IoT Cores and other initiatives have resulted in the company revenue doubling year-on-year making LX one of the fastest growing companies in Australia.  

Top Notch IoT Solutions

The LX IoT Cores enable the rapid development of quality bespoke full-stack IoT devices and solutions – the company makes the IoT hardware challenge easy. It’s easiest perhaps to explain by drawing an analogy to the smartphone. Out of the box, a smartphone will add value (make a phone call, send a message), but more than this it’s a platform for building value-added services, a range of apps. LX’s IoT Cores and products enable developers to focus on building value-adding applications, without having to worry about “building the iPhone, just to sell their app”. Simon feels an important difference between the first and second generations of the computing waves (the computer and smartphone) and the third (the things) is that there are a lot of different physical “things”. Laptops and smartphones have similar requirements and so are able to be supported by a few large vendors with a small range of physical products. The IoT, however, requires an enormous range of physically different physical sensing devices to be developed driving a huge number of custom, bespoke device requirements.  

Disruption Inter-Linked With ‘Intelligence of Things’

Many years ago, the focus was on The Internet of Things – providing an API for the physical world. Now when one talks about IoT he refers to the “The Intelligence of Things” and he doesn’t think about just IoT devices but think in terms of intelligent device ecosystems. For example, a simple dog tracking collar moves from being a one-off hardware device to being a player in an ecosystem of devices that might include; a smart bowl, ball and feeding system with analytics that plug into AI health analytics services, automatic food delivery, dog walking marketplaces and even social networks for dogs & dog owners. From one device a myriad of business service and value can be created. Simon sees cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence and automation as just another part of the stack.  It’s all linked, it’s all part of the same solution space. And, to facilitate this, LX has started to include support for ultra-low power on-board neural nets to support basic edge AI applications as well as hardware acceleration for blockchain interactions.  

Strong Foundation Driving Innovation

The LX IoT Cores and IoT product series evolved from extensive bespoke design experience and IP modules from developing over 500 IoT projects and products over 13 years. IoT Cores are to IoT product development as WordPress is to website development.  However, to build WordPress a strong foundation in website development and the many different permutations of requirements is critical. The LX product series of trackers and sensing devices are focussed on the low total cost of ownership, high-quality long-life performance, plug n’ play installation & commissioning and easy to use RESTful API to enable the development of custom software solutions. Built on the shoulder of giants, the LX IoT Cores are powered by technology from leading IoT players such as uBlox, ST, Nordic, Bosch, and Microsoft Azure.  

Amplifying the Achievement Bars

Over the years, LX has been fortunate to win awards for various aspects of the business; engineering & product development, business operations & systems, customer service and business performance. These awards include the BRW Fast 100, Deloitte Technology Fast 500, Engineering Excellence Awards, CIO 20 Hottest IoT Solution Providers, Smart Company’s Smart50, Good Design Awards, Anthill Smart 100, Cool Company Awards and the Electronics Future Awards. Earlier this year in Barcelona at Mobile World Congress, the company announced its CATM1/Nb-IoT blockchain tracker with sense capability to enable developers to build smart contract solutions. LX is also launching an office in Europe in July based in Leon, France. Simon quotes the assertion of Andrew Despi, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Emerging Technologies – “They’re the only game in town when it comes to the Internet of Things.”  

Proving Superiority Over Challenges

Many of LX’s challenges can be drawn back the combination of bootstrapping a rapidly growing business in a true technology boom with seemingly unlimited potential. The company can’t help but see the IoT opportunities everywhere, so whilst maintaining focus in a resource-limited organization is critical, it’s also incredibly hard, as LX sees all the opportunity it is consciously leaving on the table every day. The company has also been limited in some of the deals it can take on due cashflow, there have been times when it has won and then lost high volume deals purely because the company cannot support the required payment terms and fund the manufacturing outlays.  

Unfolding the Future

Practical Methods To Control Kickback Risks

Definition of Kickback

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How does Kickback work?

A typical kickback is disguised in normal operations, making it very difficult to detect. It is a form of negotiated bribery usually associated with white-collar employees.

In a kickback arrangement, the process starts with the payer’s intention, who approaches the person (receiver) in a position of power for some preferential treatment. The payer pays the commission or kickback package to the receiver, and in exchange, the receiver acts in favor of the payer. However, the entire process is engineered in a convoluted manner such that it is very difficult to trace where and how the kickback arrangement panned out.

Whether the purpose of the kickback is good or bad doesn’t make much of a difference, as the practice itself is corrupt. The payment made to the receiver is referred to as a commission. Following are some of the significant red flags for kickback arrangement:

Vendors contact the employees directly beyond the scope of normal operations.

Limited to no review of critical processes within an organization.

Showing a special preference for a particular vendor or customer.

No quality inspection process for goods received.

Approval of inflated cost of goods sold.

Examples of Kickback

Let us have a look at some of the examples of kickback to understand how it operates under different scenarios.

Example #1 Example #2

A government employee is responsible for selecting contractors for an infrastructure project. Unfortunately, the employee decided to select a contractor who didn’t have the required technical qualification. Later it was revealed that the government employee received a kickback from that particular contractor. In this way, it resulted in the failure of the contract bidding process.

Example #3

In the US, the medical care service companies were well-known for their kickback arrangements. For example, the medical care companies used to announce fraudulent referral schemes that eventually ended up bribing doctors. Basically, companies rewarded the doctors for prescribing the patients tests, treatment, and diagnoses that they hardly needed. However, the US government passed the Anti-Kickback Enforcement Act to curb the occurrence of such kickback arrangement schemes.

Risks of Kickback

There are several risks associated with kickback, and some of the major risks are listed below:

Any person who is not willing to corroborate with the arrangement is going to end up on the wrong side of the deal owing to the biasness of the corrupt officials.

There is a high probability that the quality of the goods and services offered would be compromised.

There is a very low chance that the vendors or contractors, who leveraged kickbacks, would complete the job honestly.

How to Control Kickback?

Some of the ways or methods to control kickback are as follows:

As already mentioned above, the detection of kickbacks is a very difficult task. However, the whistle-blower culture is one of the ways to derail a kickback scheme. So, if there is any such whistle-blower, then that person is usually handled with great care and responsibility.

The management should set up a review system to analyze the third-party vendors at a specific interval. In the review system, the vendors can be selected randomly, and then their transaction details should be checked for the last few quarters. Further, other details like quoted price, physical address, contact numbers, website, and any other relevant information can also be retrieved for review.

If there is a vendor closely related to one of the company’s employees, then the management should check whether or not the transactions of this vendor are taking place at arm’s length. In addition, the ownership details of the vendor company should also be checked.

The introduction of any new vendor should be filtered using well-defined SOPs. It will ensure that only genuine or authentic vendors can join the company and get on board.

Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

A kickback refers to an illegal reward system that compensates some of the employees of an organization in exchange for their preferential treatment.

Kickback is considered a type of bribery, which is more prevalent in a white-collar jobs.

Some of the ways to control kickbacks include encouraging a whistle-blower culture within the organization, setting up a periodic vendor review system, and creating an SOP for new vendor onboarding.

Conclusion

Kickback is a serious issue, and it escalates the cost of doing business across the globe. It is the reason behind much of the world’s government corruption. However, it can be prevented or controlled if the above-mentioned measures are followed diligently.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Kickback. Here we also discuss the definition, working, examples, and risk of Kickback, along with different ways to control it. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Javascript Bind() Method With Practical Examples

In JavaScript, the bind() method is an effective way to create new functions with a bound ‘this’ value and, if needed, pre-set arguments.

Section 1: Setting the ‘this’ value for a function

One of the primary uses of the bind() method is to set the ‘this’ value of a function to a specific object without altering the original function. This is particularly useful when you want a function to work with a specific object but don’t want to modify the function itself.

Consider the following example:

const studentA = { name: 'Sophia', score: 85, result() { console.log(`${this.name}'s score is ${this.score}.`); } }; const studentB = { name: 'Lucas', score: 92 }; const boundResult = studentA.result.bind(studentB); boundResult();

In this example, we have a ‘studentA’ object with a ‘result()’ method that uses the ‘this’ keyword to refer to the object. We also have another object, ‘studentB’, with its own ‘name’ and ‘score’ properties. By calling the bind() method on ‘studentA.result()’, we pass in ‘studentB’ as the ‘this’ value, effectively binding it to ‘studentB’. When ‘boundResult()’ is called, the ‘this’ keyword in the function will refer to ‘studentB’ rather than ‘studentA’.

Section 2: Creating a function with pre-set arguments

The bind() method also allows you to create a new function with pre-set arguments. This can be useful when you need a function to always use specific arguments without altering the original function.

Let’s take a look at the example below:

function multiply(x, y) { return x * y; } const multiplyByFive = multiply.bind(null, 5); console.log(multiplyByFive(3)); console.log(multiplyByFive(4));

In this example, we have a ‘multiply()’ function that takes two arguments and returns their product. We then create a new function, ‘multiplyByFive()’, by calling bind() on ‘multiply()’. We pass ‘null’ as the ‘this’ value and ‘5’ as the first argument. This ensures that when ‘multiplyByFive()’ is called, it will always multiply the passed argument by 5, without needing to modify the original ‘multiply()’ function.

Section 3: Using bind() with event handlers

The bind() method can also be useful when working with event handlers, as it allows you to set the ‘this’ value within the handler function. This can be particularly helpful when using object methods as event handlers.

Consider the following example:

const buttonController = { button: document.getElementById('myButton'), console.log(this.message); }, init() { } }; buttonController.init(); Section 4: Partial application with bind()

The bind() method allows for partial application of arguments, enabling you to fix a certain number of arguments for a function, while leaving others to be passed in later. This can be helpful for creating more specialized versions of general functions.

Here’s an example:

function product(a, b, c) { return a * b * c; } const doubleProduct = product.bind(null, 2); console.log(doubleProduct(3, 4)); console.log(doubleProduct(5, 6));

In this example, we have a ‘product()’ function that takes three arguments and returns their product. We then create a new function, ‘doubleProduct()’, by calling bind() on ‘product()’ and fixing the first argument to ‘2’. This results in a new function that takes two arguments and calculates the product, always doubling the result.

How To Use Ssh For Secure Connections On Mac

Things to know:

Turn on Remote Login to access your Mac from another computer via SSH.

You can access a server on public IP address via SSH.

Use SSH if you work on unsecured networks.

To configure SSH on Mac:

The IP address of the remote server is required.

You should have the username and password of a user on the server.

SSH is typically used for logging into a remote machine and executing commands. Additionally, it also supports tunneling, TCP port forwarding, and X11 connections. SSH works on a client-server model; it is present on your Mac but is, by default, deactivated. In this article, I’ll help you understand how you can use SSH for secure connections on Mac running macOS Ventura or earlier.

What is SSH for Mac?

SSH is an acronym for “Secure Shell” or “Secure Socket Shell”. It is essentially a cryptographic network protocol used for network, operating systems, and configuration management. Its most prominent feature is that it employs secure remote communication across unprotected open networks, which is enabled through SSH keys. SSH keys are produced using a security algorithm.

When creating a set of SSH keys for your Mac, you will create a “public” and “private” key. It’s all pretty technical, but the public and private keys are created using prime numbers and huge random numbers. Now, let’s figure out how we can set up SSH on Mac

How to configure SSH server in macOS

Let’s check the process of activating SSH based on your Mac.

macOS Ventura or later

You must check the Allow full disk access for remote users in Remote Login and specify which users can log in.

All users: Anyone with access to your computer or network can log in.

Congratulations! The SSH server is now enabled on your macOS Ventura, and you should be able to receive inbound SSH connections through your Mac.

Note: Under Remote Login, you can find the IP address of your Mac.

macOS Monterey or earlier

Head to the Apple logo () from the menu bar.

Launch System Preferences → General → go to Sharing.

Check the box next to Remote Login.

Your SSH server is live now!

How to connect SSH to Mac via another Mac

To access your Mac from another remote Mac or an SSH client, follow the steps outlined below.

Launch Terminal or another SSH client on Mac.

Provide your Password → hit return.

How to turn off SSH Server on Mac

If you no longer wish to remotely access your Mac through an SSH client, you may disable the SSH servers on your Mac by following the steps below.

macOS Ventura

Open System Settings.

Head to General → Sharing.

Toggle off Remote Login.

macOS Monterey

Uncheck the box next to Remote Login.

FAQs

Q. How can I tell if someone is looking at my computer remotely?

Look through the list of recently used files and data. On Macs, you can easily see a list of your most regularly accessed files as well as your most recently used apps. If you see anything out of the ordinary in these listings, it’s conceivable that someone has gotten access to your Mac.

Q. Can someone access my Mac remotely without me knowing?

Yes, someone may remotely access your Mac without your knowledge since Macs are vulnerable to hacking. If SSH is enabled, anyone with administrator credentials can potentially execute code that could result in a total takeover of your Mac.

Wrapping up…

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Author Profile

Bhaskar

Bhaskar is a member of the iGB family and enjoys experimenting with words and rhythms. He also has a knack for web and app development. If not writing, you may find him on strings or engaging in sports. And by evening, his quotes will be appearing on your Instagram feeds.

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