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Percentage Difference in Excel

Percentage difference in Excel is a formula that calculates the percentage change between two numbers. The formula typically enables users to compare two values and determine how much they have increased or decreased concerning each other.

It is commonly used to analyze changes in values, such as sales, profits, or expenses, over a while. For instance, if you want to find out the percentage increase in sales from one year to another, you can use the percentage difference formula to compare the sales figures for both years. Thus, it will help you identify the percentage increase or decrease in sales and make informed decisions accordingly.

How to Calculate the Percentage?

Before understanding the calculation of percentage difference in Excel, let’s understand how to calculate the percentage manually.

You can download this Percentage Difference Excel Template here – Percentage Difference Excel Template

We will find out how much the percentage of 50 in 500.

First, we divide the 50, i.e., the smaller number, by 500, the greater number, which gives us the decimal value of 0.1. Then, we multiply the resulting decimal value by 100 to get the percentage (10%).

(50/500) X 100 = 10%.

Now let’s understand how to calculate percentages in Excel.

How to Calculate Percentage Differences in Excel?

Calculating the percentage difference in Excel is very simple and easy. Let’s understand how to calculate the percentage difference in Excel with some examples.

Example #1


Once we calculate the difference between the employee population of 2023 and 2023, we can determine the percentage change in employee growth.

After multiplying by 100, we obtain the percentage results with several digits after the decimal point, which can be hard to read. To make the results more readable, we must round them off.

Here, we can observe that the employee population in Hyderabad increased by 20.93% from 2023 to 2023, while Chennai increased by 21.62%. Moreover, Bangalore saw a reduction of 6%, while Mumbai saw an increase of 2.50%.

It means that 900 is 20.93% of 4300, 800 is 21.62% of 3700, 300 is 6% of 5000, and 100 is 2.50% of 4000.

Example #2


Explanation of Formula:

Subtract the current year’s salary in cell B3 (45,0000) from the previous year’s salary in cell B2 (40,0000). Then, multiply the difference by 100, and divide the result by the last year’s salary (40,0000).

Use the formula to calculate the percentage difference for each year. For example, for the years 2023 to 2023, the percentage increase in salary is 12.5%.

From the chart, we can observe the percentage change every year. If the percentage is negative, the bar will show under the baseline of 0.

It is clear how to calculate percentage and percentage differences in Excel and visually represent the percentage change using charts.

Applications of Percentage Difference

We can use the percentage difference method to keep track of stock price changes and change in market indexes. In addition, it can help compare the value of different currencies. The Percentage difference is also helpful for comparing financial statements in balance sheets.

Percentage difference helps to find out how much profit or loss your business has incurred on its sales.

It can help analyze the budgets set for various marketing activities such as Print marketing, email marketing, social media marketing, etc.

How to use Conditional Formatting in Excel to Highlight Percentage Differences that Meet Specific Criteria?

Let’s consider an example to understand using conditional formatting for highlighting percentage differences.

We have a list of purchased items with their budget and actual expense. Assuming we have already calculated the percentage difference between the budget and actual expense, let us see the steps to highlight these differences using conditional formatting:

Step 1: Select the calculated percentage difference

A Less Than window pops up to provide the value. It asks to provide a value to format cells less than the value.

We want to highlight over-budget cells, i.e., cells with negative values.

Step 3: Enter the value “0″.

How to use Excel Charts to Visualize Percentage Differences?

To create charts representing the above data, follow these steps:

Step 1: Select the table range.

It will display different types of chart formats you can choose from.

Things to Remember About Percentage Differences in Excel

Percentage difference represents the difference between an old and a new value in the percentage form, considering the old value as the base.

Moreover, it can be helpful to compare two values, to analyze how much the entity has deviated from its original value.

A positive percentage difference indicates an increase(growth), and a negative percentage difference indicates a decrease(decline) in the value.

To obtain the percentage difference between two values, find the difference between them, divide the result by the old integer, and then multiply the output by 100.

Additionally, if the difference results in multiple integers after the decimal point, we can consider rounding it off in Excel to display it better and for ease of understanding.

The percentage difference in Excel lets users analyze a business’s growth rate in terms of sales, acquisition of clients/ customers, marketing statistics, branding, or visualizing the scope of the utility of its products or services in the future.

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Data Validation In Excel (Examples)

Data Validation in Excel

Data validation is a feature in MS Excel used to control what a user can enter in a cell of an Excel sheet. For restricts the entries in a sheet, such as a date range or whole numbers only. We can even create dropdowns, which save unnecessary space and shows the values in a single cell. Also, we can create a customized message which will appear user inserts any incorrect value or an incorrect format.

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For example, A user can specify a meeting between 9:00 AM and 6:00 PM.

Locate in MS Excel

Select Data Validation from the toolbar under the Data Tab:

How to Create Data Validation Rule in Excel?

Let us understand the working of Data validation in Excel with some examples.

You can download this Data Validation Excel Template here – Data Validation Excel Template

Example #1

Execute the Below mentioned steps for the creation of the data validation rule in Excel:

Step 1: Select B2 Cell.

Step 3: A data validation Pop-Up will open:

Step 3.2: Select the Whole number, then Some more required options will be enabled.

Step 3.4: All settings will apply to the selected cell.

Now Enter 1 in cell B2- It will allow users to enter any whole number from 0 to 10.

Now Enter 11 in cell B2- It will throw by default error.

Example #2 – Set Input Message and Error Alert

We can restrict a user to enter a limited text.

Step 1: Select B5 Cell from Example 2 Sheet.

Step 3: Select equal to from the data list drop-down.

Step 4: Enter your desired password length (as an example 11).

On the Selection of Cell, an Input message will be displayed.

Enter a text which has a text length of 11. It will be selected successfully.

Now enter an invalid password. It will throw the described error message.

Example #3 – Custom option for e-mail address validation

Step 2: Select Custom in Allow drop-down.

Step 3: Write a formula for selecting only value if it has ‘@‘.

On the Selection of Cell, the Input message will display.

Enter a valid e-mail id – It will be selected successfully.

Now enter any invalid e-mail Id- It will throw a described error Message.

Valuation criteria of Excel data validation Settings

Any Value – To provide any data.

Whole Number – Enter only real numbers.

Decimal – Enter only decimal numbers.

List – Pick data from the drop-down list.

Date – Accept the only date.

Time – Enter only time.

Text Length – Fixed the length of the text.

Custom – Enter a custom formula.

Conditions in the data list in the Valuation criteria settings

Between, not between, equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than, or equal to, less than, or equal to.

Some more conditions of Excel data validation Settings

If a user wants to ignore the blank, there is a checkbox called Ignore.

W a user selects between, then a user needs to select the Minimum and Maximum values for the cell(s).

If a user wants to apply these changes to all other cells with the same setting, then there is a checkbox that needs to mark, and it will apply to the remaining cells in the sheet.

When to Use Data Validation in Excel?

This is the best option when a user wishes to share a sheet with another user and needs the data entered to be correct and consistent.

Restrict entries to predefined items in a list.

Restrict numbers outside a specified range.

It Restricts dates outside a certain time frame.

Restrict times outside a certain time frame.

Limit the number of text characters.

Validation of the data, which is available on other sheets or workbooks.

A user can customize the error alert; it can be anything user-defined.

Things to Remember About Data Validation in Excel

If a user wants to create a data validation rule in the workbook for Excel web apps or Excel services, then he needs to make an Excel data validation rule on the desktop first.

If one user sender a workbook to another, then first, a user needs to make sure that the workbook is unlocking; otherwise, second, a user is never able to access the workbook cells to fill value.

Always remember that there is no error in a formula like #REF! or #DIV/0!

Anyone who can create a data validation rule in the filled cell MS Excel will not detect it.

How to Remove the Excel Data Validation Rule?

Users can only modify or delete the Excel data validation rule if the inherited sheet is unprotected. If it is password protected, contact the owner of the workbook. Only he can help to unprotect the workbook as there is no way to recover or lose the password option in MS Excel.

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Pivot Table In Excel (Examples)

What is the Pivot Table in Excel?

A Pivot Table in Excel summarizes large amounts of data by organizing the data into small conclusive tables. Pivot Tables can help create reports and charts to understand trends. It also allows data filters to view the details for areas of interest and explore more by changing the parameters.

It is known as a Pivot Table, letting the user rearrange the rows and columns around the data to arrive at the desired summary. Users can also view total sales for different products, show product sales in percentages, get employee headcount in different departments, etc.

For example, when we create Pivot Table for the data below,

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The data is organized in the below form:

Key Highlights

Pivot Table in Excel helps complex group data in multiple ways to draw meaningful conclusions easily.

We can rotate the data in the large data set to view it from different perspectives.

We cannot add, subtract or modify data while creating a Pivot Table.

We can use Pivot Tables for creating custom reports with appropriate formatting.

How to Create a Pivot Table in Excel?

You can download this Pivot Table Excel Template here – Pivot Table Excel Template

Example #1

The table below shows a list of auditors with the properties they marked as correct and incorrect. Using the Pivot Table, we want to count the properties according to their status.


A dialogue box PivotTable from table or range is displayed as shown below


Table/Range is the selected data table.

Next, we must select whether we want the Pivot table in the New Worksheet or the Existing Worksheet.

Here, we select the Existing Worksheet.

At the top, the Pivot Table lists fields (data table columns). At the bottom of the Pivot Table Fields pane are four areas (Rows, Values, Filters, and Columns) where we need to place the data fields.

Rows: Data that is taken as a specifier

Values: Count of the data

Filters: Filters to select the desired data field

Columns: Values under different conditions

Step 3: Drag the Auditor field to the area Rows, Property_ID to Values, and Status to Filters.

The results are in the below table.

The table shows the Total count (17) of the Property_IDs checked by the auditors.

Now, we want to count the number of Property_IDs marked as Correct

The result is displayed as shown below

The above table shows the total number of Property IDs marked as correct to be 13.

Step 4: Select the Incorrect option from the filter (dropdown) to get the below result

The above table shows the total count of Incorrect Property IDs.

Example #2

The table below shows sales of Product 1, Product 2, Product 3, Product 4, Product 5, Product 6, Product 7, Product 8, and Product 9 in the year 2023 in quarters- Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. We want to find the total sales of all the products using the Pivot Table.


Here, we will use the alternative method to create the Pivot table. For that,

Step 1: Press the keys ALT + D + P on the keyboard

The PivotTable and PivotChart, Wizard dialogue box, open up. It asks two questions-

Where is the data you want to analyze?

What kind of report do you want to create?

Step 2: Select the first option for both questions, i.e.,

Microsoft Excel list or database and


Note: By default, the first options for both questions are selected.

Now, Excel asks for a range of data. As we had already selected the data, therefore, it is prefilled.

Now the dialog box asks us whether we want our pivot table in the same worksheet or a new worksheet. So,

Now a Pivot Table is created with the PivotTable Fields pane on the right side of the Worksheet.

Step 5: Drag the field Quarter in the area Columns, Year in Filters, Product in Rows, and Sales in Values.

The Pivot Table is created as shown below

The above table shows the Total Sales of 9161.

Example #3

The below table shows a list of brands with their model, color, mileage, and price. We want to find the total price of all the Models of a Brand using the Pivot Table.


The Pivot table from the table or range dialogue box appears

Note: The Table/Range is pre-filled as we had selected the data table.

The Pivot Table is created below with the Fields pane on the right.

Step 3: Drag the field Brand in the area Filters, Model in Rows, Color in Columns, and Price in Values.

The Pivot Table is created below with a total price of $ 60203.

Excel creates a Pivot Table showing the total price ($ 17770) for all the models of Toyota.

Now, we want to view the total price for Chevrolet and Toyota together

Excel creates a Pivot Table showing the total price ($ 29463) for all the models of Chevrolet and Toyota

How to Move a Pivot Table in Excel?

To move a Pivot Table,

Shortcuts for Pivot table in Excel

Below are the shortcuts we can use while working with Pivot Table

Things to Remember

Pivot tables do not change the values in the database.

We can insert Pivot Tables in the same or a new worksheet.

For convenience, we add pivot tables in a new worksheet.

We can create Pivot tables with up to 500,000 records.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Q1) Why use a Pivot Table in Excel?

Answer: Pivot Tables can track and analyze hundreds of thousands of data points with a compact table. We can use Pivot Tables to compare, highlight trends, or show relationships between parameters. Also, we can prepare multiple reports using the same Pivot Table.

Q2) Where is Pivot Table in Excel?

Answer: To locate the Pivot table,

Step 1: Select the data

Step 3: Select Pivot Table

Q3) Is there a limit to the number of rows in a Pivot Table in Excel?

Answer: A Pivot Table can display a maximum of 100,000 rows. Therefore, we cannot visualize more than 100k rows.

Q4) How many values can a Pivot Table handle?

Answer: Pivot tables can handle up to 1,048,576 items.

We cannot use the aggregate function with the Pivot table

Pivot tables do not support conditional formatting.

The Pivot Table does not work if there are blank rows or columns

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Match In Excel (Formula, Examples)

MATCH in Excel

The MATCH function is a powerful tool in Excel that helps users search for a specific value within a range of cells and return its relative position. It’s a useful function for those who work with large datasets or need to locate specific values quickly.

The utility of the MATCH function extends beyond simple searches within a range. For instance, one can use it in conjunction with other functions like INDEX and OFFSET to perform more complex operations.

Key Highlights

The MATCH function in Excel can perform both exact and approximate matches.

It can perform partial matches using wildcard operators such as * and ?.

The MATCH function returns a #N/A error if it does not find a match in the given array.

By using the MATCH and INDEX functions together, one can avoid using the VLOOKUP function to find a value at a matched position.

The Match type is an optional argument in the MATCH function, and if not specified, it defaults to 1.

Syntax of MATCH Function in Excel

The syntax of the MATCH function is as follows:

1. Lookup_value (required): Indicates the value whose position we want to find in the selected range. A lookup value can be text, number, logical value, or cell reference.

2. Lookup_array (required): The cell range that contains the lookup value. Lookup array can be a row or a column.

c) Match_Type “-1”: If the match type value is set as 0, Excel provides the smallest value that is greater than or equal to the lookup value.

Types of MATCH Function in Excel

You can download this MATCH Function Excel Template here – MATCH Function Excel Template

Here are the different types of MATCH functions in Excel:

#1 Exact MATCH

The MATCH function performs an exact match when the match type is set to zero. In the below-given example, the formula in E3 is:









#2 Approximate MATCH

#3 Wildcard MATCH

Points to Note

A MATCH Function is not case-sensitive.

MATCH returns the #N/A error if there is no match is found.

The argument lookup_array must be in descending order: True, False, Z-A,…9,8,7,6,5,4,3,…, and so on. However, if match_type is set to 1 or omitted, the lookup_array must be sorted in ascending order.

The wildcard characters like an asterisk () and question mark (?) can be used in the lookup_value argument if match_type is set to 0 and lookup_value is in text format, regardless of whether the lookup_value contains these characters. The asterisk () matches any sequence of characters, while the question mark (?) matches any single character.

How to Use the MATCH Function in Excel? Example #1 Finding The Exact Match


Step 1: Select the cell where you want to display the product “Deodorant” position. In this case, let’s assume it is cell B12.

Step 2: Type the MATCH function in the formula bar: =MATCH(B12, B6:B10,0)

The first argument in the formula is the lookup value, which is “Deodorant“, i.e., cell B12.

The second argument of the MATCH function is the lookup array, which is the range B6:B10. This range contains the products listed in the table.

Note: The lookup_array can be a row or a column.

The third argument of the MATCH function is the match type, which is 0. This means we want to find an exact match of the lookup value in the array.

The formula returns the position of “Deodorant” in the table, which is 2. This means that “Deodorant” is the second product listed in the table.

Explanation of the Formula:

When you press the Enter key, Excel searches through the cells in the lookup array “B6:B10” to find an exact match for the lookup value “Deodorant”. After finding the match, it returns the position of the first cell containing the lookup value. In this scenario, the formula returns the value “2“, indicating that the first cell containing “Deodorant” is the second cell in the range B6:B10.

Example #2 Finding Partial MATCH using Wildcard Character

Here’s how we can do it:

Step 2: Enter the formula =MATCH(“New*”, A6:A10,0) in an empty cell.

Explanation of the Formula:


: This is the search criteria. The asterisk () is a wildcard character representing any number of characters. So, “New” will match any city name that starts with “New”.


: This is the range of cells in which we want to search for our city name.


: This is the match_type argument. Here, we’re using an exact match, so we specify 0.

The result is “1,” which is the first city’s position starting with “New”. In this case, “New York” is the first city that starts with “New” in the list.

Note: If multiple cities match the search criteria, the MATCH function will only return the position of the first occurrence.

Example #3 Using INDEX and MATCH Function Together

Step 2: Enter the formula in the cell:













: This is the range of cells containing the student data table.


: This is the value we want to find in the first column of the table, which is the name of the student whose marks we want to find (in this case, “Alex”).


: The range of cells containing the students’ names in the table’s first column.

0: This argument specifies that we want an exact match.


: This is the value we’re looking for in row 5, which is the subject “History”.


: This is the cell range containing the subject names.

The INDEX and MATCH functions of Excel work together to provide the result of 51, which denote History marks of Alex.

Explanation of the Formula:

The first MATCH function in the formula =INDEX(A5:E12, MATCH(B14, A5:A12,0), MATCH(A15, A5:E5,0)) searches for the student name “Alex” in the range A5:A12 and returns the relative position of that name within the range. In this case, “Alex” is in the third row of the range, so the first MATCH function returns the value 3. The third argument of the MATCH function is 0, which specifies that we want an exact match.

The second MATCH function in the formula searches for the subject “History” in the range A5:E5 and returns the relative position of that subject within the range. In this case, “History” is in the third column of the content, so the second MATCH function returns the value 3. Again, the third argument of the MATCH function is 0, which specifies that we want an exact match.

The INDEX function then uses these two values (3 and 3) to return the corresponding value in the table, which is Alex’s marks in History (51).

Example #4 When a Cell contains One of Many Things

Generic formula: {=INDEX(results,MATCH(TRUE,ISNUMBER(SEARCH(things,A1)),0))}

Explanation of the Formula:

This formula uses two named ranges: E5:E8 is named “things”, and F5:F8 is named “results”.

Ensure using the name ranges with the same names (depending on the data). If one doesn’t want to use named ranges, use absolute references instead.

The main part of this formula is the below snippet:


This is based on another formula that checks a cell for a single substring. If the cell has the substring, the formula gives TRUE; if not, the formula gives FALSE.

Example #5 Lookup using the Lowest Value

Generic formula =INDEX(range,MATCH(MIN(vals),vials,0))

In the below example, a formula is used to find the contractor’s name with the lowest bid. The formula in F6 is:















Explanation of the Formula:

Working from the inside out, the MIN function is generally used to find the lowest bid in the range C5:C9:

The result, 99500, is fed into the MATCH function as the lookup value:

MATCH then gives back the position of this value in the range 4, which goes into INDEX as the row number and B5:B9 as the array:

=INDEX(B5:B9, 4)

The INDEX function then gives back the value at that position: Cymbal.

Match Function Errors

Things to Remember

MATCH types: One can use three match types with the MATCH function: 0, 1, and -1. The default match type is 0, which finds an exact match. Match type 1 finds the largest value less than or equal to the lookup_value, while match type -1 finds the smallest value greater than or equal to the lookup_value.

Array size: The lookup_array argument must be a one-dimensional array or a reference to a one-dimensional range of cells. If the lookup_array is not one-dimensional, the MATCH function will return a #N/A error.

Sorted order: If the values in the lookup_array are not sorted in ascending order, the MATCH function in Excel may return an incorrect result. In such cases, use the match_type argument to specify the appropriate match type.

Exact MATCH: If the MATCH function does not find the lookup_value in the lookup_array, it will return a #N/A error. You can use the IFERROR function to handle this error and return a more meaningful result.

Relative or absolute cell reference: The MATCH function is compatible with both relative and absolute cell references. When copying the formula to other cells, the function will adjust the cell references accordingly.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q1. What is an example of a MATCH function in Excel?

Q2. What is the benefit of including the MATCH function within an INDEX function?

Suppose you have a list of fruits and their prices in a table. You want to retrieve the price of a specific fruit, say “Apple”, from the table. One way to do this is to search the table for the row containing “Apple manually” and then look for the price in the corresponding column. However, if you have a large dataset with many rows and columns, this can be a time-consuming and error-prone process. Instead, you can use the MATCH function to find the “Apple” row number in the table and then use the INDEX function to retrieve the price from the corresponding column. The formula would look like this:


The MATCH function searches for “Apple” in the table’s first column (A2:A6) and returns the row number where it is found. The INDEX function then retrieves the value from the table’s third column (price column) at the intersection of the row and column numbers that the MATCH function returns.

Q3. Can the MATCH function have multiple criteria?

Answer: It is possible to use the MATCH function with multiple criteria by combining it with other functions such as INDEX, SUMPRODUCT, and COUNTIFS. For instance, consider this formula:

This formula uses MATCH with multiple criteria to find the position of the first employee in the “Sales” department who earns more than $20,000 per year. Then, it adds the count of cells that satisfy only the second condition using the COUNTIFS function.

Q4. What is the difference between MATCH and VLOOKUP in Excel?

For instance, if we want to find the price of oranges in the following table, we will have to use the MATCH function in conjunction with the INDEX function to find the price. Alternatively, the VLOOKUP function can directly provide the price of oranges at $0.75.



Apples $1.00

Oranges $0.75

Bananas $0.50

The formula for using MATCH and INDEX functions together is =INDEX(B: B, MATCH(“Oranges”, A: A, 0)). Using MATCH, this formula finds the position of “Oranges” in column A, which returns the value 2. Then, INDEX retrieves the value in column B’s corresponding row, i.e., $0.75.

The VLOOKUP function formula is =VLOOKUP(“Oranges”, A: B, 2, 0). This formula looks for “Oranges” in the first column of the range A: B and returns the corresponding value from the second column (i.e., the price column), resulting in $0.75.

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Isna In Excel (Formula, Examples)

ISNA in Excel

The IsNA function is one of those functions used to find whether a cell has any error. And this only detects one type of error, #N/A which usually occurs when we try to look up any value from the lookup range and that value is not there. So, in the end, we get #N/A which summarizes that the value we want is “Not Available”, and the IsNA function detects if the process would get #N/A or not by returning the TRUE and FALSE statements.

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ISNA Formula in Excel:

Below is the ISNA Formula in Excel:

ISNA Formula in Excel has one critical parameter: i.e., value.

Value (compulsory argument) – The value or expression that needs to be teweightis entered manually or defined variables or a cell reference to use instead.

How to Use the ISNA Function in Excel?

You can download this ISNA Function Excel Template here – ISNA Function Excel Template

Example #1 – ISNA Function

In the below-mentioned table. I have the various error values in the ERROR_VALUES column (column D); here, with the ISNA Function’s help in Excel, I need to find out the #N/A error in column D.

Let’s apply the ISNA function in cell “E8”. Select the cell “E8,” where the ISNA function needs to be applied.

A dialog box appears where arguments for ISNA Function need to be filled or entered, i.e., =ISNA(value)

Value: Here, I have to check whether the value in cell D8 contains the #N/A error. I must mention the cell reference “D8”, i.e., =ISNA(D8).

Here, =ISNA(D8) will return TRUE if the value is an #N/A error or return FALSE if it doesn’t contain a #N/A error.

Cell D8 does not contain the #N/A error; it will return FALSE as an output in cell “E8”.

E13 cell returns TRUE value because the D13 cell contains #N/A Error.

Example #2 – ISNA & IF Function with VLOOKUP Function to Avoid #N/A Error

In the below-mentioned table1. I have the list of students in the Student column (Column J) & their scores in the Score column (Column K).

Table 2 contains a list of student names in the student column (column M); our objective here in this table is to find the student’s score based on his name, i.e., student name (refer to table 1), by using the VLOOKUP Function.

Before applying a VLOOKUP formula, You should be aware of it. Vertical lookup or VLOOKUP references vertically aligned tables and quickly finds data in relation to the value the user enters.

A dialog box appears where arguments for the VLOOKUP function need to be filled or entered.

The syntax for the VLOOKUP function is:

VLOOKUP (lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

lookup_value: the value you want to look up, i.e., “M7” or “CINDER”.

table_array: range where the lookup value is located, i.e., select table1 range J6:K17.

col_index_num: column number in a table array from which the matching value should be returned. The student score in Table 1 is in the second column, i.e., 2.

range_lookup: FALSE for an exact match or TRUE for an approximate game. Select 0 or false.

=VLOOKUP(M7, J6:K17,2,0) returns the score of cinder, i.e., 77.

Here, the #N/A error is returned in cells N10 & N12 because the Vlookup function fails to find a match to the supplied lookup_value in the reference table range.

#N/A error looks odd for a better outlook of a final dataset without a N/A error. ISNA function is used with the IF function in the VLOOKUP function to avoid the #N/A error, where the #N/A error value is replaced with a customized text string.

Let’s work on this in Table 3; below mentioned ISNA function with IF is used with the VLOOKUP function to avoid the #N/A error.

=IF(ISNA(VLOOKUP(P7,J6:K17,2,0)),”Not found”,VLOOKUP(P7,J6:K17,2,0))

Three parts of the formula are


The first part of the formula means if the function doesn’t find the value of cell P7 in table range J6:K17, then display the second part.

“Not found.”

Display “Not found” instead of a #N/A.


If the function finds the value, perform the VLOOKUP formula as usual.

Let’s apply this formula in cell “Q7”.

The Result will be :

It will return a customized text string mentioned in the formula, i.e., “Not found” instead of the #N/A error in the cell N10 & N12.

Things to remember about the ISNA Function in Excel

ISNA argument value can be a blank (empty cell), text, number, error, logical, or reference value, or a name referring to any of these you want to test.

IS functions are significant in formulas for testing the outcome of a calculation. If it is combined with IF logical conditions, it will help out to find the error value.

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This has been a guide to ISNA in Excel. Here we discuss the ISNA Formula in Excel and How to use ISNA Function in Excel, along with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

Small Function In Excel (Formula, Examples)

SMALL Function in Excel (Table of Contents)

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SMALL Function in Excel

A small function in Excel is used for getting the smallest number from the selected range of numbers with the help of the Kth position in the range. For example, we have 10 different numbers, and we need to find the smallest number out of that; by using the Small function, we can get the 1st or 2nd or any Kth smallest number out of those 10 selected numbers.

SMALL Formula in Excel:

Below is the SMALL Formula in Excel :

The SMALL function has two arguments, i.e. array, k. Both are required arguments.

Array: This is the range of cells you are selecting it as the source data to find the K value.

K: This is the Kth position of the number. From the list, it gives the bottom value.

In this function, the range should not be empty, and we need to specify both arguments.

How to Use SMALL Function in Excel?

This Function in Excel is very simple and easy to use. Let us now see how to use this SMALL Function in Excel with the help of some examples.

You can download this SMALL Function Excel Template here – SMALL Function Excel Template

Example #1

Below are the scores of the students on a test. From the below-given data, find the smallest and the 3rd smallest scores.

If we find the smallest number, we can simply apply MIN Function. If you look at the below image, both the formulas return the same value as the smallest number in the given list.

However, MIN Function stops there only. It cannot find the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th smallest numbers. In such cases, SMALL can give us the Kth position number.

Find the 3rd Smallest Number.

We need to specify the number in the Kth argument to find the third smallest score or number from the list.

“In the range, B2:B11 find the 3rd largest value.”

So the result will be :

Example #2

Below is the data for a cycle race. From this list, you need to find the winner. Data includes names, start time, and end time.

From this list, we need to find who has taken the least time to complete the race.

Step 1: Find the total time taken.

The time taken to complete the race arrived by deducting the start time by the end time. The image below shows the actual time each one takes to complete the race.

Step 2: Now apply the SMALL Function to get the winner.

So the result will be :

It is a bit of a herculean task if the list is long. But we can just name the winner using the if condition.

So the result will be :

Similarly, it is applied to other cells in that column to get the desired output.

Example #3

We can use the SMALL Function along with other functions. From the below-given list, find the sum of the bottom 3 values for Week 2.

Apply the below SMALL function along with the SUM & VLOOKUP function.

This is an array formula. You need to close the formula by typing Ctrl + Shift + Enter. This would insert the curly brackets before and after the formula.

VLOOKUP returns the value for WEEK 2 specified by the SMALL function for 3 bottom values. Then SUM function will add the bottom values together and return the result as 1988.

Things to Remember

SMALL Function ignores text values and considers only numerical values.

Result is :

A SMALL function returns an error if there are no numerical values in the list.

Result is :

If there are any duplicates, then SMALL considers the first value as the smaller one.

K should be numeric; otherwise, it returns the error as #VALUE!

Supplied range should not be empty.

If we find only the least value, we can use the MIN Function. But it finds only the first smallest value.

Even though SMALL ignores text values, if there are any errors, it will return the result as #DIV/0!

We can use SMALL and many other functions to find the Nth values.

Use practically to get the hint of the SMALL function.

If you use SMALL with other functions, it becomes an array formula.

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This has been a guide to SMALL Function in Excel. Here we discuss the SMALL Formula in Excel and how to use a SMALL Function in Excel, with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

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