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If you haven’t heard about Pagico before, it’s a productivity app that allows individuals and team members to easily manage all their tasks, files and notes across iPhone, iPad, Mac, Windows, Ubuntu and Android devices.
Now bumped to version 8.7, the app sports some interesting new features designed to help you be more productive and stay on track with support for sub-containers, enhanced container duplication features, smart filters, teammate filters, improved email handling and printing, plus a lot more.
But first, here’s a quick video walkthrough of Pagico 8.7.
To simplify managing large projects with lots of sub-projects, Pagico 8.7 supports sub-containers.
With sub-containers, you can finally add sub-projects or links to contacts right inside any project or contact. Because the timeline is integrated, you get to see your full workload from the master project’s timeline.
The container duplication process can now be invoked via a new shortcut in the contextual menu. And when duplicating a container, you can now choose to clone linked containers and perform bespoke data adjustments—which should be helpful when creating project templates and making copies of the entire structure.
Speaking of containers, tapping a container item from search results will now bring up a preview panel to show details instead of going to the container directly. As a bonus, inline links to containers now come with rich previews that show you key information about the target.
The filtering system available inside containers is more flexible than before with new options for sorting items by date (due date, upcoming, overdue, someday or undated), status (checked or unchecked) or your tags (you can mix these filtering options).
Another Mac-specific enhancement in this edition of Pagico: an all-new rendering engine for silky smooth visuals on macOS Yosemite 10.10 or later. By the way, owners of earlier Mac systems that run macOS Yosemite or older should download a special edition of Pagico that’s optimized for these computers.
Windows-specific improvements in Pagico 8.7 include the ability to drop emails from Microsoft Outlook onto the Pagico window, plus some additional features available when you invoke the Print dialog.
Rounding up the list of new features in Pagico 8.7, the app includes support for the Russian language.
Last but not least, developers have included some nice-to-haves for team members and administrators, such as filtering content based on teammates and the ability for workspace owners to easily take ownership of containers created on other devices.
All told, Pagico 8.7 packs more than a dozen new features and over 50 improvements to make your experience more flexible, powerful and user-friendly.
To learn more about this app, visit the official Pagico website.
Pagico for iPhone, iPad and iPod touch is available free on App Store. The iOS client requires iOS 9.0 or later while the desktop app requires an Intel-based Mac with macOS Mavericks or later.
Existing users can upgrade to Pagico 8.7 for $25. For new users, Pagico is $50. A free trial of the app is available via the official Pagico website. Team leaders and members should check out Pagico for Teams.
Pagico is running a limited-time offer where everyone can get $10 off, making the upgrade price only $15, and new licenses only $40. Get it now as it won’t last long!
This content is sponsored via Syndicate Ads.
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There are some tasks that need to be taken care of only once. Those can easily be listed in any format, including the good old-fashioned pencil and paper method. Other tasks are meant to be done every day. They are more like goals than tasks. Nonetheless, they still need to be tracked.
Weekly is a task tracker that makes it incredibly simple for you to add content, update activities, and see your progress at a glance. We’ve got an app review of Weekly for you today to see if it is something you’d be interested in…Design
The app’s design is simple with the main screen showing a list of your daily tasks alongside a quick view of the week’s activities, including your current progress and the average number of items you should take care of each day.
Pull down on the main screen to see an overview of your week’s progress with a handy visual grid to give you an idea of your progress. In this section, you can also view your total task-tracking statistic by tapping the arrow next to the percentage. This window looks much like the weekly progress tracker, but is updated for all weeks you’ve been tracking your tasks.
Back on the main screen, tap a task to log an activity, delete a log, edit the task, or view a weekly progress report for that specific item. Similar to the weekly and overall progress trackers, you can see a graph of your activities, including the number of times logged, the number of weeks logged, the percentage of completed for the week, and the weekly average for the current week as compared to the previous week.App Use
The point of this app is to help you meet weekly goals. If you want to drink eight glasses of water per day, workout at least three times per week, or eat vegetables with every dinner meal, this will help you keep track so you can accomplish your goals. If you need to remember to water the lawn every Tuesday and Saturday, this app will not help. It doesn’t send reminders or even give you the option of picking specific days to complete tasks. The power is in its simplicity.
You can only perform a task a total of 15 times in one week, so if your goal is to drink eight glasses of water per day, the task would be labeled as “Drink eight glasses of water” and you would only mark it as completed if you reached the number you were shooting for.
Once you’ve added your tasks and marked how many times per week you’d like to perform them, you are ready to go. When you’ve completed a task, tap it to open the log screen, which appears directly below the item. Tap the solid circle to add a log for an item. You can also swipe to the right to quickly log activities. Tap the “X” to remove a log.
In this section, you can also edit the task activity. You can rename it, change the frequency, delete it, archive it, or disable it for one week.
To view the progress report for an individual task, tap the graph icon under it. You can also access individual task graphs by swiping to the left. As noted above, the infograph will show you the frequency and how many times you’ve completed a task, the percentage completed for the week, the number of weeks you’ve been tracking the goal, and the average of this week as compared to last week’s progress.
Tap the arrow next to the goal/completed graph to see the last time you logged an activity and change the frequency if you so desire.
Once you’ve made it through a week, you’ll be able to view an infograph that shows the percentage and number of tasks you’ve completed. Every week, the progress report is saved so you can view it at any time.
If you need help remembering to log your tasks, set a reminder. In the settings section, turn on the switch to receive a reminder. You can set the time and get one additional reminder on Sunday before the progress report is officially completed and archived.The Good
Because this app is so simple, it is very easy to log your activities. With one swipe, you can track your progress. Plus, if you are like me and forget about that stuff during the day, the reminder will help you log your activities at a specific time so you don’t have to double up the next day.The Bad
You can’t edit the day that you’ve completed a task. If you do forget to log it on a Tuesday, you can’t go back to add it. The task will appear on the day you logged it. This isn’t such a big deal since the graph is intended to show weekly progress. However, the number of tasks you perform in a day is listed on each day of the week. I’d like to be able to drag and drop to change the day I log a task.Value
Weekly is free to download. There are no in-app purchases. You don’t have to sign up to use it. You can keep track of your goals without having to pay a penny. I’d call that a good investment.Conclusion
I love this app. It is perfect for quickly keeping track of daily and weekly goals. However, there is not much to it. Don’t go into this project thinking you’ll be able to create complex lists with details and reminders. The intent is to keep it simple, which this app does well. Download it in the App Store today.Related Apps
Remino is another simplistic task management app. Clear is a favorite of mine for its basic functions.
Also read: How To Leverage Airplane Mode On Your Smartphone
Before starting, we have to note that not all Android smartphones are the same. All major smartphone manufacturers have their own skin on top of Android. So some settings may be missing or located under other locations.How to improve battery life on Android smartphones
Here are a few simple steps that will make your smartphone run longer.
Turn off automatic screen brightness or adaptive brightness. Also, set the brightness level to less than 50%.
The brighter the screen, the more battery energy it consumes.
As this option will be in different menus on various Android smartphones, you just have to go to Settings and look for “Brightness.” Once found, turn it off.
Use adaptive battery optimization.
Use dark mode more often.
Another way to increase battery life and help save your eyes is to use Android’s special dark mode. Any Android phone running Android 10 or higher will have a dedicated dark mode option.
The dark mode not only reduces eye strain caused by the smartphone display, but also increases the battery life. The reason is that the operating system consumes less power to display a dark background on OLED displays than a white background.
Depending on what version of Android your phone is running and what company made your phone, you may have to dig around in the settings to find dark mode. If your phone is running Android 10 or later, you can enable system-wide dark mode.
To enable dark mode, open Settings and look for Dark Mode, Dark Theme, or even Night Mode (as Samsung likes to call it). We highly recommend you to use dark mode all the time.Gizchina News of the week
Join GizChina on TelegramHow to make Android smartphones run more smoothly
Free home screen from many apps
To make your phone’s home screen free of many appications and games, press and hold an empty area on the home screen and tap Settings. Find the option “Add icon to home screen” or “Add new apps to home screen” and turn it off.
Once done, no more app icons will appear on home screen. When you need them, you can add shortcuts by dragging an app icon from the app tray.
Set up Do Not Disturb to help you focus better
Using this function, you can set the clock range when you want to turn off the ring sound. You can even make exceptions. Thus, you can still get calls from selected contacts or repeat calls.
Turn on the Find My Device feature on Android
You can even set up what someone who finds a lost or stolen Android phone will see after you lock it with Find My Device.
Of course, the main purpose of this feature is to make it possible to track Android smartphones when lost or stolen.
Open Settings, then search for Find My Device. It’s usually located in the Security section.
Once it’s enabled, you can go to chúng tôi from any PC or mobile device and sign in to your account. Samsung users can visit chúng tôi to find their lost phone.
When your phone is stolen and is on and connected to the net, you’ll be able to see its location on a map. From there, you can make it ring, lock it, and set a note on the lock screen to tell whoever has it how to get it back to you. Lastly, you can delete all data.
Always keep your phone up to date
As strange as it may seem, bugs and other issues slowing down your Android device can potentially be fixed with a simple software update.
Before downloading and installing the latest software update, make sure your device is connected to Wi-Fi.
For this, open Settings and type Update. You will then see “Software Update” or “System Update”. Download the software, wait a few minutes, and install it when it’s ready. Your Android device will reboot and install the latest available software update.
Always update your phone to the latest software version to avoid bugs and other issues that slow down your phone.
Robert Triggs / Android Authority
With the arrival of the Pixel 6 Pro, and to a lesser extent the regular Pixel 6, Google has (finally) revamped its smartphone camera package. But does the new flagship actually take better-looking pictures than 2023’s Google Pixel 5?
The highly anticipated change between the Pixel 5 and 6 is the introduction of a much larger main image sensor. The long-serving 12.2MP 1/2.55-inch Sony IMX363 featured on multiple generations of Pixel phones makes way for a much larger 1/1.31-inch main sensor that we suspect is the Samsung Iscocell GN1. The Pixel 6 Pro also includes a 4x telephoto camera, giving the phone much greater long-range prowess than its predecessor.
Read more: Everything you need to know about the Pixel 6’s camera upgrades
In addition, the custom Google Tensor SoC houses new machine learning smarts that are closely integrated with the Pixel 6’s imaging pipeline. While Google’s impressive HDR, Night Mode, and ASTROphotography algorithms already run on the Pixel 5’s more mid-range hardware, Google has bigged up the enhanced ML capabilities of its new chip. So it will be interesting to see what differences the new processor makes to image quality. Let’s find out what they are in this Google Pixel 6 Pro vs Pixel 5 camera shootout.
If you want to follow along with our analysis even more, be sure to check out this Google Drive folder filled with full-res snaps.
If you’re hard-pressed to tell the difference between the pictures below, you’re not alone. A surprising number of shots we’ve taken are virtually indistinguishable from each other, at least at a quick glance.
These two main cameras offer very realistic colors, excellent exposure, and solid white balance. Given the similarities, you really wouldn’t think the Pixel 5’s camera hardware has basically been left unchanged since 2023’s Pixel 2. It just goes to show that Google’s software processing is the overriding factor in the look of Google’s image, more so than any underlying hardware.
There are a few regular differences between the two, however, when it comes to general presentation. Besides the slightly wider field of view from the Pixel 6 Pro, there are also very subtle but consistent differences in color saturation, exposure, and white balance. The Pixel 6 Pro is often a fraction brighter when it comes to exposure, which you can see in the cityscape and pumpkin pictures above.
Don’t forget: All the photography terms you should know about
With a new 50MP main image sensor, you might believe that the Google Pixel 6 and 6 Pro are capable of capturing much sharper images than the Pixel 5. However, the new handsets pixel bin their images down to 12.5MP and there isn’t an option to shoot at a higher resolution in Google’s default camera app.
Even so, perhaps the larger sensor helps the Pixel 6 capture more light and resolve more detail than the Pixel 5? Let’s take a look at some 100% crops.
That doesn’t appear to be the case in the brightly lit environments above. Although the Pixel 6 Pro appears a tad sharper in terms of post-processing, there’s no additional resolvable detail in the 100% crops above. The Pixel 5 certainly holds up, although small sensors often perform well with plenty of bright outdoor light.
Turning to indoor conditions, the Pixel 5 is a little softer when looking at the fine details on the bar. There’s a small level of noise in the shadows also. The Pixel 6 Pro is definitely the sharper image here, but you really have to pixel peep to notice.
This overcast outdoor picture is more mixed. Again the Pixel 6 Pro looks sharper and has less noise in general, particularly when focusing on the subject tree in the center. However, the newer phone suffers from extra smudging in some of the trees, which you don’t see on the Pixel 5 — see the bushes and trees on the left of the crop. The Pixel 6 Pro is certainly not always better when it comes to capturing detail.Night mode and HDR improvements
Moving to some more extreme HDR shots, we’re looking for three key things: highlight clipping, shadow detail, and color saturation. Once again, there’s nothing to tell between the phones at a casual glance. Both offer extreme dynamic range free from clipping. Even peering more closely, both are virtually indistinguishable from each other in the shadows, with decent levels of detail resolved, given the circumstances.
The one distinction between the two in HDR environments is that the Google Pixel 6 Pro offers fractionally more vivid colors and a slightly more realistic, less warm white balance. But the difference is marginal at best — the two phones offer the same excellent HDR capabilities despite the different image sensor and processing hardware. Clearly, Google’s best algorithms run just fine on older mid-range hardware.
The extra light has implications for shooting with Night Sight too. The Pixel 6 Pro captures a much more realistic white balance and colors in the shot above. Although Night Sight greatly improves the detail capture on the Pixel 5, you’ll still notice smudging and noise around the edge of the frame, such as on the shelves. The 100% outdoor example below highlights this noise issue perfectly — the Pixel 6 Pro is mostly clean while the Pixel 5 is a bit of a mess on closer inspection.
Google has revamped its ultra-wide snapper for the Pixel 6 series, opting for a lower resolution sensor but with larger pixels and a slightly wider field of view. Just like with the main camera, you’ll find almost identical colors, detail, and white balance from both handsets. However, the move to larger sensor pixels in Google’s latest phone pays dividends for exposure and dynamic range, with the Pixel 6 often handing in brighter pics in trickier lighting conditions.
Unfortunately, the Google Pixel 5’s ultra-wide lens suffered from chromatic aberration (purple halos and fringing) and this issue remains present with the Pixel 6. If anything, the additional exposure and saturation make this effect more noticeable on the newer handset. It’s an unfortunate blemish on an otherwise solid camera setup.
The Pixel 6 Pro has superior long-range hardware but the ultra-wide remains a point of weakness.
When it comes to long-range zoom, we’re obviously expecting the Google Pixel 6 Pro to hand in the best pictures, owing to its 4x optical zoom lens. The phone is capable of zooming out to 20x thanks to Google’s Super Res Zoom upscaling, while the Pixel 6 and Pixel 5 cap at 7x using the same tech and lack dedicated telephoto shooters. But just how big is the difference, and does the Pixel 5 hold up at closer zoom levels?
Read more: Camera zoom explained — how optical, digital, and hybrid zoom work
At 3x in our first shot, there’s better exposure and a fraction more detail on the Pixel 6 Pro’s shot, likely owing to the phone’s larger main sensor that’s used here. Even so, it’s quite close and there’s a fair bit of noise in both pictures that betrays the fact they rely on the same upscaling tech here. There’s no competition at 5x in our first sample set — the Pixel 6 Pro’s optical zoom kicks in to provide better colors and vastly greater levels of detail. At 5x, the Pixel 5’s Super Res Zoom is clearly stretched to disguise the sensor’s noise, and the problem looks even worse at 7x, although given the quite flat textures in this scene, the Pixel 5 remains somewhat passable.
The Pixel 5 struggles even more for fine details at longer distances, but results below 5x are passable compared with the Pixel 6 Pro.
This second set of samples overlooking a valley features much more complex tree and grass textures. As a result, the Pixel 5 struggles even more for fine details at longer distances, although it does a good job at balancing the scene’s high dynamic range.
Looking first at our 3x picture, the results are again surprisingly close. Both handsets apply a high level of sharpening to fix up their digital zoom, and while the Pixel 5 is the noise picture, this actually results in a softer image. The Pixel 6 Pro looks a little more smudged until the optical zoom kicks in, which provides vastly more detail, although color-wise, the Pixel 5 holds up very well even in these less ideal lighting conditions. 7x is definitely pushing the Pixel 5 past its limits, however, while the Pixel 6 Pro holds up well out at 10x, albeit with some signs of heavier processing as the camera combats the low lighting.Selfies and portraits
We’ll round out our comparison with a look at the phone’s portrait mode using both the rear and selfie camera.
Once again, a quick glance at the photos shows very little difference between the two, with colors, exposure, and white balance a virtual match between these handsets.
We can notice some subtle differences in the picture above when cropping in, however. Face textures are a fraction sharper with the Pixel 6 Pro, while the Pixel 5 is a little softer owing to some extra noise. The Pixel 6 Pro’s skin tone is also a little less artificially warm and slightly more accurate for the scene. Google’s improvements are subtle but they are there.
Related: The best selfie camera phones you can buy
Turning to the selfie camera, there’s a similar theme. The general appearance is virtually the same but the Pixel 6 Pro appears marginally sharper and avoids an overly warm facial tone. This difference is even more pronounced in low light, where the Pixel 5’s selfie camera looks a fair bit softer and noisier than the updated sensor in the Pixel 6 Pro.
One final piece of the puzzle is bokeh blur accuracy. Both are generally pretty good but can be tripped up by the odd stray hair and complex background. But we do see a bigger difference in our outdoor selfie, with the Pixel 5 appearing to use straight lines, producing a more “cut out” appearance. The Pixel 6 Pro isn’t dissimilar but seems more capable of picking out the fine edges of the hair, resulting in marginally more accurate object detection. But you have to look closely to notice.
Google Pixel 6 Pro vs Pixel 5 camera shootout: The verdict
Robert Triggs / Android Authority
After a thorough workout, Google’s high-end Pixel 6 Pro comes out ahead as a more flexible shooter than last year’s Pixel 5, particularly when it comes to long-range and low-light photography. However, daylight, ultra-wide, and even portrait pictures are often very hard to tell apart. Despite some quite meaningful hardware differences on paper, the Pixel 5 still provides competitive details, HDR, and portrait pictures.Does the Google Pixel 6 Pro offer a big enough camera upgrade over the Pixel 5?
This leaves the regular Pixel 6 in a bit of an awkward position. Without the Pro’s 4x optical zoom and the same selfie specs as the Pixel 5, we’re left with a marginally improved ultra-wide field of view and the new main camera as the only upgrades on the table. While the bigger sensor certainly helps take better Night Sight shots, neither is exactly a game-changer over last year’s model.
The Google Pixel 6 Pro certainly offers better low light and long-range flexibility, but that’s it for the obvious differences.
This is, obviously, a testament to how well Google’s photo-enhancing algorithms run on aging hardware, but it’s also a shame for those who had been expecting a bigger jump with the move to new, more competitive camera hardware. Overall, the Pixel 6 Pro certainly offers a worthwhile upgrade for those who love to snap zoom shots and take their camera out at night. But we can’t quite say the same about the regular Pixel 6.
More camera shootouts: Google Pixel 6 Pro vs Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra and iPhone 13 Pro Max
The heat of your body, the vapor of your sweat, the breeze of your breath, and your scent, oh, your scent! The combination is beyond enticing, drawing in a mosquito with the promise of a quick bite.
Not today mosquito. Not today.
The jarring vibrations of a slap may be enough to put the mosquito off your alluring aroma, even if your efforts didn’t manage to mash the insect to a bloody pulp.
To test how well these pesky bugs can remember a turbulent experience—and the scent associated with that—researchers put insects through tests involving tiny flight simulators, mini wind tunnels, and the odor of humans, rats, and chickens. Their results, published in this week’s Current Biology, found that mosquitoes were capable of remembering defensive individuals for at least a day, and avoiding them like the plague, (or, in their case, avoiding them like DEET).
The researchers looked at Aedes aegypti aegypti mosquitoes, a species that evolved to like us. Like, like like us.
“The entire mosquito has evolved to identify us and to bite us. They are especially sensitive to temperature, to the water vapor from our sweat, to our body odor, and to the carbon dioxide from our breath, so their entire sensory systems are geared towards locating us,” says Jeffery Riffell, lead author of the paper.
If kept from their preferred food choice, these mosquitoes will make do with blood from cattle or dogs to sustain themselves. But that’s only if they have to. In other experiments, Riffell says, researchers showed that even mosquitoes that only had access to dogs or cattle for most of their adult lives would gravitate back to humans if given the chance.
“Their ability to shift hosts hasn’t lost that innate preference for humans. And so we think learning is causing that shift and that flexibility,” Riffell says. He and his colleagues wanted to look into what drove the preferences for hosts, and if mosquitoes might learn to avoid certain humans that proved too challenging.
“We all have our own scent signature—a fingerprint, if you will,” Riffell says. “And this fingerprint is stable, it doesn’t change very much over the course of weeks or months. Mosquitoes, once they are actually biting you, they are smelling you. If you try to move your arm to shake them off or try to swat them, they will feel the vibrations of the swat and learn a negative association between those vibrations and your scent. Given that we each have our own scent fingerprint, we found that they can actually remember certain individuals.”
“What was interesting about this was the individuals that they remembered the most were the ones that were highly attractive,” Riffell says.
He’s not talking about physical attractiveness. You probably have friends who remind the world of their mosquito-attracting abilities, saying, ’oh, mosquitoes just love me’ constantly during the buggy months of the year. They might not be exaggerating.
Riffell says that in this case, the mosquitoes reacted most strongly to scents they previously used to gravitate toward the most. It makes sense if you think about it. What if you loved donuts, and just as you were about to take a big ‘ol bite out of a chocolate glazed, it suddenly tried to stab you to death?
Mosquitoes feel your pain.
“They avoided certain odors as strongly as if they were experiencing 40-percent DEET,” Riffell says. “They can really remember the odor, and it can cause a high degree of repellency in them.”
Riffell and his colleagues figured this out by gluing live mosquitoes to a thin insect pin that acted like a tether, keeping the bug in place while it tried to fly toward or away from scents. “It’s like virtual reality for the mosquitoes. It’s a great way to test their behavior and see what they’re learning,” Riffell says.
Once in the flight simulator, the mosquitoes got whiffs of a particular scent—like the ones gathered from the volunteers beforehand—as they were buffeted by turbulent air and vibrations meant to resemble the aftermath of a swat.
“Then we also fly them in these little mini wind tunnels. They have a choice between the previous odor and a clean odor control, so they can choose what direction they want to go,” Riffell says.
Computer software and cameras helped analyze how the mosquitoes would have flown toward or away from scents if they had been free of the pin.
Then they took it one step further. “We can glue them to a holder where they’re tethered in place, but flying, then we can cut this tiny little window in their head and record how the neurons in their olfactory system change as the animal is learning. We can also see how certain chemicals that are involved with memory and learning influence that processing of odor information,” Riffell says.
In mosquito brains, they found, dopamine is critical to the insect’s ability to learn, and helps motivate it to remember positive and negative associations—like being attacked by their food.
The researchers are still doing experiments to expand on this study, and are currently working to isolate which odors among the 300 or so compounds that go into a human scent are particularly alluring to mosquitoes. They’re also trying to figure out whether the protection accrued by one swat-happy human might extend to their neighbors, and how long a mosquito’s memory of a bad experience lasts. This study tested scent memories after just 24 hours, but mosquitoes live for about a month. So it’s possible that they might learn from their experiences for a lot longer than a single day.
“What we’re finding in general is that these mosquitoes evolved to be really effective biters of humans and disease vectors,” Riffell says. “Their learning ability causes this adaptiveness that make them even more effective at sticking around and biting people. It’s a difficult control problem in terms of eradicating these guys.”
There isn’t a perfect way to swat at a mosquito to keep it and its companions away from you forever, though the researchers hope that by understanding how mosquitoes choose who to bite, they might be able to cut off their blood supply in the future. In the meantime, if a single mosquito learns to avoid you, it might just pivot to your friend or pet as an alternative dish.
So instead of relying on a stray swing of the hand to save you, think of your friends: don’t miss.
In the past few years, a burst of media reports have suggested that young blood is some kind of medical panacea: Injecting it into an older person’s body would provide a plethora of rejuvenating benefits, so the story goes. Silicon Valley billionaire Peter Thiel has expressed interest in receiving infusions of young humans’ blood, and at least one company is working hard to create such treatments for aging moguls. But a study published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications suggests that we’ve got the whole thing backwards. Teen blood might not be a medicine, but the blood of the elderly could be toxic.
While infusing blood from a younger mouse into an older mouse had no effect on the elderly mouse in the latest study, infusing blood from an older mouse into a younger one caused a host of problems in organs and other tissues. The results suggest that the true driving factor behind aging may be molecules that accumulate inside older blood, as opposed to the loss of any therapeutic factors found in young blood.
“This study tells us that young blood, by itself, cannot work as medicine,” study author Irina Conboy, a bioengineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley tells Popular Science.So why all this hype about the benefits of young blood?
In 2005, Conboy and her colleagues published a study in Nature that went like this: They surgically joined older mice to younger mice, a technique called parabiosis, so that blood flowed freely between the two differently-aged rodents. The researchers found evidence of significant tissue repair in the older mice, suggesting that this exchange had done something positive for their health. Media coverage immediately fixated on the idea that it was indeed the blood that caused this improvement. But what was overlooked, according to Berkeley’s Conboy, was the fact that the rodents exchanged more than just blood while they were connected; the older mouse essentially received the benefits of younger lungs, kidneys, and other organ systems, too.
The study couldn’t say for sure that it was the blood that caused the tissue repair, says Conboy. So in the new study, the researchers sought to rule out all other explanations. They performed a new technique that exchanged blood without joining the mice together. This technique, according to Conboy, ensures that only blood is exchanged.
The researchers kept the exchange going until each older mouse had about half of its own blood and half of a younger mouse’s blood, and vice versa. After a month, they tested each mouse’s organ systems, including liver and brain cell development, as well as muscle tissue repair. While the older mice didn’t significantly improve at all, the younger mice actually declined in health. Each organ system declined, with particularly profound effects in brain cell development. In other words, the young blood did nothing for the older mice, but the older blood had pretty significant detrimental effects on the younger mice’s health.So what’s up with old blood?
Conboy and other researchers think there are certain molecules that accumulate in blood as a person (or mouse) ages. These molecules may inhibit cell growth and development. Conboy says that these inhibitors are likely dominant over the molecules found in younger blood, which would explain why the young mice in the experiment were sickened by elderly transfusions.
A key area of research now is to target those inhibitors with drugs, says Conboy. While there are lots of these inhibitors found in older blood, there may be a key group of them that act as regulators, controlling the rest. The researchers want to see how an older person’s organ systems might improve given the manipulation of these inhibitors. Conboy sees this as a potential treatment for a number of health conditions related to older age, including type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and immune decline – but there’s a lot of research to be done first.
So unfortunately, there seems to be no evidence to back up companies promoting the rejuvenating effects of young blood. Researchers may yet find ways to turn back the biological clock, but you can bet that old age won’t be defeated by something as simple as a transfusion.
“Aging is a complicated process,” says Conboy. “Doing good productive science is better than focusing on one silver bullet.”
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