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Overview of Independence Hall

Independence Hall is a historical civic structure in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where America’s Fore Fathers discussed and accepted the U. S. Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. The building, the focal point of Independence National Historical Park, has received the UNESCO World Heritage designation.

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The structure, which was built in 1753 as the State House of Pennsylvania, has served as the seat of government for the Provincial and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania since the state capital was relocated to Lancaster in 1799. From 1775 until 1781, it served as the Confederation Congress Congress’ primary gathering place. In the summertime of 1787, the Constitution Convention was held there.

This organization later evolved into the International community in 1920 and thus the Un a quarter century later.

Numerous guided walking tours and other outdoor and indoor activities are available to guests. The renowned Liberty Bell, among the most symbolic of the American Civil War, is housed inside the Liberty Bell Centre and is across the street.

Independence Hall is very close to Congress Hall. Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the most significant sites in American history; therefore, the Acknowledgement of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776, officially separating the country from the Kingdom of Britain.

History of Independence Hall in Philadelphia

Originally housing all three divisions of Pennsylvania’s colonial government, the structure was intended to serve as the Pennsylvania State House.

The 2nd Continental Congress and, subsequently, the Constitutional Convention held their meetings at the Assembly Room, which was lent by the Pennsylvania assembly. The Confederation Articles were approved in this room in 1781, and George Washington was named Commander in Commandant of the Continental Army in 1775.

The Proclamation of Independence and the United States Constitution were written in the Assembly room of Independence Hall, commonly referred to as “the cradle of America.”

The events of 1776 and 1787, which encompassed the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, respectively, have had a profound influence on legislators and political thinkers worldwide, as the values of freedom and democracy outlined in these treaties were designed to have a significant impact in a national context.

Even though the physical copies of these significant historical documents are now housed at the Archival Institution in Washington, visitors can still observe where the Constitution and Declaration of Independence were signed.

Architect Andrew Hamilton and builder Edmund Woolley created Independence Hall to accommodate the Pennsylvania State Assembly. It was a proud brick building in 1753 with a wooden tower that originally housed the Liberty Bell.

The structure has undergone numerous restorations, most notably those led by American Architect Haviland there in the 1830s and the National Park Service starting in the 1950s. Because the Second Continental Congress convened there in October 1775 and took the country’s initial moves toward independence from Great Britain.

Independence Hall is regarded as the birthplace of American freedom, as it was where the adoption of the Declaration of Independence took place. The 13 colonies’ delegates tried to prevent war with England; however, by June 1776, it was clear that warfare was inevitable.

Thomas Jefferson drafted the initial draft of the Declaration of Independence, but shortly after the end of June, delegates reconvened in the State House to vote. On July 4, 1776, the U.S. was founded after nine colonies voted to declare independence. On July 8, Colonel John Nixon stepped at the entrance of the State House and read the declaration to the people of Philadelphia. In celebration of the start of freedom, bells sounded across the city.


More than that, the Declaration of Independence’s signing and reading occurred at the State House. The American Constitution was written and ratified in 1781, and the Constitution’s Articles of Confederation were accepted in 1787. The completion of the Constitution happened on September 17, 1787, and it became operational on March 4, 1789, when the new Congress convened for the first time in Federal Hall in New York. The creation and raising of the very first American flag took place there.

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College Of Fine Arts School Of Music Symphony Hall Concert

CFA Musicians Perform Beethoven’s Ninth at Symphony Hall Tonight BSO’s Masur to lead BU Symphony Orchestra, Symphonic Chorus

Ken-David Masur, Boston Symphony Orchestra assistant director, is the guest conductor as the BU Symphony Orchestra and Symphonic Chorus perform Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 at CFA’s spring concert at Symphony Hall tonight. Photo courtesy of Ken-David Masur

Widely considered by many to be among the greatest compositions in the western musical canon, Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony will be performed tonight at Symphony Hall by the Boston University Symphony Orchestra and Symphonic Chorus. Ken-David Masur, assistant director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, will be the guest conductor of the annual spring concert presented by the College of Fine Arts School of Music. The evening’s dramatic program will also feature Arnold Schoenberg’s Friede auf Erden, op. 13.

The evening’s soloists are soprano Ji Eun Park (CFA’14), alto Kylee Slee (CFA’16), tenor John David Nevergall (CFA’16), and bass Joseph Hubbard (CFA’17). Scott Allen Jarrett (CFA’99,’08) is CFA acting director of choral activities and of BU’s Symphonic Chorus, which is made up of nearly 150 student singers from all the BU schools.

Arguably one of the best known, most performed symphonic works in the world—its resounding “Ode to Joy” is recognized the world over—Beethoven’s Ninth is also one of the most debated and deconstructed works in classical music. “Probably half of humanity can hum the little ditty that serves as the theme of the choral finale—a setting of Friedrich Schiller’s revolutionary-era drinking song, ‘Ode to Joy,’” composer and Brahms biographer Jan Swafford writes in Slate. But the piece has not suffered from its ubiquity. Composed when the composer was almost completely deaf, the symphony’s ambiguities and mysteries inspired Swafford to dub it “the musical Mona Lisa.”

Schoenberg, the pioneering 20th-century composer who created what is known as the 12-tone method of composition, a way of manipulating a series of all 12 notes in the chromatic scale, is also credited with developing several groundbreaking theories of composition, now reflected in many contemporary works, but jarring to musical tastes prevailing at the time. He conceived of the composition of music without a key or tonal center. Born in 1874, he wrote Friede auf Erden (Peace on Earth) in 1907, and it represents one of the last pieces composed during his tonal period. The text for the piece is taken from a poem by Swiss writer Conrad Ferdinand Meyer.

Although it might not be immediately apparent to concertgoers, tonight’s program has a kind of continuity. “Where does a work as unfamiliar as Friede auf Erden leave us in anticipation of one of our society’s most popular and beloved works, Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony?” asks Brett Kostrzewski (CFA’18), in the program notes. Kostrzewski, instruction and reserves coordinator at Mugar Memorial Library, who is working toward a doctorate in historical musicology, says the composers’ texts “at least bear some resemblance to each other in their pleas for peace and harmony among humanity; musically, too, they both present unsatisfactory pictures of society that must be replaced by some more satisfactory motive: for Schoenberg the ‘peace on Earth’ refrain, for Beethoven the ‘Ode to Joy.’” He goes on to say that both pieces “draw upon texts from the prevailing cultural aesthetic that preceded the composers’ own: Beethoven’s early Romanticism utilizes an Enlightenment poem, Schoenberg’s early Modernism uses a late Romantic poem. The two pieces together, then, present a four-pronged call for peace that spans three centuries—four, if you include tonight’s performance.”

Masur, son of the late New York Philharmonic director Kurt Masur and a 1996 alum of the CFA Tanglewood Institute, has been critically hailed as “fearless, bold,” and a “life-force” (San Diego Union-Tribune) and “a brilliant and commanding conductor with unmistakable charisma” (Leipzig Volkszeitung). He began his 2023–16 season leading the BSO at its summer home, the Tanglewood Music Center in Lenox, Mass., in a program of Weber, Schubert, and Beethoven, followed by summer concerts in Toyko, leading the Yomiuri Nippon Symphony Orchestra in an all-orchestra program of Dvorak, Schubert, and Beethoven. Masur also continues in his post as principal guest conductor of the Munich Symphony, and he returns twice a year to lead the National Philharmonic of Russia.

The Boston University Symphony Orchestra and Boston University Symphonic Chorus concert, presented by the CFA School of Music, is tonight, Tuesday, April 26, at 8 p.m., at Boston Symphony Hall, 301 Massachusetts Ave., Boston. Seating is general admission. Tickets are $25; student rush tickets are $10, available at the door today from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Members of the BU community receive one free ticket at the door on the day of the performance. Purchase tickets here or call 617-266-1200.

The event will be available via a live webcast.

Digital Marketing: Overview And Types

What Is Digital Marketing?

Digital marketing uses digital tools and mediums such as social media, emails, websites, search engines, and mobile applications to communicate about a product or service, conduct branding, influence customer behavior, and maintain successful customer relationship management. Digital marketing is quite similar to traditional marketing. But it leverages digital technologies to reach the target audience in an efficient manner thereby inculcating focused marketing strategies. Digital marketing encompasses a range of tactics and techniques, including search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), social media marketing, email marketing, content marketing, affiliate marketing, influencer marketing, and mobile marketing.

Why Is Digital Marketing Important?

Digital marketing helps build excellent customer relationships and makes interaction a lot easier. Customer engagement is high in social media handles which will have a positive impact on the business.

Scope of Digital Marketing

Technology growth will open up new doors for digital marketing since it is a field that constantly evolves. However, these are the major areas that are covered under the term digital marketing −

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) − Search Engine Optimization is a technique followed to optimize the content on a website to make it appear in the top search engine result pages (SERPs). This will help in generating organic traffic to the website which will predominantly consist of a target audience crowd in a particular niche.

Social Media Marketing − Such type of marketing campaign is carried out on the company’s or brand’s social media handles such as Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc. These campaigns are devised to launch products, engage with customers, put out a platform for honest reviews and feedback by a number of users, and reach a large audience.

Content Marketing − Content marketing strategies aims to deliver quality content to the target audience in multiple formats such as blog posts, videos, audio, podcasts, etc. Structuring intuitive content and delivering it in the proper format and style will appeal to a lot of valuable clients who are looking for quality information. Content marketing is an excellent way to build personal branding.

Email Marketing − Email marketing is a pioneer and one of the most effective channels in the digital marketing area. This type of marketing aims to connect with potential and is likely to be converted into client types of customers. It is also an excellent way of keeping in touch with existing clients and maintaining customer relationships. In most cases, email marketing also acts as a formal channel of communication between the company or brands and the customers.

Affiliate marketing − This type means partnering with other websites or individuals to promote products or services and earn a commission on sales generated through referrals. It is one of the oldest forms that has gained momentum in this era.

Influencer Marketing − This type means partnering with social media influencers to promote products or services to their followers. With the kind of reach social media has, influencers have grown in number. A lot of audiences believe in influencers and are inclined toward their opinions on products or services in a particular niche. Hence influencer marketing is a lucrative area of investment for companies involved in fashion, cosmetics, edtech, and healthcare.


To summarize, digital marketing has become a vital component of current business operations, and its significance will only expand in the future. Businesses can reach a larger audience, track outcomes, develop client relationships, and remain flexible and adaptive in a market that is continuously changing with the help of digital marketing. Businesses may interact with their target audience more meaningfully and achieve greater results by harnessing the potential of search engines, social media, email, mobile apps, and other digital channels. The world of digital marketing is, however, always evolving, and firms must keep up with the most recent developments and technologies in order to maintain a competitive edge.

The History And Evolution Of Digital Marketing: You Must Know!

In today’s article, we will learn the truth about the History And Evolution Of Digital Marketing in the next 180 seconds.

Today, it gets challenging to fathom a universe without the Internet. And since the inception of the Internet, various things like marketing, interconnection, and communication have eased and become very easy. The world would struggle tremendously if the Internet stopped for a day! Phew, that’s true!

Nowadays, due to the benefits that the internet and digital marketing offer, companies are now focused on gaining and retaining clients by developing a relevant and effective digital marketing strategy rather than focusing on the traditional and old ways.

In this article, we will get to know about the History and Evolution of Digital Marketing! Keep reading to know about it in detailed.

In the tech hub of India, Bangalore, where digital marketing courses play a crucial role in shaping the next generation of marketers, understanding the history and evolution of this field becomes paramount.

The institutes offer comprehensive insights into the digital marketing journey, from its humble beginnings to its current state of sophistication.

By strategically integrating this historical perspective into their curriculum, digital marketing courses in Bangalore provide students with a holistic understanding of the field, enabling them to navigate the ever-changing digital landscape confidently.

On the other hand, it also created a cut-throat competitive market for newly established businesses to survive.

It is not only salespeople or digital marketers we are talking about here. Daily, a considerable number of people (over 4.5 billion) also use digital materials and content.

Let us understand more about digital marketing and its benefits before learning the history and evolution of digital marketing!

Let’s go!

What Is Digital Marketing?

Companies used to market their products through newspapers, television, and radio. These options, however, are still accessible and are used by several retailers and business owners today.

8 Benefits of Digital Marketing in Upcoming Years

Let’s see what are the benefits of digital marketing in the upcoming years;

1. Provides Variety 2. Simple to Share 3. Conversion Rate Increases 4. Easily Measurable

Because digital marketing produces real-time outcomes, it results in high-end brand publicity. Digital marketing assists digital marketers and brand owners in understanding more about their sales and engagement rates. With digital marketing, more sales are generated, and the financial landscape of the organization as a whole improves.

5. High Engagement Rate

Digital marketing includes analytical tools such as Google Analytics and Google Planner, which offer information on the Ad campaign. Any issue can be fixed on the spot, and modifications may be implemented quickly. One may track the campaign’s inbound traffic, bounce rate, conversion rate, impressions and a lot more.

6. Larger Audience

Due to its increased global presence in today’s times, digital marketing operates as a global village. In a short period of time, you may reach millions of individuals. Traditional marketing allows you to target a certain location, city, or nation at a time, but digital marketing does not have this limitation.

7. Visibility & Growth of the Brand

In constructing a brand image, the statistics of digital marketing vs. conventional marketing vary. Traditional marketing focuses on simple methods of promoting a brand that may or may not be effective. Digital marketing strategies such as SEO, PPC, and SMM, on the other hand, guarantee returns and have the ability to convert the company into a household name.

8. Low Cost

Now that we have understood what digital marketing with its several benefits is, let us now dive into the history and evolution of digital marketing.

The History and Evolution of Digital Marketing

The phrase “digital marketing” was coined and first used in 1990. During the era, the Web 1.0 platform was built, which assisted users in finding the information they needed. However, they were unable to communicate this knowledge over the Internet. 

From 1990 to 2000 – 

More search engines and tools, such as HotBot, LookSmart, and Alexa, were introduced in 1996. chúng tôi was the first social networking site to be founded in 1997.

The year 1998 was a watershed moment for digital marketing since it was the year Google was created. In addition, Microsoft introduced MSN and Yahoo released Yahoo online search this year.

From 2000 to 2010 – 

The internet bubble burst two years later (in 2000), wiping out all of the smaller search engines. This frees up additional room and opportunity for the industry’s behemoths.

In 2002, LinkedIn, a professional social media network, was created. WordPress was released in 2003, while MySpace was launched the following year. Gmail was established in 2004. Facebook and Google both went public in the same year. After that, in 2005, YouTube was founded.

Another notable year was 2006, when search engine traffic was claimed to have increased by 6.4 billion in a single month. Microsoft debuted an MS live search this year, and Twitter was established at the same time. Simultaneously, Amazon’s e-commerce revenues have surpassed $10 billion.

Tumblr was founded in 2007. In addition, Hulu, an online streaming service, was created in this year. In the same year, Apple released the iPhone. In the year 2008, Spotify and Groupon were both launched.

From 2010 till now – 

Whatsapp and Google Buzz were both released in 2010. Google+ and Google Panda were introduced in 2011. People have already begun to devote time to various mediums, and their viewership has overtaken that of television.

Tumblr was purchased by Yahoo in 2013.

Snapchat released its Discover feature in 2023. Several new technologies, such as analytics, wearable technology, and content marketing, were also created this year. 

Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, Reddit, and other popular social networking sites in 2023 include Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, and Reddit. Facebook has 2.01 billion active users.

Now, let us take a look at a few digital marketing statistics which shows the profound growth digital marketing has seen after its evolution.

Digital Marketing Statistics [2023]

At least once a month, 85.4 percent of internet users look for information online.

On average, Google handles around 40,000 search inquiries each second. Every day, that’s nearly 3.5 billion searches!

Google controls a little more than 92 percent of the worldwide search engine market. Bing (2.75 per cent) and Baidu (2.75 per cent) are the next two most popular worldwide search engines (1.9 per cent).

Mobile devices account for more than 60 per cent of all Google searches.

92.3 per cent of smartphone users use their devices to do online searches.

70 per cent of smartphone owners use their devices to conduct more research before making a purchase in a shop.

Amazon is the starting point for 49 per cent of product searches, whereas Google is the starting point for 36 per cent.

If they can check inventory online, internet customers are 80 percent more inclined to visit a brick-and-mortar business.

Within a week, 88 percent of mobile users who use Google Maps to find a retailer visit a linked store – and 76 per cent visit within a week.

According to 86 percent of B2C marketers, content marketing is an important part of their strategy.

A content strategy isn’t documented in 63 percent of firms.

One of the top five content channels, according to 70 per cent of firms, is blog material.

Thought leadership blog entries appear in 41 percent of nurturing efforts.

At least once a month, 82.8 percent of internet users watch digital videos.

In nurturing programs, 31 percent of marketers employ video messaging.

At least once a month, 71.1 per cent of internet users listen to digital audio material.

In 48 per cent of nurturing marketing, webinars are employed.

At least once a month, 90.9 per cent of all internet users send an email.

With 2.7 billion monthly active users, Facebook is the most popular social media platform.

Users of TikTok engage 15 per cent more frequently than users of other social media sites.

In 2023, TikTok is predicted to have 1.5 billion users.

Social media is used in 50 per cent of nurturing marketing.

Facebook is used by 97 per cent of businesses for content marketing.

75 per cent of B2B buyers and 84 per cent of C-suite executives believe social media influences their purchase decisions.

In 2023, over 3.6 billion individuals utilized social media globally, with that figure expected to rise to about 4.41 billion by 2025.


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Example, Overview, And What To Include

Project Budget

Manage the costs of a project

Written by

Jeff Schmidt

Published March 16, 2023

Updated June 28, 2023

What is a Project Budget?

The Project Budget is a tool used by project managers to estimate the total cost of a project. A project budget template includes a detailed estimate of all costs that are likely to be incurred before the project is completed.

Large commercial projects can have project budgets that are several pages long. Such projects often have a large number of costs associated with them, such as labor costs, material procurement costs, and operating costs. The Project Budget itself is a dynamic document. It is continuously updated over the course of the project.

Corporate Finance Institute® offers a course on Budgeting and Forecasting that can help you learn more about creating a project budget!

The Importance of a Project Budget

Initially, the project budget allows the project manager to determine how much the project is likely to cost. Throughout the course of the project, it lets the project manager check whether or not the project is sticking to its budget.

Project Budget Example

Below is a project budget example template:

Let us look at the sample project budget template shown above. John is a project manager who is responsible for the completion of Project ABC. John organizes the project in a Work Breakdown Structure format (WBS format). Project ABC has 2 primary tasks. Each of these primary tasks has 3 secondary tasks associated with it. Finally, each secondary task has 2 tertiary tasks associated with it. Project ABC requires the use of labor and capital for its completion. The project budget template has separate sections for labor and capital.

For simplicity, it has been assumed that labor charges a specific wage rate for each of the primary tasks. In practice, wage rates can be different for each of the secondary and tertiary tasks. Moreover, some complex projects may require the use of other resources in addition to labor and capital.

Step 1

Let us look at Task 1: At the start of the project, John estimates the following about Task 1.

Labor: Task 1, which is a primary task, is going to take 40 hours. Of the 40 hours, 10 hours will be spent on task 1.1, 20 hours on task 1.2 and 10 hours on task 1.3. Of the 10 hours allotted for task 1.1, 5 hours each will be spent on tasks 1.1.1 and 1.1.2. Of the 20 hours allotted for task 1.2, 10 hours each will be spent on tasks 1.2.1 and 1.2.2. Of the 10 hours allotted for task 1.3, 5 hours each will be spent on tasks 1.3.1 and 1.3.2. Each hour of labor is expected to cost $20. Thus, task 1 is expected to incur labor costs totaling $800.

Capital: Task 1 requires 20 units of capital. Each unit of capital is expected to cost $50. Thus, task 1 is expected to incur capital costs worth $1,000.

Overall: Task 1 is expected to cost $1,800.

Step 2

Having made the above estimates, John gets to work with project ABC. However, when task 1 is finished, John realizes the following:

Labor: Task 1 actually took only 38 hours to finish. Task 1.1 took 12 hours, task 1.2 took 15 hours, and task 1.3 took 11 hours. Tasks 1.1.1 and tasks 1.1.2 each took 6 hours. Tasks 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 took 8 and 7 hours, respectively, and tasks 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 took 4 and 7 hours, respectively. In addition, each hour of labor actually charged $25 due to an increase in the market demand for labor. Thus, task 1 incurred labor costs of $950.

Capital: Task 1 actually needed 30 units of capital for its completion. Thus, task 1 incurred capital costs of $1,500.

Overall: Task 1, which was expected to cost $1,800, actually cost $2,450.

The same process is repeated for task 2. As can be seen from the project budget template above, Project ABC overshot its budget by $420.

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Additional Resources

Project Finance – A Primer

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The Rocky History Of A Missing 26,000

Earth is home to 14 “eight-thousanders,” summits that top off at more than 8,000 meters, or 26,247 feet, above sea level. All of these grand mountains tower over the Himalayas, the highest place in the world.

But our planet is dynamic—could there have been additional peaks like these, since lost? “We wanted to know whether, 830 years ago, the Earth and the Himalayas had one more,” says Jérôme Lavé, a geomorphologist at the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the University of Lorraine in France.

The answer, according to Lavé and his colleagues, appears to be yes. In a new paper, published in the journal Nature on July 6, they’ve found evidence of an ancient landslide that reshaped South Asia’s geography—and linked that to the collapse of a peak that would have once been one of the tallest mountains on Earth.

Lavé says his team first spotted the fingerprints of this medieval landslide not in the Himalayas, but far to the south, near the India-Nepal border, in the flat plains around the Narayani River.

To look for missing mountains, these plains are prime land for geomorphologists—scientists who study the evolution of the land under our feet (or, in this case, the land towering well above everyone but the hardiest mountaineers). Rivers like the Narayani carry sediments downslope, and those sediments can reveal much about the mountains where they originated.

For instance, Lavé and colleagues found medieval sediments with a carbonate content five times higher than average. This mineral fingerprint indicated that something had disrupted the Narayani’s flow. “A giant landslide occurring…seemed to me the most obvious avenue to explore,” Lavé says.

[Related: How to start mountain biking this summer]

They began plying uphill to find out more. The Narayani flows through the city of Pokhara, nestled in a valley less than 3,000 feet above sea level. But this is one of the steepest landscapes on Earth: looming over Pokhara is the Annapurna massif, a section of the Himalayas. (The massif’s crown jewel is its tallest peak: also named Annapurna, a proud member of the eight-thousand club.)

By studying images of the Annapurna massif, the team found geographic signs of an old landslide. In one subsection of the massif, called the Sabche cirque, they spotted strange features like pillars and pinnacles, markers of erosion.

The authors needed more samples. Collecting fragments from the plains is one thing. It was another to gather wood and rock from the Sabche cirque—they ventured up into the massif by helicopter. From these parts, they began to build the hazy image of a mountain that existed, long ago, until one catastrophic day around 1190 CE.

“They really managed to capture this event…both at the source as well as at the far sink of these sediments,” says Wolfgang Schwanghart, a geomorphologist at the University of Potsdam in Germany, who was not an author of the paper.

This is what Lavé and colleagues think happened: There once rose a second eight-thousander from the Annapurna massif. Then, it collapsed. The resulting rockslide thoroughly eroded the Himalayan landscape and poured sediment into the valley that now contains Pokhara, from where waters carried it downstream. This event played a major role in eroding the rock, reshaping the massif closer to what we see today.

The paper suggests that large, dramatic landslides may be a significant driver of erosion at high altitudes like this. “This is a mechanism that still needs to be further investigated, but this hypothesis may open new insights,” says Odin Marc, a geomorphologist at CNRS who was also not involved in the research.

What caused the mountain to collapse isn’t clear. A warming medieval climate might have melted mountaintop permafrost that otherwise strengthens the peak. Schwanghart, who has also studied the region’s geology, believes the answer may be earthquakes. He says the chronology indicates that three earthquakes struck Nepal around the time that Lavé and colleagues suggested the mountain collapsed, and one of them may have caused the mountain to topple in the first place.

[Related: There might be underground ‘mountains’ near Earth’s core]

Whatever happened, the new report reinforces the fact that mountains are constantly changing environments. We might see summits as eternal fixtures on the landscape, but if anything, they are the complete opposite.

After all, Himalayan landslides aren’t consigned to the past. In 2023, an avalanche and rockslide careened down a mountainside in Uttarakhand, India, around 300 miles northwest of Annapurna. The disaster burst a dam, and the resulting flood left some 200 people dead or missing.

If such a rockslide were to happen to Pokhara today, the results could be devastating. Pokhara is Nepal’s second-largest city (after the capital Kathmandu) and home to more than half a million people. Moreover, globally, evidence is mounting that a warming climate exacerbates the risk of mountain landslides. Just last month, the Alpine summit of Fluchthorn, nestled on the Swiss-Austrian border, abruptly collapsed in an event that scientists ascribed to thawing permafrost.

Mountain collapses like these may be more common than we realize. “In Alaska, you would find similar events—but often they go unnoticed, because there is no one around,” says Schwanghart.

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