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Setting up a single database per instance or server makes database management a piece of cake. However it can very quickly drive up the cost of your database solutions as you now have to purchase a new server and new SQL Server license for each database you wish to host.

In order to combat this expensive setup, people will typically host multiple databases (and therefore multiple applications) on a single server or instance. While this will begin to ease the costs of hosting all these various databases, it increases the complexity of managing these systems as you now have multiple Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and maintenance windows to work with.

When you decide to host several databases on the same server the first thing to look at is whether these systems have complementary maintenance windows. If one system cannot be slow or offline in the middle of the night, and another cannot be slow or offline during the middle of the day, these may not be the best systems to share a server as you will have effectively no maintenance window to work with in the event that you need to patch the system or take the system offline for other reasons.

The next deciding factor you need to look at is the SLAs for the systems. Systems that require 99% uptime can reside together since you will likely build a much more robust environment for these (a clustered solution perhaps) than you would for systems that are not mission critical. This can save you some additional costs as you now have fewer high-end systems to purchase. The systems with the higher service level agreements also probably have similar maintenance windows, so these systems will probably be complementary to begin with.

Of course the most important thing to consider when combining databases onto a single SQL Server is if there are enough CPU and memory resources to handle the load that the clients will be placing on the database server. If a single server cannot provide the required CPU and memory resources then combining the databases onto that server would not be a good choice.

After you have gone through this entire decision process and have put the databases onto the same server, how do we keep the systems healthy and running at their peak? Like any other database solution you will still need to handle your backups, index defrags and rebuilds, and patching of both the operating system and the SQL Server.

The biggest trick to handling the maintenance on SQL Servers with several databases on them is timing. You need to make sure that your maintenance tasks can all be performed within the scheduled window of all your databases being hosted on the SQL Server. Running the maintenance tasks outside of the maintenance window for any of the databases will cause all the databases to run slower as disk and CPU resources are now being taken up with maintenance activities instead of handling normal database queries.

For example let’s say that each week you check your index fragmentation and it shows 70% fragmentation. So you run an index rebuild to clean up the indexes.

However what happens if you check the index fragmentation the next day? It will probably be about 8-10% fragmentation. So if you run the defrag job daily instead of running the reindex job weekly there will be much less work to do each day and the job will complete much faster, possibly within the daily maintenance window.

And even if you can’t take the system offline during that window, as a defrag operation is an online operation the system will continue to function just with a slower response rate than normal while the defrag operation is running.

Backups are another key issue to address when dealing with multiple databases on a single server.

Each database may have its own backup requirements. Backing up databases is probably the most brutal task that can be performed on a live SQL Server. Not because of the amount of CPU power or RAM it takes (which is typically very low unless you are doing compression on the database while it is being backed up) but because of the massive amount of disk resources which are required to backup up a large database.

When performing a full backup the entire database must be read from the disk. If you have a very busy disk system, the backup could bring performance to its knees. The best solution for this is proper timing. You may also need to look to a third party tool that allows for database backup compression while the backup is running. As this will increase the CPU load on the SQL Server, it will usually greatly decrease the time it takes to complete the backup as much less data needs to be written to the backup device.

These are only a couple of the techniques which can be used to help maintain the database server while running several databases on the single system. Hopefully you will find them useful while working on your database consolidation projects.

You're reading Managing Multiple Databases On A Single Server

Single Sign On Vs Multi

Single Sign On vs Multi-Factor Authentication: Which Is Better? Single Sign On or MFA for your security? Your choice




Single sign-on (SSO) is a way to log into multiple services using a single set of credentials.

It can be very convenient for users, but it’s also useful for IT administrators because it allows them to manage all of their users’ authentication needs from a central location.

But, is SSO really superior to MFA? Read on to find out.

Create multiple user accounts in one go

Modify the attributes of multiple users at once using CSV file import

Enable or disable users, and set account expiration dates of users in bulk

Change passwords of a single or multiple users

Manage all the Active Directory (AD) processes and workflows with one tool!

Single Sign On (SSO) is a convenient way to log in to multiple applications and websites with a single user ID and password. In contrast, Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) requires users to provide additional verification to prove their identity.

Most people are familiar with and have even set up their PCs with multi-factor authentication in Windows 11. In this article, we will compare Single Sign On vs Multi-Factor Authentication. We shall also discuss some of the most prominent solutions used in the market today.

Is there a difference between MFA and 2FA?

Multifactor authentication (MFA) and two-factor authentication (2FA) are two different approaches to the same goal: adding an extra layer of security to your accounts.

It’s common for people to use the terms interchangeably, or even incorrectly. But there is a difference between MFA and 2FA. 2FA is short for two-factor authentication, which is a type of MFA.

MFA makes it more difficult for unauthorized users to access your account by requiring a second authentication factor before they can log in. A second factor is usually something you know (like a password), but it can also be something you have (like a phone). 

With MFA, the second factor must be provided every time you sign in or perform any actions on your account. This means that if someone tries to log in using just their email address and password, they won’t be able to do so unless they have access to your mobile device.

1. Ease of use

Users can log in once with their credentials and then access all other applications that are part of the SSO system. This makes it easier for them because they don’t have to remember multiple sets of login credentials and passwords for different applications. 

Also, when doing so, they will not have to deal with additional password prompts or any other issues that may occur due to using different passwords for each application or service.

The administrator can also benefit from a unified user interface when managing these accounts because they all share the same login page and interface, making it easier for them.

2. More secure authentication

SSO can greatly reduce security risks by reducing the number of credentials that attackers would need in order to gain unauthorized access.

By eliminating the need for each application to maintain its own authentication system, you can reduce the risk of sharing credentials across multiple systems or having your user database compromised by hackers who steal information from one site and use it on another site as well.

3. Reduces costs

Single sign-on (SSO) is a technology that allows users to authenticate themselves to multiple applications with a single set of credentials. It reduces IT support costs because there is only one password standard that needs to be enforced across all applications.

With SSO, users can access multiple applications without having to log in for each one separately. IT can also enforce stronger password policies since they do not have to manage multiple sets of rules for various applications or databases.

4. Centralized management

Because there are fewer components to manage, it’s easier to keep up with updates as they become available. A single set of user profile information can be used by all applications. This means that IT doesn’t have to create new accounts for users in individual systems.

Additionally, if one component fails, it doesn’t necessarily affect other components. This is because they’re not interconnected as they would be in a multi-component solution.

5. Increase productivity

SSO is essential for some business functions, such as human resources (HR) applications, that require employees to access multiple systems throughout the day. 

With single sign-on, users don’t have to enter their username and password before logging into each application separately.

Expert tip:

While Active Directory is the heart of your organization’s infrastructure, it can be difficult to manage. There are many tools that can help you with management, but many of them don’t integrate with multi-factor authentication (MFA).

There are many ways to manage Active Directory while keeping it secure, including using MFA (multi-factor authentication) to protect your users.

ADManager Plus is a user-friendly and feature-rich administration and reporting tool for Active Directory. It allows you to easily manage your Active Directory environment, including but not limited to user accounts, groups, computers, and distribution groups.

The software comes with built-in support for multi-factor authentication (MFA). It can be used in conjunction with other apps to provide secure access to your network resources by requiring users to authenticate through an additional means after they have entered their credentials.

Other features include:

Simplified AD management activities

Bulk computer management

Audit management

ADManager Plus

Get the best Active Directory management tool to keep track of any network events easily.

Free trial Visit website

ADSelfService Plus allows you to configure different security policies and access levels for different types of users in your company. For example, you can give some users the ability to reset their own passwords while others will not have this right at all.

ADSelfService Plus also supports multi-factor authentication (MFA) and single sign-on (SSO). If you’re looking for an AD solution with the best of both worlds, this here is the perfect fit for you.

Other features include:

ADSelfService Plus

Sign on once or enable MFA for multiple applications with a tool that offers the perfect SSO and MFA for Active Directory.

Free Trial Go to website

ADAudit Plus is a cloud-based tool that allows you to monitor and manage all of your Active Directory users, groups, and computers. It also has the ability to monitor for changes in policies and configurations.

Although you can enable SSO in ADAudit Plus, you have to do it through a third-party access management service such as OneLogin or Okta.

You can use it to identify users whose accounts are configured in a way that makes them vulnerable to phishing attacks.

Other features include:

Integration with third-party tools

Fulfils most compliance standards

Comprehensive search feature

ADAudit Plus

Ensure security and compliance in your network with the best Active Directory auditing tool.

Free trial Visit website

Do I need MFA if I have SSO?

If you have SSO, then you don’t need MFA. This is because when you log in, you are already authenticated before you enter your password. However, the big question is whether SSO is more secure than MFA. While SSO may be ideal in a number of situations, it is not perfect.

In some cases, it’s not a good fit as it raises some security concerns with SSO. For example, if someone breaks into a company server, they can get all the user credentials. Once they access all the different servers, they become compromised.

If you want to ensure that no one can get access to your account if they steal your password, then you should enable multi-factor authentication (MFA). Further, some reliable password managers will also come in handy if you don’t want to burden yourself with remembering all your passwords.

We have also outlined best practices for your Active Directory account to help you set it up if you’re a beginner.

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Managing Appication Performance With Appdynamics

Introduction to AppDynamics Tool

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Explanation of AppDynamics Tool

The approach taken by these tools is not similar to other tools. They use analytics, and the details of every application are taken into consideration. This will not only help the AppDynamics but also the logs of the applications. For every transaction done in the application, the tool collects the details, whether it is basic or detailed, and this makes the AD tool more friendly to anyone who uses it. Because of any detail, be it basic or more detailed, can be seen in the reports or logs of this tool.

The AD tool can be used in production as well as development environments. In a production environment, all the transaction with its performance is noted down by the tool. This is mainly built for production environments as the tool itself follows an agile approach within itself. Normal performance is noted down, and alarms are given if any issues are found in the application. This gives the proper response time for the application in the tool.

A comparison is done for the response time and the user’s response time. This comparison helps to find out the tool’s performance with the self-learning curve. Troubleshooting can be done easily as the agent automatically collects all the details, even for normal behavior. This is an example of an analytics method, and this helps the tool to find out the alerts set for different problems. Hence the user can fix it very well as these are set before any major impact so as to ensure proper working of the application with the help of the tool.

We know that if the data is captured deeply, all the information related to the working of the application and its environments can be identified easily. But this data capturing is not easy as it requires more resources and more storage. AD tool has come as a rescue over here as it records the entire working of the application even if the app does not show any mode of failure. This makes the tool to use its analysis power to manage the performance of the application.

This recording helps to monitor the application and use it in testing and also in pre-production environments. Every request and every transaction are noted down or recorded by the AD tool, which helps to monitor the application’s performance. If the developer is left with any other work, they can instruct the tool to work by itself or stop when the transaction volume is more than the limit. Hence, the tool stops by itself if it feels the volume is increased or that enough information is collected. This alert helps the system to work well, and its performance is not halted due to overworking hours.

Agents are working along with the AD tool, and they monitor the performance of the application, support the infrastructure of the tool, and know the tool in and out. This makes the tool to work efficiently with human support. They know the entire application ecosystem and its environment, and the performance data logs are taken. This log data is sent to the controllers so that the application performance can be seen. This visual representation is done through a user interface in the system.

Accessibility issues will not happen in this tool as it is designed to work in any environment suitable for the application with all the access rights. Agents are working with the controllers, and real-time performance is seen. This helps boost the performance and orchestrate the bandwidth of the application and the tool being used.

The application in any environment will make many requests. The agents know these requests through the tool, and these requests are made to create a request map. This helps to manage and visualize the performance of the application along with the transaction history.

When a transaction is made, be it a business transaction or file transfer, the details, including a request made, response time, resolution time, and the files corresponding to the transaction, is taken care of. This helps to manage the requests in a log analytics manner with all the details in hand. Failure of the application will not be a worry, or can I say that the application will not fail if proper monitoring is done along with the AD tool monitoring?

Being part of Cisco, AppDynamics tools have incorporated machine learning and artificial intelligence to monitor and manage data. Several machine learning techniques such as anomaly detection, regression, and many others will be helpful to monitor and detect spams and unauthorized requests. This will reduce the work of agents who monitor the AD tool in the system. Also, machine learning helps to gather data and create logs by itself rather than creating reports in the system with external tools. Business performance metrics are identified and created with the help of machine learning. This helps to diagnose the problems in the application and to manage them perfectly. Autoscaling is another technique used in the AD tool with the help of Artificial Intelligence.

Conclusion – AppDynamics Tool Recommended Articles

This is a guide to AppDynamics Tool. Here we discuss the explanation of the AppDynamics Tool in detail for better understanding. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

Cvs On The Mac Server: Versatile Versioning

Today, I’d like to talk about CVS on the Mac OS X server, and why I prefer Mac OS X Server as a CVS server in a heterogeneous environment, or at least mine. First, yes, I know, Subversion is an excellent source code management system as well, and the fact that I don’t mention it other than here should not, in any way, be taken as a knock against it. I just happen to use CVS more, that’s all.

As most of you know, CVS is a version control management system for source code. Well, you can use it for almost any kind of file versioning, but it really works best with plain text source code files. It supports branching, tagging, merging, etc. It’s open source, it’s free, it runs on pretty much every computing platform, and of course, it comes standard with Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server.

Now, I’m not going to get into the hows and whats of CVS, that’s beyond the scope of this article, or this column really. But I will talk about why I use CVS on Mac OS X Server. Again, keep in mind that my environment is a heavy Windows environment. Traditionally, our PC / non-Mainframe developers have used Microsoft’s SourceSafe for version control. This works well as long as your primary environment is Visual Studio. You can connect other IDEs into Visual SourceSafe, but it really works best with Visual Studio.

However, we have had more of our mainframe tools being moved over to Eclipse-based environments. Now, Eclipse is a great environment, I like it a lot, especially for Java development, (no surprise there, Eclipse is designed for Java development). One of the things Eclipse works really well with is, of course, CVS. It has excellent support for CVS built into the product. Now, while good CVS support on Unix systems is pretty much a given, getting CVS working on Windows can be…tricky. Eclipse has this all built in, including support for CVS over SSH.

Normally, if you want to host your CVS repository on a single server, you would use the pserver protocol. It’s a nice little protocol, but it’s not secure, and you have to maintain a dedicated user/password database for it. If you have only a few developers, that’s not a big deal. If you have a lot, and you want encryption, that’s a problem.

The answer, of course, is SSH. CVS directly supports using SSH as the transport protocol to get to the repository. Eclipse supports this quite nicely.

So all of this is very nice, but why Mac OS X Server? Almost any Unix system, or even windows, with CVSNT can be a CVS repository. Yes, but Mac OS X Server, thanks to its Active Directory integration, makes things simpler.

First, it already has CVS. So, with a bit of even rudimentary CVS knowledge, you can set up your repositories with ease. Secondly, it can use Active Directory or Open Directory as its directory service for authentication, including for SSH. So, instead of having to keep a separate CVS user database, you just use the one you already have. While you aren’t going to easily get Single–Signon SSH from a Windows machine, at least your CVS users can just use their standard logins to get to the repository in a secure fashion. Secure = good.

Finally, because of its support for ACLs, you can easily manage access to Mac OS X Server CVS repositories from the standard Active Directory MMC snap-ins. Add groups, change groups, etc., and it all just works.

In my own experiences, using Mac OS X Server as a CVS repository has been nothing but painless, and the developers like that they don’t have to remember yet another login that has to be changed ever 60 days. Like many other things on Mac OS X, it just works.

Next page: Ray Noorda: a Remembrance

Select Multiple Items From A Drop Down List In Excel

‘ To allow multiple selections in a Drop Down List in Excel (without repetition) Dim Oldvalue As String Dim Newvalue As String Application.EnableEvents = True On Error GoTo Exitsub If Target.Address = “$C$2” Then If Target.SpecialCells(xlCellTypeAllValidation) Is Nothing Then GoTo Exitsub Else: If Target.Value = “” Then GoTo Exitsub Else Application.EnableEvents = False Newvalue = Target.Value Application.Undo Oldvalue = Target.Value If Oldvalue = “” Then Target.Value = Newvalue Else If InStr(1, Oldvalue, Newvalue) = 0 Then Target.Value = Oldvalue & “, ” & Newvalue Else: Target.Value = Oldvalue End If End If End If End If Application.EnableEvents = True Exitsub: Application.EnableEvents = True

Ans: To get this multiple selection drop-down in other cells, you need to modify the VBA code in the backend. Suppose you want to get this for C2, C3, and C4, you need to replace the following line in the code:

If Target.Address = “$C$2” Then

with this line:

If Target.Address = “$C$2” Or Target.Address = “$C$3” Or Target.Address = “$C$4” Then

Q: I need to create multiple drop-downs in entire column 'C'. How do I get this for all the cells in the columns with multi-select functionality? Ans: To enable multiple selections in drop-downs in an entire column, replace the following line in the code: If Target.Address = "$C$2" Then with this line: If Target.Column = 3 Then On similar lines, if you want this functionality in column C and D, use the below line: If Target.Column = 3 or Target.Column = 4 Then Q: I need to create multiple drop-downs in a row. How can I do this? Ans: If you need to create drop-down lists with multiple selections in a row (let's say the second row), you need to replace the below line of code: If Target.Address = "$C$2" Then with this line: If chúng tôi = 2  Then Similarly, if you want this to work for multiple rows (let's say second and third row), use the below line of code instead: If chúng tôi = 2  or chúng tôi = 3 Then Q: As of now, the multiple selections are separated by a comma. How can I change this to separate these with space (or any other separator). Ans: To separate these with a separator other than a comma, you need to replace the following line of VBA code: Target.Value = Oldvalue & ", " & Newvalue with this line of VBA code: Target.Value = Oldvalue & " " & Newvalue Ans: Yes you can. To get this, you need to replace the below line of VBA code: Target.Value = Oldvalue & ", " & Newvalue with this line of code: Target.Value = Oldvalue & vbNewLine & Newvalue vbNewLine inserts a new line in the same cell. So whenever you make a selection from the drop-down, it will be inserted in a new line. Q: Can I make the multiple selection functionality work in a protected sheet? Ans: Yes you can. To get this done, you need to do two things: Add the following line in the code (right after the DIM statement): Me.Protect UserInterfaceOnly:=True Second, you need to make sure the cells - that have the drop-down with multiple selection functionality - are not locked when you protect the entire sheet. Here is a tutorial on how to do this: Lock Cells in Excel

You May Also Like the Following Excel Tutorials:

Virtualmin Review: A Free Web Server Control Panel

Virtualmin has two versions, VirtualMin GPL which is open source and free to use, as well as Virtualmin Professional with added features and support. All prices are for one server hosting a max number of domains:

10 annual license: $139.00

50 Annual License: $199.00

100 Annual license: $299.00

250 annual license: $399.00

Unlimited: $499.00

Unlimited Lifetime: $999.00

How would you like to be able to manage multiple Linux virtual servers (or even one server for that matter) from one simple web-based GUI? Look no further than Virtualmin, a web hosting control panel for Linux and Unix systems. You can manage, modify, and control virtual domains, mail servers, databases, file servers, applications and more from one simple to use dashboard. Plus, you have four options for using virtualmin: web, mobile, command line, and remote API.Virtualmin has two versions, VirtualMin GPL which is open source and free to use, as well as Virtualmin Professional with added features and support. All prices are for one server hosting a max number of domains:

The Virtualmin download page list the steps to install Virtualmin on your server.

Note that Virtualmin has a setup script that makes installation easier, but it will only work with certain operating systems (Virtualmin calls them grade A):

CentOS 5 and 6 on i386 or x86_64

RHEL 5 and 6 on i386 and x86_64

Scientific Linux 6 on i386 and x86_64

Debian 6 on i386 or amd64

Ubuntu 8.04 LTS and 10.04 LTS on i386 or amd64

You can use Virtualmin with other server OS’s, but the script will probably not work, which makes installing a bit more of a hassle. There is a way to “fake” the install script to thinking it’s installing on a grade A OS. For example, if you want to install Virtualmin on Ubuntu 11.10, a simple change will make the chúng tôi script think it’s being installed on versions 10.04 LTS. (no guarantees that this will work with every system)

replace “Ubuntu 11.10 n l” with “Ubuntu 10.04.02 LTS”

Save the file (Ctrl + o) and exit (Ctrl + x)

Note: The Ubuntu LTS (long term support ) releases are considered grade A by VirtualMin, but as of this writing Ubuntu’s 12.04 LTS is not listed.

Install Virtualmin

Download the script:


u+x chúng tôi the install script:





chúng tôi long as you have a grade A system (or at least fake that you have one), the script will handle the entire install process. When it’s finished, all you need to do is open a browser and go to port 10000 on that server:


Try Virtualmin yourself by using the free online demo.

Chuck Romano

Chuck Romano is a business and technology professional with over 10 years experience in document imaging and 11 years in computer repair. Chuck provides results driven expertise in fields such as Healthcare IT, document imaging/workflow systems, marketing, and management. He is a Linux enthusiast and evangelist.

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Update the detailed information about Managing Multiple Databases On A Single Server on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!