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Discussions about money were considered vulgar in my family and certainly not appropriate topics for women and girls. My father listened to wool market prices over the radio at lunch. We knew when prices were high, the good times rolled. Perhaps not the best lesson, but it did remind us even as children that money and good times were connected.

But that was the 1950s and the thinking was transactional. Money in… money out.

In our family, cash was a scarce commodity. Generally, women were reliant on men to provide a weekly allowance to cover household expenses. Clever housewives saved a little bit in a discreet place for a rainy day. Mortgages and loans were men’s business. My mother and her friends knew little about the financial status of the farms they lived on and were frequently shocked when rural loans were recalled, and they had to leave their properties.

These were powerful lessons for their children.

I was financially illiterate when I left school at 16 to attend university, but I had a well-paid scholarship with a living allowance and knew I had to survive on that or find work. There were no other options.

Live within your budget and get an education

Now it is unthinkable that I would not read financial magazines and newspapers every day. And I love Economics.

Keep learning

I joined the workforce in 1962 as a graduate teacher and men and women had equal pay. It was breathtaking to have autonomy and agency over our money. We imagined an independent professional life but that was made very difficult by an early retirement age.

If we had children, our careers were short. If we continued to work, it would be as casual or temporary staff members and after the costs of childcare, usually paid by women there was no disposable income left.

Few of us would have had the luxury of a conversation about generating wealth, investing, or building a business.

Be a homeowner

For me that was in my sixties when children had finished education and I had some disposable money.  I became a cautious investor in businesses I understood.  I invested in some of our cattle and began developing a balanced portfolio which as a widow now stands me in good stead.

Know the business you invest in

The ramble through the decades tells of women’s relationships with money. This may seem quaint, to readers, but remember our early experiences define us. It is hard to change ingrained thoughts and habits around money and easy to lose confidence when a bank manager suggests you let your husband manage your checking account in 1965 and refuses you a loan for a car because you have no adult family members to be guarantors. This was true in 1963. It is not so long ago.

I share these stories because they still influence our attitudes and the Australian gender pay gap is one of the highest in the world.

This piece was written by Wendy McCarthy AO. McCarthy will be speaking at the Forbes Women’s Summit on March 22 in Sydney. Her latest book is called Don’t Be Too Polite Girls.

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Revealed: Facebook’S Secret Rules For Policing Your Content

Revealed: Facebook’s secret rules for policing your content

Facebook has pulled back the curtain on its Internal Enforcement Guidelines, the long-mysterious rules by which its community standards team decides what’s appropriate for the social network. Controversy around those rules has circulated for many years, with Facebook accused of giving little insight into the ways it decides which photos, videos, and posts should be removed, and which are “safe” to stay online.

“We decided to publish these internal guidelines for two reasons,” Monika Bickert, Vice President of Global Policy Management at Facebook, said today. “First, the guidelines will help people understand where we draw the line on nuanced issues. Second, providing these details makes it easier for everyone, including experts in different fields, to give us feedback so that we can improve the guidelines – and the decisions we make – over time.”

Facebook uses a combination of tech and human moderators in order to attempt to sift through what’s shared on the site. Potentially problematic content is spotted either using artificial intelligence or reports from other users, the company says, and are passed on to the more than 7,500 human content reviewers. They work 24/7 in over 40 languages, Facebook says.

For example, Facebook says it won’t allow hate speech about “protected characteristics.” These include ace, ethnicity, national origin, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, sex, gender, gender identity, and serious disability or disease. However there are only “some protections” around immigration status, and there are three “tiers of severity” by which posts are judged.

Aven with guidelines, then, the system can’t be infallible. Indeed, there are thousands of words split across the multiple sections of the community standards guidance; expecting each individual team member to reach the same conclusion for every incident is impossible. With that in mind, Facebook has also added a new appeals process.

For the first time, there’ll be the opportunity to appeal a decision by a content moderator, and get a second opinion. If some content of yours – whether photo, video, or text post – has been removed, you’ll get a message explaining how it went against Facebook’s standards. There’ll be a link to request a review, which will be carried out by a person, and “typically within 24 hours,” Facebook promises.

If the second moderator thinks differently, the post will be restored. “We are working to extend this process further, by supporting more violation types, giving people the opportunity to provide more context that could help us make the right decision, and making appeals available not just for content that was taken down, but also for content that was reported and left up,” Facebook’s Bickert says.

It’s all part of Facebook’s attempt to better control – and do so more transparently – what’s going on across the site, particularly in the wake of controversies around its involvement in the 2023 US presidential election. Come May, Facebook Forums: Community Standards will debut, a series of public events that will take place in the US, UK, Germany, France, India, Singapore, and other locations. There, Bickert hopes to “get people’s feedback directly.”

5 Rules For Choosing The Best Color For Your Label Artwork

What is The Color Combination?

Color combinations are the simplest way to arrange colors in your artwork. Once you have learned the basics of color theory, you can combine colors by adding more or less white to your colors.

If you want to create a variety of colors, you can mix two primary colors or one primary and one secondary color. Some designers prefer to use color extractors because it gives them more options for creating more complex looks.

If you want to create a monochromatic look, simply add black to your base color. This technique is often used with black-and-white photography, where only one color is used for all of the images in an album or collection.

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Why do You Need to Choose The Best Color Combinations?

There are many reasons to choose the best color combination for your label artwork.

Your label artwork must be legible and easy to read, so you should avoid using colors that are difficult to see or that have a lot of contrast.

The main reason why we recommend using black and white as your base colors for your label artwork is that it makes it easier on the eyes. This is especially true when you are working with small font sizes and low-resolution images. In addition to that, black and white make it easier for people to detect where certain elements of your design are located on the page.

5 Rules for Choosing The Color Combination 1. Choose The Right Color Based on Your Product Category

The color you choose for your label artwork should also be considered when you are choosing your product category. For example, if you are selling a food product, a bright red color will draw attention to your products and make them easier to read. On the other hand, if your product is made of paper and you want it to look more professional, then choose a color that matches its texture.

If you are selling clothing or accessories, then a black background can be very effective in attracting customers because it helps them focus on what they are looking at. However, if you make these items out of leather or cloth, they might not look as good in black.

2. Make Your Brand Conspicuous by Choosing A Different Color

The most obvious way to make your brand more conspicuous is to use a different color. You can choose any color you like, but if you want to make sure people notice it, try one that contrasts with the rest of your design. For example, if your logo is green, don’t put it on a white background.

You should also avoid using black and white as your base color scheme because this will not stand out. Black and white tend to be bland, which means they’re not as easy to read as other colors. It’s okay to use bright colors for your logo and branding materials, but you should avoid making them too loud or harsh looking.

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3. Use High-Contrast Colors

If you want people to notice what you have written or drawn on your packaging or website, then it needs to be visible against the background. This means that there should be some contrast between what’s written or drawn and what is behind it so that people can easily see what they’re looking at.

For example, if someone looks at a picture of a car on a website and then sees an arrow pointing towards it, they will probably think that there is something there that makes your brand unique and does have something to define you differently.

4. Choose The Color That Works Well for Children and Adults Alike

Choosing the right color palette can be an art. There are so many shades and hues to choose from! Here are some tips for finding the right colors for your project:

2. Color names: Make sure that the names of colors you use are comprehensible to everyone who will be using them — including yourself! It’s helpful if everyone knows what each color means so that everyone can work together on projects without confusion or frustration.

3. Choose complementary colors: For example, red and orange work well together because they contrast with one another (in fact, they’re both considered complementary to one another). But if you use these two colors together in an art project (like this one!), it doesn’t mean they’ll look good together — they just won’t look good together!

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5. Get Professional Help If You’re Not Sure


Color combination is an essential part of your artwork management solution and hence the above rules will help you decide on a color that works for your brand.

Amazon Prime Day Was A Complete Bust… Or Was It?

Amazon Prime Day was a complete bust… or was it?

Now that the dust has settled from Amazon Prime Day, it’s clear that the Seattle-based online retailer wasn’t just using overblown hyperbole to get rid of some of its online inventory. It also didn’t miscalculate. Rather, the response was more likely exactly what Amazon expected. As we previously reported, there were some great deals to be found, but for the most part, Prime Day was ridiculed for featuring discounts on seemingly random or even off-the-wall crazy items.

Of course, that only garnered more media attention. And yes, it helped the company get rid of some of its more eclectic inventory. But in all likelihood, it was even more calculated than that. Imagine for a moment if Prime Day were filled with nothing but stellar deals on the sexy big-ticket items. $100 off video game consoles, 50%+ savings on laptops, deeply discounted furniture, etc.

Instead, casual users found themselves heading to all sorts of unusual products, if nothing else than for the amusement of seeing what everyone was complaining about.

And as we all know, the Amazon website is built like a casino — all the company needs to do is get you in, and at least some fraction of people will look around and suddenly get lost until they realize they just blew some of their money.

And for the lucky people who stalked the stagnated offers throughout the day, they got some genuinely great deals. For everyone else, Prime Day turned into some kind of buzzworthy gag that encouraged even the less-interested crowd to dig in and browse through all of the available deals.

Sure, they probably started off looking at the shoehorns and lime-colored tennis shoes, but could have very well ended up coming across something they actually needed as well. These customers might not have even bothered to check the Prime Day deals if there wasn’t so much social media curiosity about it. And those are exactly the kinds of customers Amazon wanted to attract.

Some of the analysis of Prime Day sharply criticized Amazon’s strategy that ranged from calling it a miscalculation all the way to a complete failure, as if some random teenage blogger really believed he understood Amazon’s business goals better than the six-figure-salary managers who meticulously orchestrated the whole thing.

When questioned about the criticism, Amazon offered no sympathy at all and instead proclaimed that the day was a complete success. The fact that the online giant did not even give credence to the complaints proves that the reactions were exactly what it expected.

And in all honesty, how many people are never going to shop from Amazon again as a result of #PrimeFail? At the end of the day, Amazon is still the best online retailer in the world. And if it tries to promote “Prime Day” again next year, will it be a flop? Considering this year went perfectly according to plan, probably not.

Capitalization Rules In English

In English, a capital letter is used for the first word of a sentence and for all proper nouns (words that name a specific person, place, organization, or thing).

In some cases, capitalization is also required for the first word in a quotation and the first word after a colon.

Capitalization rules


Don’t capitalize

People Names (and words derived from them); nationalities; titles when used as part of a name

the works of Aristotle

a Freudian psychoanalyst

the Brazilian actor

the campaign of Senator Sanders

Occupations; titles when not used as part of a name

the magazine’s managing editor

an elderly professor

the left-wing senator

Places Names of specific continents, countries, states, cities, regions, monuments and landmarks

South America

the West Coast of the US

the Eiffel Tower

the River Thames

Directions and general areas

head north

the west of the city

the longest river in the world

Times Days of the week and months of the year; historical eras and named events; holidays

a Monday in July

the Middle Ages

the Napoleonic Wars

Christmas Day

Centuries, decades, seasons

an eighteenth-century painting

the fashion of the fifties

a summer vacation


Organizations, companies and brand names

Religions and deities



Animal and plant species



Theories and models

Medical conditions

Recognizing proper nouns

A proper noun is the specific name of a person, place, organization, or thing. All proper nouns (as well as adjectives derived from them) should be capitalized.

Michelle Obama, the former first lady, was raised in Chicago and is a graduate of Harvard Law School.

A common noun, on the other hand, refers to a general, non-specific category or entity. Common nouns are not normally capitalized (unless they are the first word of a sentence or part of a title).

Monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy are forms of government classified according to which people have the authority to rule.

There are no proper nouns in the example above. Words like democracy, government and authority refer to general concepts and categories rather than specific names.

Common nouns often become proper nouns when used to name a specific entity:

Common noun Proper noun

The nations of the world The United Nations

The local church The Catholic Church

A conservative viewpoint The Conservative Party

A vast canyon The Grand Canyon

An application for business school Columbia Business School

Times and events

Specific periods and named events in history are proper nouns and thus capitalized. Centuries, however, stay in lowercase.

The Middle Ages were dismissed as backward by Renaissance thinkers.

The Paleozoic Era began 541 million years ago.

The Great Depression affected virtually every country in the world.

Impressionism was a pivotal artistic development in the nineteenth century.

Days of the week (e.g., Wednesday), months of the year (e.g., August), and holidays and festivals (e.g., Christmas, Ramadan) are capitalized. However, the four seasons are common nouns and therefore not capitalized unless they appear as part of a proper noun.

I plan on visiting New York in the summer.

I plan on attending the Summer Olympics next year.

Directions and regions

I live five miles north of London.

Warm, westerly winds passed through the city.

The fire affected only the northern region of the forest.

However, capitalization is required for these words when they are part of a proper name or when they refer to a distinct region.

The North Pole has a wider variety of animal life than the South Pole.

The scope of the book is limited to the history of Western civilization.

Cameroon’s East Region borders the Central African Republic.

Whether a geographical area is named as a distinct region can vary between countries.

They took a road trip down the West Coast of the United States.

We took a road trip up the west coast of Scotland.

If you’re unsure whether to capitalize the name of an area or region, check a dictionary or consult academic sources for common usage.

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

Academic style

Vague sentences


Style consistency

See an example

Theories, models and disciplines

In academic writing, some types of nouns are often incorrectly capitalized. The table below shows academic terms that should not be capitalized. Note, though, that proper nouns within these terms are still capitalized as usual.

Type Examples

Theories string theory, psychoanalytic theory, Einstein’s theory of relativity

Models five-factor model of personality, Bohr atomic model

Disciplines and subjects sociology, economics, French, Japanese

Schools of thought rationalism, German idealism

However, note that the names of existing tests, inventories and questionnaires should be capitalized.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist

Capitalization within quotations

When the quote forms a complete sentence, capitalize the first word.

John asked, “Are these library books overdue?”

When the quote is a fragment incorporated into your own sentence, the first word is not capitalized.

She referred to him as “a plague sore.”

Capitalization after a colon

When a colon introduces a list or any phrase that is not a complete sentence, do not capitalize the first word (unless it is a proper noun).

She filled the picnic basket with a variety of snacks: cookies, bread, dips, and fruits.

When a colon introduces a complete sentence, capitalization rules vary between style guides. According to APA style, the first word after the colon should be capitalized.

She had been up all night studying: She was determined to get the top grade in the class.

But according to Chicago style, the first word following the colon should be capitalized only if there is more than one complete explanatory sentence following the colon.

She had been up all night studying: she was determined to get the top grade in the class.

She had been up all night studying: She was determined to get the top grade in the class. It would guarantee her the prestigious scholarship.

Capitalizing titles

The capitalization rules for the titles of books, articles, movies, art, and other works vary slightly between style guides. But in general, the following rules apply across major style guides, including APA, MLA, and Chicago.

Capitalize the first word of the title and (if applicable) the subtitle

Capitalize the last word

Use lowercase for articles (the, a, an), prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions

I prefer The Taming of the Shrew over Romeo and Juliet.

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King is the last in a trilogy.

Capitalizing headings in papers

When writing a paper or thesis, you have two options for capitalizing the headings of chapters and sections. You can use title case for all headings, as in the examples above.

3.1 Emerging Coffee Markets in North America

Alternatively, you can choose to use sentence case, which means you only capitalize the first word and proper nouns, as in a normal sentence.

3.1 Emerging coffee markets in North America

Some style guides have specific requirements for capitalizing headings (see, for example, how to format APA headings and subheadings). Whichever approach you choose, make sure to be consistent: all headings at the same level should take the same capitalization style.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Luo, A. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

Cite this article


Butterfield, J. (Ed.). (2023). Fowler’s dictionary of modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Garner, B. A. (2023). Garner’s modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Tesla: Autopilot Was On

Tesla: Autopilot was on – and ignored – in fatal Model X crash

Tesla has confirmed that Autopilot was enabled on the Model X that crashed, fatally, in California last week, though says the driver ignored multiple warnings before the incident. The crash saw driver Wei Huang collide with a concrete highway lane divider last Friday, March 23. He later died in hospital from his injuries.

At the time, Tesla blamed the severity of the crash for delaying its access to the logs that the Model X records during use. However, it did have some statistics on the stretch of road in question. Since the start of the year, the automaker said, cars with Autopilot enabled have driven that portion of the highway roughly 20,000 times. Over 200 successful Autopilot trips are carried out daily on the stretch.

Now, in a new blog post published this evening, Tesla has revealed more details now that it has access to the logs. Most notably, the data confirms that Autopilot was, indeed, active during the time of the incident. There are, though, indications that the driver was not sufficiently engaged with the system.

“In the moments before the collision, which occurred at 9:27 a.m. on Friday, March 23rd, Autopilot was engaged with the adaptive cruise control follow-distance set to minimum,” Tesla said today. “The driver had received several visual and one audible hands-on warning earlier in the drive and the driver’s hands were not detected on the wheel for six seconds prior to the collision.”

Tesla’s system, like other adaptive cruise control technologies in a variety of cars, uses a range of alerts and warnings to bring the driver’s attention back to the road. In the case of Autopilot specifically, sensors in the wheel monitor whether – as recommended – the driver has at least one hand in contact. If they remove their hands for an extended period, the length of which depends on the nature of the road and the speed that the car is moving at, they get a visual warning on the dashboard display. That’s followed by audio alerts, and finally the car is designed to automatically bring itself to a complete stop.

Huang, though, apparently ignored both the warnings and the approaching hazard. “The driver had about five seconds and 150 meters of unobstructed view of the concrete divider with the crushed crash attenuator,” Tesla writes, “but the vehicle logs show that no action was taken.”

Tesla continues to blame the severity of the incident on the crash attenuator. A safety barrier built into the concrete highway divider, it’s designed to absorb forces during a collision, crumpling before the car reaches the concrete itself. However, Tesla points out, in this situation the attenuator had previously been destroyed in an earlier, unconnected incident, but not yet been replaced.

“We have never seen this level of damage to a Model X in any other crash,” Tesla points out.

It’s the second fatal crash to have taken place involving a Tesla in Autopilot mode. Back in May 2023, a Model S sedan collided with a truck in Florida, after neither the driver, Joshua Brown, nor the car’s systems spotted it crossing the highway ahead. After an investigation, Tesla concluded that the Model S’ camera had not been able to sufficiently differentiate between the white truck and the bright sky behind it.

2 NTSB investigators conducting Field Investigation for fatal March 23, 2023, crash of a Tesla near Mountain View, CA. Unclear if automated control system was active at time of crash. Issues examined include: post-crash fire, steps to make vehicle safe for removal from scene.

— NTSB_Newsroom (@NTSB_Newsroom) March 27, 2023

The National Transportation Safety Board has confirmed it is investigating this latest crash. Earlier this week, it said it was unclear as to whether Autopilot was active. It also cited a fire in the car, which Tesla says was slow-burning and only became an issue when all occupants were away from the vehicle. That, the automaker points out, is as it’s designed to behave.

The fatality comes at a precarious time for autonomous driving technologies. Though Autopilot is only intended as a driver-assistance aid – and indeed there are warnings both in the car’s handbook and displayed on its touchscreen display cautioning that attention is still required – it’s likely to be compared to the death caused by an Uber driverless car in Tempe, Arizona earlier this month. Investigations there are still underway to understand what happened when a woman walked out in front of the autonomous Volvo SUV running Uber’s hardware and software suite, and the car failed to stop in time to avoid a collision.

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