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In Excel when we compare two cell contents or numbers by applying equal sign between them, we get output in TRUE or FALSE format. Which means values which we are comparing may be equal or may not be equal. In a similar manner, we have Boolean in VBA Excel. Boolean also gives the output in the form of TRUE or FALSE. Boolean is a form of data type which can only contain either TRUE or FALSE. When we give some input to Boolean and if the test becomes TRUE then we get an answer as TRUE or we get FALSE.

How to Use Boolean in VBA Excel?Let’s see the examples of Boolean in Excel VBA.

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You can download this VBA Boolean Excel Template here – VBA Boolean Excel Template

Example #1 – VBA BooleanLet’s see a very simple example where we will see how to apply Boolean while comparing some.

Step 2: Now in the opened module, write the sub category of VBA Boolean. We can choose to write any name of subprocedure here.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean1()End Sub

Step 3: Now define a Dim with any name, let’ say an A and assign the variable A as Boolean as shown below.

Sub

VBABoolean1()Dim

AAs Boolean

End Sub

Step 4: Let’s consider two numbers, 1 and 2. And now we will test with the help of Boolean whether 2 is greater than 1 or not. So in the next line, write a mathematical expression of 1<2 under defined variable A.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean1()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = 1 < 2End Sub

Step 5: Now assign a message box to variable A to see what outcome will appear when we run the code.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean1()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = 1 < 2 MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 7: If we change the sign as 1 is greater than 2 as shown below. What would we get?

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean1()Dim

AAs Boolean

MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 8: To test this, again run the code. We will see, Boolean has given FALSE as 1 cannot be greater than 2.

Example #2 – VBA BooleanIn this example, we will test if Boolean works for text or not. To apply this, we need a module.

Step 1: Open a new Module and give it a subcategory in the name of VBA Boolean or any name as per your choice.

Sub

VBABoolean2()End Sub

Step 2: Define a variable A and assign a Boolean function to it.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean2()Dim

AAs Boolean

End Sub

Step 3: Now assign a text to defined variable A. Let’s say that text is VBA Boolean. And it should be under inverted commas.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean2()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = "VBA Boolean"End Sub

Step 4: At last, give that variable A in a message box to see the output as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean2()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = "VBA Boolean" MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 5: Once done, run the code. We will get an error message as “Run-time error 12 – Type Mismatch” which means that Boolean doesn’t support input as Text.

Example #3 – VBA BooleanIn this example, we will see, if Boolean works for a number without any comparison.

Step 1: Open a new module and give it a subcategory of VBA Boolean as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean3()End Sub

Step 2: Now define a Dim A variable as Boolean as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean3()Dim

AAs Boolean

End Sub

Step 3: As discussed above, we will give the variable A a number. Let’s consider that number is 10.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean3()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = 10End Sub

Step 4: After that, select the function msgbox and assign it to variable A. This will help us print the value with the help of Boolean.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean3()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = 10 MsgBox AEnd Sub

Step 5: Now run the code. We will get the message with the message as TRUE.

Step 6: Now let’s change that value to 0 from 10.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean3()Dim

AAs Boolean

A = 0 MsgBox AEnd Sub

Example #4 – VBA BooleanStep 1: Now, open a new module and write the subcategory of VBA Boolean as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean4()End Sub

Step 2: Now define 2 variable with any name as per your choice. Here, we have selected A and B as Integer. Which means both will store numeric values.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean4()Dim

AAs Integer

Dim

BAs Integer

End Sub

Step 3: Now assign any values to variable A and B. Here we have chosen number 1 and 2 for variable A and B as shown below.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean4()Dim

AAs Integer

Dim

BAs Integer

A = 1 B = 2End Sub

Step 4: As stated above, we will use the If-Else loop. Now open the If-End If loop where we will write the criteria.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean4()Dim

AAs Integer

Dim

BAs Integer

A = 1 B = 2 IfEnd If

End Sub

Step 5: Now write the code, If A is less than equal to B then show us the message as TRUE, else show us the message as FALSE.

Code:

Sub

VBABoolean4()Dim

AAs Integer

Dim

BAs Integer

A = 1 B = 2If

A <= BThen

MsgBoxTrue

Else

MsgBoxFalse

End If

End Sub

Step 6: Now compile the above code step-by-step and then run if no error found. We will see, the message box has the message as TRUE which means value stored in variable A (which is 1) is less than the value stored in variable B (which is 2).

Pros of VBA Boolean

It is quite useful when we are want to implement the process flow following TRUE and FALSE for each iteration.

Conditional comparison with the help of any kind of loop can easily be implemented.

Cons of VBA Boolean

Only numbers can be used in Boolean. It will show the error if used for text as seen in example-2.

Things to Remember

Using Boolean with any loop will give users a better output. And comparison can be done in various ways.

Boolean is a kind of cell comparison formula used in excel, but it only compares the numerical or mathematical values.

Always save the file in macro enable format to retain the written code to be used in the future.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to VBA Boolean. Here we discuss how to use Boolean in Excel VBA along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

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## How To Create Arraylist In Excel Vba With Excel Template?

Excel VBA ArrayList

Data structures are used to store a series of data in programming languages. It binds to the memory rather than address. An ArrayList is one of the data structures in excel. Comparing to normal arrays in excel ArrayList is dynamic. Therefore, no initial declaration of size is needed. ArrayList is not a part of VBA it is associated with an external library which can be used with VBA.

ArrayList can be defined as a list of a nearby memory location. Where the values are retrieved using the index numbers. The list starts from an index number ‘0’, the first element will be inserted into the ‘0’ index and rest is followed by 1, 2, 3, etc. ArrayList offers plenty of built-in operations, sorting, adding, removing, reversing, etc. are some among them.

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Adding the LibraryTo use the ArrayList into the VBA it needs to include the library ‘mscorlib.dll’ which comes with .NET framework.

It will lead you to a window with a list of different libraries which supports in VBA and Excel. Scroll down to find the ‘dll’. Tick mark to confirm the selection then press ‘OK’ button.

Now the library is included in your VBA code and it will support different methods associated with an ArrayList.

How to Create VBA ArrayList in Excel?

You can download this VBA ArrayList Excel Template here – VBA ArrayList Excel Template

Excel VBA ArrayList – Example #1How to Add Values to the ArrayList using VBA?

ArrayList act as a list where we can add values. This will automatically store in the different portions starting from 0,1, 2, etc. The values can add or insert to the ArrayList using the add method.

In this example, you will learn how to add a list of values into an ArrayList. Follow the below steps to add ArrayList using VBA Code in excel.

Step 1: To add a list of values to an ArrayList create a function arraylist1.

Code:

Private Sub

arraylist1()End Sub

Step 2: Now we want to include the ArrayList into the function as an object where a list is declared as an ArrayList.

Code:

Private Sub

arraylist1()Dim

alistAs ArrayList

End Sub

Step 3: Since this is an object to use it, you have to create an instance of the ArrayList. Set a new instance for this object.

Code:

Private Sub

arraylist1()Dim

alistAs ArrayList

Set

alist =New

ArrayListEnd Sub

Step 4: Now using the ‘Add’ property of an ArrayList adds the values to the ArrayList. Where the list is added into the index values in an order 0,1,2,3 etc.

Code:

Private Sub

arraylist1()Dim

alistAs ArrayList

Set

alist =New

ArrayList alist.Add "192"'index(0)

alist.Add "168"'index(1)

alist.Add "1"'index(2)

alist.Add "240"'index(3)

End Sub

Step 5: To check whether the values got added into the list, let’s print the array values using a message box. To print the values each index is printed since the values are stored in these partitions.

Code:

Private Sub

arraylist1()Dim

alistAs ArrayList

Set

alist =New

ArrayList alist.Add "192"'index(0)

alist.Add "168"'index(1)

alist.Add "1"'index(2)

alist.Add "240"'index(3)

MsgBox ("\" & alist(0) & "." & alist(1) & "." & alist(2) & "." & alist(3))End Sub

Step 6: Press F5 or run button to run the program and the values will be printed as below. Here an IP address is stored in the ArrayList and while printing the values extra notations are concatenated to form the IP address in a proper format.

Automation error in VBA

It is a common error happens while running an ArrayList. An automation error may encounter ‘Run-time Error ‘-2146232576 (80131700) Automation Error’

Excel VBA ArrayList – Example #2Sorting ArrayList Using VBA Code

ArrayList supports different functions like sorting, reversing, etc. this help to sort the values inserted into an ArrayList. Once you add a list into the ArrayList it is possible to reverse the inserted list.

Follow the below steps to sort the ArrayList using VBA Code:

Step 1: Create a function called arraysort1 to perform the sorting within the inserted values into an ArrayList.

Code:

Sub

arraysort1()End Sub

Step 2: Declare an object ‘arraysort’ of the ArrayList. Use this object to add and sort the values within the ArrayList.

Code:

Sub

arraysort1()Dim

arraysortAs ArrayList

End Sub

Step 3: Similar to the first example need to create a new instance of the declared object. Set this instance as a new ArrayList.

Code:

Sub

arraysort1()Dim

arraysortAs ArrayList

Set

arraysort =New

ArrayListEnd Sub

Step 4: Now using the ‘Add’ method insert the elements to the ArrayList. Which is not possessing any order on values. Randomly inserted some values into the list.

Code:

Sub

arraysort1()Dim

arraysortAs ArrayList

Set

arraysort =New

ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45"End Sub

Code:

Sub

arraysort1()Dim

arraysortAs ArrayList

Set

arraysort =New

ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45" MsgBox (arraysort(0) & vbCrLf & arraysort(1) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(2) & vbCrLf & arraysort(3) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(4) & vbCrLf & arraysort(5))End Sub

Step 6: Press F5 on the keyboard or run button on the code window to run the program to print the ArrayList. The ArrayList is printed in the same order as it is inserted since we use the index numbers in its correct order.

Step 7: Now to this list apply the sort property of the ArrayList. Use the sort method to sort the inserted list. The sort property will sort the list of values in ascending order by default.

Code:

Sub

arraysort1()Dim

arraysortAs ArrayList

Set

arraysort =New

ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45" arraysort.Sort MsgBox (arraysort(0) & vbCrLf & arraysort(1) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(2) & vbCrLf & arraysort(3) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(4) & vbCrLf & arraysort(5))End Sub

Step 8: Hit F5 or Run button under VBE to run this code, Where the values are sorted and printed in order from smallest value to largest.

Excel VBA ArrayList – Example #3Reversing the ArrayList using VBA Code

When you want to reverse the order of inserted values in an ArrayList reverse method is available. This will reverse the order of the list from its current order. Now we have already sorted the ArrayList in the previous example, which is in ascending order.

Let’s try to reverse the sorted array to make it descending order. Use the reverse method of ArrayList to do this.

Code:

Sub

arraysort2()Dim

arraysortAs ArrayList

Set

arraysort =New

ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45" arraysort.Sort arraysort.Reverse MsgBox (arraysort(0) & vbCrLf & arraysort(1) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(2) & vbCrLf & arraysort(3) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(4) & vbCrLf & arraysort(5))End Sub

After applying the reverse method, the ArrayList will become in descending order and use the message box to print the reversed array. The sorted list is changed from large value to small value.

Things to Remember

ArrayList is dynamic in nature; it does not require re-initialization.

Different built-in methods are associated with ArrayList.

Compared to the array, ArrayList is easy to use in Excel VBA.

The supporting .NET libraries should be included in the VBA to work with ArrayList.

ArrayList is a continuing memory location which identified using index values.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to VBA ArrayList. Here we discuss how to create ArrayList in Excel VBA along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## How To Use Iserror Function In Excel Vba?

Excel VBA IsError

There are many types of functions in VBA. One of them is Excel VBA IsError. This function can be termed as an informative function because it provides us information as it is a logical function. This function tells us whether a given value contains an error or not. As I said above that it is a logical function means the value or the output generated by this function is either true or false. So how does this function works? We supply the expression to this function and when the expression is turned to be a simple integer or a value in the calculation then the Boolean output by this function is False however if the function returns an error then the Boolean result for this function would be True. True meaning the value or expression does not represent or is not an error while False meaning the value or the expression is an error.

Syntax:

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Iserror (Expression)

How to Use VBA IsError Function?In these examples, we have seen that there are plenty of ways to use the IsError function in VBA. They are as follows,

We can use the IsError function on a range of cells and check whether the cell has an error or not.

We can also change a perfect value to an error and test it with the IsError function.

On the other hand we can also use the expression directly in the code itself.

You can download this VBA IsError Excel Template here – VBA IsError Excel Template

Example #1Let us begin with a basic example, in this example we will take a reference of a cell value from sheet of excel and test whether it contains an error or not. For this, follow the below steps:

Step 2: Once we have a module in our project explorer we can begin with our example, Write the subprocedure of VBA IsError Function.

Code:

Sub

Example1()End Sub

Step 3: Now let us use A2 cell for reference and check whether the value in it is an error or not, currently the cell doesn’t have any value. We will use the Msgbox function to display.

Code:

Sub

Example1() MsgBox IsError(Sheet1.Range("A1")), vbOKOnly, "Does cell A2 contain an error?"End Sub

Example #2Now let us use the concept where we can turn a variable with value to an error. In the following example, we will test two variables one we know for sure is not an error and another variable which we will convert into an error and check with the IsError function. For this, follow the below steps:

Step 1: Let us begin further in the same module from above and can declare another subprocedure.

Code:

Sub

Example2()End Sub

Step 2: Now let us declare two different variables in the procedure.

Code:

Sub

Example2()Dim

var1, var2Dim

isErr1As Boolean

Dim

isErr2As Boolean

End Sub

Step 3: Now let us assign the first variable with a general value and for the second variable we will change the value to an error and then test it with the function known as IsError.

Sub

Example2()Dim

var1, var2Dim

isErr1As Boolean

Dim

isErr2As Boolean

var1 = 10 isErr1 = IsError(var1) var2 =CVErr(11)

isErr2 = IsError(var2) MsgBox isErr2End Sub

We have true as a result because the expression in the function was the second variable and which is an error since this function is an informative function it gave us the result as yes the value in the function is an error.

Example #3In this example, we will notice how to use the IsError function while working with a bunch of code and how we can test it. So in this example, we will see that expression in the code is an error or not. For example, 10/0 is a dividend error but 0/10 is not an error. For this, follow the below steps:

Step 1: So Again we use the same module for our third example and start by declaring a third subprocedure.

Code:

Sub

Example3()End Sub

Step 2: Now let us declare two variables, one as an expression while another as an output for the expression.

Code:

Sub

Example3()Dim

Expression1Dim

OutputAs Boolean

End Sub

Step 3: Now let us put a value to the expression.

Sub

Example3()Dim

Expression1Dim

OutputAs Boolean

Expression1 = 0 / 100End Sub

Step 4: Now we will store the output of the expression in the output variable.

Code:

Sub

Example3()Dim

Expression1Dim

OutputAs Boolean

Expression1 = 0 / 100 Output = IsError(Expression1)End Sub

Step 5: Now we can use the msgbox function to display the result of the output variable.

Code:

Sub

Example3()Dim

Expression1Dim

OutputAs Boolean

Expression1 = 0 / 100 Output = IsError(Expression1) MsgBox "The expression(0/100) is an error or not : " & Output, vbInformation, "VBA IsError Function"End Sub

Step 6: When we run the above code we will get the following result.

Explanation of Excel VBA IsError FunctionsAs we have discussed above that IsError in VBA is an informative function that is used to identify whether a given expression has an error or not. The syntax for the function has one mandatory argument which is the expression that needs to be evaluated.

Also, we can use texts to display in the function to show the relevance as shown in example 3.

Things to RememberThese are the things which we should keep in mind IsError function in VBA and they are as follows,

IsError is an Information function in VBA.

The function has a Boolean value as an output.

The result displayed by the function is either true or false.

Recommended ArticlesThis is a guide to the VBA IsError. Here we discuss how to Use IsError Function in Excel VBA along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## How To Use Goal Seek In Excel (With Real

If you know the outcome of a formula but don’t know the input value that’ll generate the outcome, Microsoft Excel got you covered. Simply learn how to use Goal Seek in Excel and perform simulations of formulas and large numerical data without changing the actual data.

Whether it’s your personal finances, savings investments, or business project, informed decision-making is the key to success. For informed decision making you need simulated data from the simulation of databases based on a formula and your objective. Excel Goal Seek is the tool for such data-based simulation.

If you’re new to Excel or have some experience using it but are not an expert, read on to learn the basics of Goal Seek on Excel and how to use Goal Seek function in Excel.

What Is Goal Seek in Excel?Goal Seek is the built-in What-If Analysis tool of Excel. It shows how the final value in a formula impacts the input value. In easy words, it tells you the input value for a formula to get a desired outcome from the same formula.

Financial investors, finance managers, business owners, and management majors abundantly use this Excel What-If Analysis tool to predict the input for a desired outcome from any mathematical model.

You can also call the Goal Seek on Excel an automated simulation system that analyzes your formula linked to any size of datasets and tells you an input value. If you enter the input value in your mathematical model, you’ll get the result you’re looking for.

You can use this tool in almost any scenario but the followings are the major ones:

How many units of products you must sell to achieve a specific revenue with added discounts and agent commissions

At what interest rate you must borrow so you can pay off the loan within a specific period at specific monthly installments

How many work hours needed to complete a project within a predetermined deadline

Where Is Goal Seek in Excel?The location of the tool is the same in Excel for the Mac app. At the time of writing, the feature is available in the following Excel editions:

Excel for Microsoft 365 (Windows and Mac)

Excel 2023 (Windows and Mac)

Also available for Windows and Mac from Excel 2010 and later

Requirements to Use Goal Seek in ExcelExcel Goal Seek will perform all the calculations in the backend. All you need to do is define the following three parameters from your mathematical model or data table:

Enter a cell reference in the Set cell box. This reference cell must contain a formula. Excel Goal Seek uses this formula to derive the input value.

You need to enter the result or goal you need to achieve in the To value box.

The By changing cell is the cell reference in which you need an input for the mathematical model you’re simulating.

How to Use Goal Seek in ExcelFind below some example scenarios where you can use Goal Seek in Excel to predict an input for a desired output from a mathematical formula. The steps are similar for both Windows 11 and macOS devices.

1. Goal Seek to Predict Exam ScoreLet’s say, you need to pace up your study plans in the final semester of college to achieve an 85% average score when you graduate. Here’s how you can apply the Goal Seek formula to simulate the score needed in the final semester if you got scores from the other seven semesters:

Create column headers named Semester and Score on an Excel worksheet.

Type Semester I through Semester VIII under the Semester column.

Enter the scores of all seven-semester exams except for Semester VIII.

Create a Semester Average score by using the following formula:

=AVERAGE(B2:B9)

Adjust cell references as per your own Excel worksheet.

Now, call the Goal Seek function.

The Set cell should be the formula cell where you calculated an average.

The To value cell should be your desired average semester score which is 85%.

Enter the blank cell reference for the Semester VIII exam score in the By changing cell box.

You need to score 98% in the final semester to get to the target graduation score.

2. Predict Loan Amount Using Goal SeekSuppose you need to borrow capital for 40 years on a fixed interest (8%) with a fixed monthly payoff for your business. Now, you know that you can pay $1,800 per month from the returns of the business. However, you don’t know how much you must borrow at the above interest for the above period. You can effortlessly calculate the amount to be borrowed by following these steps:

Create rows for the following components: Annual Interest Rate, Years to Payoff, Loan Amount, and Monthly Installments.

Enter the respective values for the above components in the respective cells except for the Loan Amount, which you need to calculate using Goal Seek.

Now, replace the Monthly Installments value with the following PMT formula in Excel:

=PMT(B1/12,B2*12,B3,0)

Set cell should refer to the PMT formula cell.

To value should be $1,500.

By changing cell should be the Loan Amount value.

According to the Goal Seek function, the loan amount must be $215,731 if you wish to borrow it for 40 years at 8% annual interest and pay a monthly installment of $1,500.

3. Find Sales Target Using Goal SeekIf you’re the head of sales and marketing or working as a sales executive and need to create a sales target to achieve a specific revenue goal, Goal Seek is the ideal tool. For example, your business is currently selling 1,000 units of products.

The MSRP of the product is $50 and you’re also offering a discount of 10% to the wholesalers. However, you’d like to increase your company’s revenue target from product sales to $75,000 without changing the MSRP and discount rate. Then, how many products you must sell? Let’s find out using Goal Seek below:

Create rows for known components like Units Sold, MSRP, and Discount.

Calculate the revenue using the following formula:

=B2*(B3*(1-B4))

Now, open Goal Seek and set the following as its parameters:

Set cell: $B$5

To value: $75,000

By changing cell: $B$2

Ensure you adjust the cell references according to your own data and Excel worksheet. Press OK and you get the sales target of products which is 1,667 units at the same MSRP and discount rate.

Goal Seek on Excel: FAQs How Do I Use Goal Seek in Excel for Multiple Cells?Goal Seek in Excel enables you to simulate an input for a mathematical formula to get a predetermined result. Unfortunately, it doesn’t support any variables or multiple cells to be factored in. For multiple cells and variation-based What-If Analysis, you can use the Solver add-in of Excel.

What Is the Shortcut for Goal Seek?Currently, there is no dedicated shortcut for the Goal Seek function in Excel. You can use the Alt key on Excel and then press some keys on the keyboard to call the Goal Seek tool without using a mouse. The steps are as outlined here:

How Do I Make My Goal Seek More Accurate?Sometimes, Goal Seek may derive the input value in decimals. If you need a rounded figure automatically, you can increase its accuracy. Here’s how you can do it:

Checkmark the Enable iterative calculation feature.

Increase the Maximum Iterations field to 150 or more to let Excel test more feasible solutions.

Also, increase the Maximum Change value from default 0.001 to 0.00001.

Can I Do Goal Seek on Multiple Cells?You can’t perform a Goal Seek on Excel for multiple cells.

What Are the Advantages of Goal Seek?Here are the benefits of Goal Seek on Excel:

Goal Seek is the simplest simulation available for What-If Analysis in Excel

It comes out of the box with the Excel desktop app

Goal Seek works in the backend and doesn’t require you to modify the whole database

Useful for financial modeling

What Are the Limitations of Goal Seek in Excel?Goal Seek on Excel has the following drawbacks:

Goal Seek won’t work if there are circular references

You can’t input any variables when performing Goal Seek simulations

It doesn’t work on multiple cells

Excel Goal Seek isn’t available on Excel Web App or Excel for the Web app

Excel Goal Seek: Final WordsBy reading the above article on Excel Goal Seek, you should have developed a basic to medium-level understanding of how to do What-If Analysis in Excel. Goal Seek on Excel is particularly useful in mathematical tasks where there’s a clear formula, an input value, a few variables linked to the formula, and one objective to be achieved.

Next up, how to compare text in Excel.

## How To Use Excel Proper Function (Examples + Video)

In Excel. you can quickly change the case of the text in a cell (to lower case, upper case, or proper case) using text functions.

Below is an example of each type of case:

PROPER function is one of the many text functions in Excel.

It takes a string as the input and returns a string where the first letter of all the words has been capitalized and all the remaining characters are in lower case.

Use it when you have a text string and you want to capitalize the first alphabet of each word in the text string and make all the other character in lowercase. This could be the case when you have names in different formats and you want to make it consistent by capitalizing the first alphabet of the first and the last name.

=PROPER(text)

text – the text string in which you want in capitalize the first letter of each word.

Here are some practical examples to show you how to the PROPER function in an Excel worksheet.

Suppose you have the dataset as shown below:

The names in this dataset are all inconsistent.

You can use the PROPER function to make these consistent (where the first alphabet of each name is capitalized and rest all are small).

The below formula would do this:

=PROPER(A2&" "&B2)In the above formula, I use the ampersand operator to add the text in cells in column A and B, and then PROPER function makes the combined string consistent.

Just like the names, you can also use it to make the address consistent.

Below is an example dataset where the addresses are in an inconsistent format:

You can use the below formula to make all these addresses in a consistent format:

=PROPER(A2)Note that this formula works perfectly, but if you want the state code (such CA, NV, NY) in upper case, it will not be done with PROPER function only.

In that case, you need to use the below formula:

=PROPER(LEFT(A2,FIND("@",SUBSTITUTE(A2,",","@",LEN(A2)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(A2,",",""))),1)))&RIGHT(A2,LEN(A2)-FIND("@",SUBSTITUTE(A2,",","@",LEN(A2)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(A2,",",""))),1))You can get an idea of how this formula works from this tutorial.

The PROPER function works by analyzing non-text characters in a string. When it finds a non-text character, it capitalizes the next following character. While this works great in most of the cases, in some scenarios, this may not work as expected. For example, if you use the formula on the text – it’s awesome – it will give you the result as It’S Awesome. As it capitalizes the character after the non-text character, it does that with an apostrophe in this case.

Some useful things to know about the PROPER Function:

The PROPER function only affects the first character of every word in a text string. All the other characters are left unchanged.

It capitalizes the first letter of any word that follows a non-text character. For example: =PROPER(hello,excel) returns Hello,Excel

Numbers, special characters, and punctuations are not changed by the PROPER function.

If you use a null character (or a reference to an empty cell), it will return a null character.

Other Useful Excel Functions:

Excel FIND Function: Excel FIND function can be used when you want to locate a text string within another text string and find its position. It returns a number that represents the starting position of the string you are finding in another string. It is case-sensitive.

Excel LOWER Function: Excel LOWER function can be used when you want to convert all uppercase letter in a text string to lowercase. Numbers, special characters, and punctuations are not changed by it.

Excel UPPER Function: Excel UPPER function can be used when you want to convert all lowercase letter in a text string to uppercase. Numbers, special characters, and punctuations are not changed by it.

Excel REPLACE Function: Excel REPLACE function can be used when you want to replace a part of the text string with another string. It returns a text string where a part of the text has been replaced by the specified string.

Excel SEARCH Function: Excel SEARCH function can be used when you want to locate a text string within another text string and find its position. It returns a number that represents the starting position of the string you are finding in another string. It is NOT case-sensitive.

Excel SUBSTITUTE Function: Excel SUBSTITUTE function can be used when you want to substitute text with new specified text in a string. It returns a text string where an old text has been substituted by the new one.

## How To Calculate Time Difference In Excel

Microsoft Excel can be used for budget calculations, Tax calculations and for many other purposes. You can use it as another form of calculator due to the features it provides us. You can even make use of Excel to calculate the difference between two times. It helps calculate the number of hours an employee worked between the given start and end time. A whole record of employee working hours can be maintained using Excel which helps us to calculate wages or salaries to be paid for an employee.

Do you think it is very easy to calculate the time difference as it is just subtracting the end time from the start time? If you just go ahead and do the same, you will face two problems. Let us see what are they, and how can we handle them.

Calculate Time Difference in ExcelIt is tough to calculate the difference between two times in Excel. But with a little bit of trick applied, we can achieve the result we want. Just follow this article till the end and there on you can calculate time differences in Excel perfectly. Here we go!

Just consider the sample data as below,

So, as discussed if we just try with subtracting the ‘End Time’ with the ‘Start Time’, you will be facing two problems and let’s see what are they.

You can see that result got appended with ‘AM’ or ‘PM’ which is not expected by us. The second problem is it shows hash errors. As we performed direct subtraction, the result might be negative in some cases and as the time should not be negative, Excel shows it as hash errors.

We can solve the first problem by changing the number format by following the simple below steps

Select the cells which have the result (Total Hours in our case) and press ‘CTRL+1’ to open the format cells dialog box.

In this way, you can get rid of the first problem. This is somewhat satisfying but even though it is not the complete solution which we are looking for. We still need to remove the hash errors in Total Hours calculated. To solve the second problem, you need to change the formula which you used in the first step (End Time – Start Time i.e. ‘E14-E13’). Select the Total Hours row and press ‘F2’ to change the formula. Make the formula as follows-

Now, instead of pressing the Enter, just press ‘CTRL+Enter’ so that the result is applied to all the selected cells in a single shot. This way we can avoid changing the formula for every cell.

We all know that 24 hours system is being used by Excel. The main tricky part used here to solve the hash errors is adding the logical operation. By doing so we have overcome the negative result as “TRUE” is treated as “1” and “FALSE” is treated as “0”. Finally, the time difference does not show the negative values and else no hash errors anymore.

This is the simple, easy and perfect way to calculate time differences in Microsoft Excel.

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