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How to Remember More of What You Learn

Written by

CFI Team

Published September 6, 2023

Updated July 7, 2023

How to Remember More of What You Learn

Do you ever forget where you left your keys? How about where you parked your car? You probably answered yes to at least one of these questions. When you consider the sheer amount of details that we need to remember each day, it’s is understandable that we can’t recollect all of them.

The same idea applies when it comes to studying and learning something new. We are exposed to an extensive amount of information, so remembering all of it can be extremely challenging.

Research from the University of Waterloo shows that when nothing is done with the new information, most people will forget half of what they learned. In 24 hours, the percentage will increase to 70 percent. After a week, they will forget up to 90 percent of that information. The purpose of his guide is to show you practical techniques to retain more from what you learn!

We retain a small fraction of what we read, hence learning by reading is a poor study strategy on its own. It is not enough to simply read textbooks or listen to instructors lectures. To remember more of what you study, actually look into real-world applications and apply theoretical concepts yourself. For this reason, CFI courses are focused on the real-world applications of Financial Modeling and Business Valuation Methods and use hands-on exercises, quizzes, and assessments to help you assimilate and practice what you learn!

These 5 strategies will help improve your memory and be more effective in your studies:

#1 – Use visual aid

Enhance your learning by using visuals. When you engage more senses while learning, you’ll be able to remember more of what you learn. Visuals are known to transmit messages faster, improving comprehension and recall. You can use different visual learning materials including infographics, photos, charts, and videos.

#2 – Teach others

It doesn’t matter if you’re not an expert on the topic – explaining what you learn to someone else helps you retain information. According to a 2014 study in Memory & Cognition, when students thought that they would be required to teach the material to someone else, they learned and organized important information better and retained it for a longer period of time. You can offer your help to fellow students when it comes to their exercises or be a tutor, so you will remember most of what you’ve learned.

#3 – Establish a sense of connection

When you link the information to your own feelings or memories, you’ll have an easier way of recalling the information. In a 2011 review by the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, scientists showed photographs and a few simple squares to participants. In general, people were better at recalling the details found in the photos compared to remembering details about the squares. Scientists think that the result is related to how people link things in the photographs with their own memories and emotions.

#4 – Try a mnemonic

For instance, people use “ROY G. BIV” to remember the colors of the rainbow (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet) or RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) to treat sports injuries. For English spelling, the mnemonic I before E, except after C is useful if you’re unsure whether a word is spelled with an ie or ei. “ROY G. BIV”, “I before E, except after C”, “RICE” – these are all common examples of mnemonics, a technique that helps in remembering something. If you’re trying to recall words in a particular order, you can make a word out of the first letter of each item. In Finance we use the abbreviations “PEST” or “SWOT” to remind us of analysis methodologies.

#5 – Learn from your mistakes

Making mistakes while learning can help boost your memory, so don’t assume you need to get things right from the start! According to a 2014 study by the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, individuals who made mistakes while finding the right answer were able to remember the correct information later on. Committing mistakes can be embarrassing, but you can consider it a vital part of the learning process. The businessmen below certainly learned from their mistakes.

Additional Resources

Hopefully, now that you know about these techniques, you can incorporate them into your studies when working towards your FMVA Designation:

You're reading How To Remember More Of What You Learn

What Are The Prerequisites To Learn Salesforce Development?

Salesforce is the most difficult tool in modern technology, so you must know how to use it well. So, whether you’re just starting or have been in the business for a long time, finding reliable and effective ways to learn about salesforce development is important.

To get certified in Salesforce development, you must learn the Java-like Apex programming language and the Visual Force interface-building tool.

This means the developer will need more than generic features to meet the company’s needs. Instead, they will have to write custom code. Compared to other IT or software development jobs, this is usually considered one of the best and best-paid.

You can sign up for one of several online salesforce training classes and start learning Salesforce programming right away. Next is a close look at the prerequisites for learning Salesforce development.

Earn Relevant Salesforce Certifications

Get the right Salesforce certifications to show your knowledge of the Salesforce Admin platform. The package includes theoretical knowledge and the ability to use that knowledge in the middle of chaos. Think about putting in the time and effort to do the work you need to clear your head and figure out how to use what you’ve learned.

Get Your PD I Certification

Consider getting your PD I certification to fill in any gaps in your knowledge of Salesforce development. Apex, Application Programming Interfaces, and Visualforce are given much attention. Programmers can get certified in Platform Developer 1 and Platform Developer 2.

Find a Tutor

In the Salesforce field, it might be hard for people who aren’t programmers or need to learn more about coding to grow their first trip. They can get scared in the middle of the process. It would take a lot of work for them to figure out how to code. Most so-called roadblocks and obstacles come from the mind. If you only pay attention to a few tasks you can handle, you can take the list as a whole.

Most of the time, it takes a few months to get used to Salesforce. This should be considered a trial period to try out different Salesforce features in a real-world setting. You will learn about the other parts of the Salesforce ecosystem, like LWXs, Apex, etc. If you are new to computer programming, you can find a technical mentor who will guide you and help you avoid common mistakes.

Address Your Issues

After worrying about salesforce interviews for so long, many people may feel sad. The important thing is to learn something from your failed interviews that you can use at your next one. You can do better in an interview if you can find your weak spots. If you’ve been keeping track of your job search activities in Salesforce, you can use it to see how you’re doing, what kinds of questions come up in interviews, and other useful information.

Because a coding interview is objective, you can find your weak spots and improve your skills using Google, Trailhead, or other tools. This will help you ace your next one.

The Key Skills a Successful Salesforce Developer Needs

If you want to be known as a top-notch Salesforce developer, you’ll need to work on and get the following skills −

Programming Abilities

Those who want to be salesforce developers should know how to design and code in MVC. More parts that work together, like Bootstrap, jQuery, etc. Take part in the setting up of the Salesforce project as well. Similarly, being well-versed in various other technical areas is important.

Interpersonal Competence

Collaboration is a key part of making Salesforce projects work. For this, you need to be a great team player. Cooperation with others and the ability to work with teammates in a coordinated way are also very important. If you can explain complicated ideas in easy-to-understand language, you’ll have a better chance of getting your point across. As a good salesforce developer, you also stand out by being able to keep conversations on track while still getting to all the important issues.

Ability to Analyze

To fully understand what the customer wants, you’ll have to do a lot of thinking and analyzing. If you’re going to start a successful career at Salesforce and stay there for a long time, you’ll also need to be able to do in-depth analyses and turn the results into useful design and code.

Logical Skills

Any good Salesforce developer should be able to think logically about a problem and come up with creative, long-term solutions. A Salesforce developer must be able to think logically and come up with solutions that work in real life.

Ability to Solve Problems

The Salesforce platform is a digital product that can have bugs and glitches, just like any other digital product. This requires a lot of problem-solving skills and hands-on experience with fixing bugs. You’ll be able to adjust to new situations and keep things running smoothly and quickly.


Apex is used for Salesforce development and is a procedural language similar to Java. Visualforce’s design process utilizes HTML5 and CSS3. Those with prior experience or knowledge of programming will find learning Salesforce development easier. Well, that’s the thing. And that doesn’t exclude non-coders from becoming Salesforce developers. A little more time and effort will allow you to master the fundamentals.

Mosquitoes Learn Not To Mess With You When You Swat Them

The heat of your body, the vapor of your sweat, the breeze of your breath, and your scent, oh, your scent! The combination is beyond enticing, drawing in a mosquito with the promise of a quick bite.


Not today mosquito. Not today.

The jarring vibrations of a slap may be enough to put the mosquito off your alluring aroma, even if your efforts didn’t manage to mash the insect to a bloody pulp.

To test how well these pesky bugs can remember a turbulent experience—and the scent associated with that—researchers put insects through tests involving tiny flight simulators, mini wind tunnels, and the odor of humans, rats, and chickens. Their results, published in this week’s Current Biology, found that mosquitoes were capable of remembering defensive individuals for at least a day, and avoiding them like the plague, (or, in their case, avoiding them like DEET).

The researchers looked at Aedes aegypti aegypti mosquitoes, a species that evolved to like us. Like, like like us.

“The entire mosquito has evolved to identify us and to bite us. They are especially sensitive to temperature, to the water vapor from our sweat, to our body odor, and to the carbon dioxide from our breath, so their entire sensory systems are geared towards locating us,” says Jeffery Riffell, lead author of the paper.

If kept from their preferred food choice, these mosquitoes will make do with blood from cattle or dogs to sustain themselves. But that’s only if they have to. In other experiments, Riffell says, researchers showed that even mosquitoes that only had access to dogs or cattle for most of their adult lives would gravitate back to humans if given the chance.

“Their ability to shift hosts hasn’t lost that innate preference for humans. And so we think learning is causing that shift and that flexibility,” Riffell says. He and his colleagues wanted to look into what drove the preferences for hosts, and if mosquitoes might learn to avoid certain humans that proved too challenging.

“We all have our own scent signature—a fingerprint, if you will,” Riffell says. “And this fingerprint is stable, it doesn’t change very much over the course of weeks or months. Mosquitoes, once they are actually biting you, they are smelling you. If you try to move your arm to shake them off or try to swat them, they will feel the vibrations of the swat and learn a negative association between those vibrations and your scent. Given that we each have our own scent fingerprint, we found that they can actually remember certain individuals.”

“What was interesting about this was the individuals that they remembered the most were the ones that were highly attractive,” Riffell says.

He’s not talking about physical attractiveness. You probably have friends who remind the world of their mosquito-attracting abilities, saying, ’oh, mosquitoes just love me’ constantly during the buggy months of the year. They might not be exaggerating.

Riffell says that in this case, the mosquitoes reacted most strongly to scents they previously used to gravitate toward the most. It makes sense if you think about it. What if you loved donuts, and just as you were about to take a big ‘ol bite out of a chocolate glazed, it suddenly tried to stab you to death?

Mosquitoes feel your pain.

“They avoided certain odors as strongly as if they were experiencing 40-percent DEET,” Riffell says. “They can really remember the odor, and it can cause a high degree of repellency in them.”

Riffell and his colleagues figured this out by gluing live mosquitoes to a thin insect pin that acted like a tether, keeping the bug in place while it tried to fly toward or away from scents. “It’s like virtual reality for the mosquitoes. It’s a great way to test their behavior and see what they’re learning,” Riffell says.

Once in the flight simulator, the mosquitoes got whiffs of a particular scent—like the ones gathered from the volunteers beforehand—as they were buffeted by turbulent air and vibrations meant to resemble the aftermath of a swat.

“Then we also fly them in these little mini wind tunnels. They have a choice between the previous odor and a clean odor control, so they can choose what direction they want to go,” Riffell says.

Computer software and cameras helped analyze how the mosquitoes would have flown toward or away from scents if they had been free of the pin.

Then they took it one step further. “We can glue them to a holder where they’re tethered in place, but flying, then we can cut this tiny little window in their head and record how the neurons in their olfactory system change as the animal is learning. We can also see how certain chemicals that are involved with memory and learning influence that processing of odor information,” Riffell says.

In mosquito brains, they found, dopamine is critical to the insect’s ability to learn, and helps motivate it to remember positive and negative associations—like being attacked by their food.

The researchers are still doing experiments to expand on this study, and are currently working to isolate which odors among the 300 or so compounds that go into a human scent are particularly alluring to mosquitoes. They’re also trying to figure out whether the protection accrued by one swat-happy human might extend to their neighbors, and how long a mosquito’s memory of a bad experience lasts. This study tested scent memories after just 24 hours, but mosquitoes live for about a month. So it’s possible that they might learn from their experiences for a lot longer than a single day.

“What we’re finding in general is that these mosquitoes evolved to be really effective biters of humans and disease vectors,” Riffell says. “Their learning ability causes this adaptiveness that make them even more effective at sticking around and biting people. It’s a difficult control problem in terms of eradicating these guys.”

There isn’t a perfect way to swat at a mosquito to keep it and its companions away from you forever, though the researchers hope that by understanding how mosquitoes choose who to bite, they might be able to cut off their blood supply in the future. In the meantime, if a single mosquito learns to avoid you, it might just pivot to your friend or pet as an alternative dish.

So instead of relying on a stray swing of the hand to save you, think of your friends: don’t miss.

Learn The Example Of Angularjs Ng

Introduction to AngularJs ng-repeat

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How Angular CLI works?

In the AngularJS framework, it is very important to know that all the In-Built directives that the AngularJS framework has provisioned will always be denoted with ng. As soon as you declare the ng-repeat directive attribute in the HTML page of your AngularJS application, the Framework knows what has to be done as it’s inbuilt the definition is defined with AngularJS framework itself. Each time ng-repeat is invoked, it initializes a template for each object from the list/collection, and each template element has its own scope.

Each object can be referred to using the local variable defined in the ng-repeat tag. The ng-repeat should be used as an attribute inside any HTML tag such as div, paragraph, table, button, href, etc. To know the index of each object in the list and keep track of it, the track by $index property can be used. Tracking by some other id parameter (not $index) which is present inside the object can also be done using track by chúng tôi Along with $index, there are few more such properties defined by AngularJS which can be used with ng-repeat, such as

$first – Will return true if the object is the first object in the List

$last – Will return true if the object is the Last object in the List

$middle – Will return true if the object is in between the List

$odd – If the value of $index is an odd number, it will return true

$even – If the value of $index is an even number, it will return true

ng-init can also be used along with the ng-repeat directive, which can help you to add an additional parameter for each object in the list ONLY for that scope of the template instance.

While using ng-repeat, something to keep a note of is that any object starting with the $ symbol will not be read by the ng-repeat directive and get ignored as its AngularJS and $ is a prefix used by AngularJS for public or private properties.



.grocery-list-class { margin-top: 20px; cursor: pointer; } .name { font-weight: bold; } .amt, .qunatity, .desc { font-weight: normal; } .amt { text-align:right; vertical-align: centre; color:blue; } h1 { text-align:center; color: orange; }

angular.module('myGroceryApp', []) .controller('GroceriesController', function($scope) { $scope.groceriesList = []; var grocery1 = {"name": "Olive Oil", "description": "The description of this oil", "amount": 154.50}; var grocery2 = {"name": "Whole Wheat Bread", "description": "The description of this Bread", "amount": 35}; var grocery3 = {"name": "Tomato Suace", "description": "The description of this Sauce", "amount": 50}; var grocery4 = {"name": "Brown Rice", "description": "The description of this Rice", "amount": 200}; var grocery5 = {"name": "Rose Water", "description": "The description of this Product", "amount": 55.75}; $scope.groceriesList.push(grocery1, grocery2, grocery3, grocery4, grocery5); });

In the above example, we are trying to display a list of groceries that have been added to the cart in tabular format on UI using the ng-repeat directive.

Make sure to include the AngularJS dependency in the Script tag so that you will be able to use the ng-repeat directive of AngularJS.

ng-repeat="grocery in groceriesList track by $index"

Here grocery is each object inside the groceries list, which is a list of all groceries in the cart. We have used a track by $index to keep track of each grocery inside the groceries list

ng-init="quantity = 1"

ng-init can be used to add any new parameter inside each grocery, and here we have added quantity to default to 1 for each grocery in the grocery list

Also, if we need to use the filter for filtering elements based on the amount or any other parameter, the filter can be used along with the ng-repeat directive and easily filter out the elements.

Just by using a few simple and easy CSS styling, we will be able to arrange the cart properly and view the contents on UI just like we want to below the output of the above code.


The ng-repeat directive in AngularJS is a very useful and one of the most widely used In-Built AngularJS directives, which are used to iterate through a list of elements and display the objects on the UI along with CSS styling, tracking by index and comes with a very little piece of code and easy to use and understand. Knowing the syntax is all that is needed, and you are ready to go. Filters can also be used with this ng-repeat directive to make it more efficient.

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Learn Various Methods Of Typescript Array

Introduction to TypeScript Array

Suppose you have seen, we know that there are many data types. We can divide them as primitive and user-defined. The array comes under a user-defined data type. All the programming languages have an array as their data type. So the same concept we have in typescript. The general definition of an array is a collection of homogeneous data items in a single element. We all are familiar with the word array if you are from the computer world. So let’s take a deep dive into that.

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How to Declare an Array in TypeScript?

Like Java, we have multiple ways to write arrays in TypeScript.

Syntax #1:

let colors: string[] = ["DourgerBlue", "NavyBlue", "SkyBlue"]; console.log(colors)


In the above example, we declared one variable with the let keyword of type string, and after that, we have given square brackets, which shows us it is a type of array. After that, it is an equal (=) sign, and we gave the values in square brackets separated by commas.

Syntax #2:

Now, in this type, we are explicitly writing an array.

console.log(colors[0]); console.log(colors[1]); console.log(colors[2]);


In the above example, we gave the let keyword with the variable name after that colon(:) and specified the data type as an array, and the array type is a string.

We have different syntax in both of the above examples. You can use them interchangeably. There are some common steps to understand further. In the coming session, we will see what initializing arrays mean.

How to Initialize an array in TypeScript?

In the above two examples of syntax, we have seen that both declaration and initialization have been done simultaneously in a single line. Let’s scatter them and see how they will be implemented actually.

Syntax #1 let colors: string[];

Initializing array

colors = ['DourgerBlue', 'NavyBlue', SkyBlue]; Syntax #2

Declaring array

Initializing array

colors = ['DourgerBlue', 'NavyBlue', SkyBlue];

We can declare and initialize the array separately or can be in the same line in a combined manner also.

It is just a matter of syntax and style of programming we need.

How to Access Array Elements?

Till now, we know how to declare and initialize the array. Now here comes the main part. In Programming, of course, we need to do some operations. Performing some operations on array elements, we need to access them. To access these elements, we need to understand their structure of it.

As we know, we can store multiple elements in a single variable. But those elements get identified by one unique number starting from zero(0). These numbers are known as the index no of an array element.

To be more precise, consider the int array containing 5 nos.

let toffee: number [] = [1,2,3,4,5];

Let’s see if it is a memory representation to access the array elements.

In the above diagram, we have index no. With the help of these indexes no, we can access a particular element in an array.


let toffee: number [] = [1,2,3,4,5]; console.log(toffee[0]); console.log(toffee[1]); console.log(toffee[2]); console.log(toffee[3]); console.log(toffee[4]);


Logging this to the console will give you the desired output.

Various Methods of Typescript Array

There are some predefined methods in the array which help us to get output efficiently. Following is the list of these methods.

filter(): This function mainly works when you want to modify the existing array and create a new one. It will transform the existing values with the new condition.

every(): This function is mainly used for testing purposes. It checks for every element in an array that is true or not.

forEach(): This works similarly to for loop but works on each element in the array.

concat(): As the name suggests, it concretes the array values of two different arrays and returns a new array.

indexOf(): As we have seen, that array has an index value. This method returns the index of an element in an array.

lastIndexOf(): As we know array has no elements. This method gives a maximum index value of the array. Nothing but the index no of the last value in the array.

join(): This method joins all array elements and returns with a specified separator.

push(): If you have worked with an array earlier, you must know about this method. This method adds one or more elements to the array at the last of the array.

map(): This function returns the new array. And this new array is the output of the condition provided in the map.

pop(): This method is used to get an array’s last element and remove it from the array.

reverse(): As the name suggests, it simply makes the array in reverse format.

reduceRight(): It applies to the array to reduce the array elements from the right. /it reduces the given array to a single value.

reduce(): It works the same as the above function reduceRight. But in the opposite direction.

shift(): It is the opposite of pop; it removes the first element from an array. It returns the removed elements.

slice(): We can take a piece from an array and return that new array by this function.

splice(): With this method, we can add or remove an array element.

sort(): Sorting of array elements implemented by this function.

some(): In the testing scenario, returns true if at least one condition is true.

unshift(): This method helps to add elements at the start of the array and return a new array.

toString(): It converts the array elements to string and returns it.

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Learn The Examples Of Sql Extensions

Introduction to SQL extensions

A sql extensions is a file extension used for files containing standard query language(SQL) queries and commands to create and modify relational database objects. It is identified as .sql type. The SQL file format is written in ASCII. For the uninitiated, it can be considered a flat-file with nothing but a set of SQL statements. For example, statements for creating, inserting, extracting, updating, or deleting a data table in SQL databases. It does not contain the entire database in it.

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You must be wondering when and how we are going to use the SQL extension. The most frequent use of the .sql extension is when we have to run certain queries multiple numbers of times. Imagine writing the same query those many times. It’s terrifying right. We can instead save the query with .sql extension and open, re-run or edit it n number of times without having to rewrite the entire query again and again. Another important usage of sql extension is backing and restoring database backups. Some database servers such as SQL Server and MYSQL support this. One more prominent usage of .sql extension is exporting and sharing user-defined schemas, functions, procedures, and triggers with other users.

Examples of SQL extensions

Next, let us cover some fundamentals such as creating and opening a file with sql extension.

Example #1 – Creating a sql file extension


Having created the database, let us create a table called “cities” in it that contains a list of cities with their ids and country. Here is the create table statement for the city table.

CREATE TABLE cities ( id int NULL, country varchar (50) NULL, city varchar (50) NULL );

Now we are all set to script this create table statement using extension so that we can reuse the code. Follow the following steps for more.

Step 1: Go to object explorer

Step 2: Select the desired database

Step 3: Select the table which you want to script

Here is an image to illustrate the flow.

Once you are done with navigation, move to step 4.

Step 4: SELECT the desired statement that has to be scripted.

Step 5: Choose a file from the next menu and save the script with the desired name. Here, the file of the extension type by default. If that’s not the case for you, mention .sql as a file extension.

Example #2 – Opening a sql file extension

Opening a file of the sql extension type is as easy as creating one. You just follow the following steps.

Step 1: Go to File Menu

A dialog box as shown below will appear in front of you.

The file of the sql extension type will have the following statements. It is basically the CREATE To script for the cities table. Just run this script to create the table.

USE [Test_db] GO /****** Object:  Table [dbo].[cities]    Script Date: 07/10/2023 12:04:49 ******/ SET ANSI_NULLS ON GO SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON GO SET ANSI_PADDING ON GO CREATE TABLE [dbo].[cities]( [id] [int] NULL, [country] [varchar](50) NULL, [city] [varchar](50) NULL ) ON [PRIMARY] GO SET ANSI_PADDING OFF GO

We have successfully created the table from a script (a file of sql extension type).

Example #3 – Working with .sql files

Suppose we do not have access to the Server query editor, but we want to write a query to insert a few records into the cities table. We can use text editors such as notepad, notepad++, atom, sublime, vim, etc. to view, write, or edit .sql files.

INSERT INTO [Test_db].[dbo].[cities] ([id] ,[country] ,[city]) VALUES (1,'India', 'New Delhi'), (2,'U K','London') GO

Having successfully written and saved the query in the text editor, the next task is to open the file. So open the .sql file in the server as discussed above. The query will be automatically opened in the query editor as shown below.

Now execute the query to insert records in the city table. Let us check using a SELECT statement if the data has been successfully entered.

SELECT * FROM cities;

Yes, it has been successfully populated. If you wish to re-run the same SELECT query or share it with your teammates, just save it (by pressing Ctrl + S or from the file menu). Again a dialog box as shown below will appear.

Just save it and you are good to go.


SQL extension is a file format that is used to store and save sql commands, queries, functions, triggers, etc. so that they can be reused and shared.

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