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Dico is a modern implementation of the traditional DICT protocol. It aims to create a fully modular dictionary server software that you can host almost anywhere. This tutorial shows how you can install and use Dico as your local “online” dictionary server in Linux.

Alternative: you can also install the SDCV dictionary app in the Linux terminal.

What Is an Online Dictionary and Why Use One?

Dictionary (DICT) servers are Internet programs that load and serve word definitions from an internal file. Unlike web dictionaries, DICT servers can be incredibly lightweight and flexible to changes, making it attractive for users that want to maintain their own dictionary at home.

Aside from that, modern DICT servers are also fully compatible with GNU Emacs, so you can create a Dico server, link it with GNU Emacs and load word definitions from inside the editor.

Lastly, DICT servers are also simple and easy to implement. Hosting one can be a good and fun starting point if you are a beginner at deploying Internet services.

Good to know: once you have your feet wet deploying server software, a good next step would be hosting your own Email server.

Installing GNU Dico

Run the following command to obtain GNU Dico’s dependencies.

sudo

apt

install

wget

gcc

make

m4

m4-doc python3 libltdl-dev libdico2 zlib1g-dev

    Download the GNU Dico source archive from the developer’s website:

    Extract the program archive in your current working directory:

    tar

    xvJf .

    /

    dico-

    2.11

    .tar.xz

      Go inside the program’s directory.

      cd

      .

      /

      dico-

      2.11

        Run Dico’s initial configuration script:

        .

        /

        configure

          Start the program’s compilation process:

          make

            Install the program in your system’s “/usr/local/bin” directory:

            sudo

            make

            install

            Obtaining an Online Dictionary Database

            Once you have installed the GNU Dico binary, download a dictionary database. It contains all the definitions that the program will serve once it is up and running.

            One of the easiest ways to get a dictionary database is through the GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English (GCIDE). It’s a free and open source collection of English words and definitions that spans back to 1913.

            Download GCIDE from the maintainer’s website:

            wget

            ftp:

            //

            ftp.gnu.org

            /

            gnu

            /

            gcide

            /

            gcide-

            0.53

            .tar.xz

              Extract the archive using tar:

              tar

              xvJf .

              /

              gcide-

              0.53

              .tar.xz

                Copy the archive to your machine’s “/usr/local/share/” directory:

                sudo

                cp

                -rv

                .

                /

                gcide-

                0.53

                /

                usr

                /

                local

                /

                share

                /

                Configuring and Running GNU Dico

                At this point, your system has a basic GNU Dico installation. For example, you can run dico in your terminal, and it will give you a basic prompt.

                However, you still need to configure some of its settings to make it work properly for your machine.

                Go to your “/usr/local/etc” directory:

                cd

                /

                usr

                /

                local

                /

                etc

                /

                  Create the GNU Dico configuration file:

                  sudo

                  touch

                  .

                  /

                  dicod.conf

                    Open your new configuration file using your favorite text editor:

                    sudo

                    nano

                    .

                    /

                    dicod.conf

                      Add the following lines of code, a version of the default conf file that I have modified to work with GCIDE.

                      capability

                      (

                      mime,xversion

                      )

                      ; timing

                      yes

                      ; pidfile

                      /

                      var

                      /

                      run

                      /

                      dicod

                      /

                      dicod.pid; module-load-path

                      (

                      "/usr/local/lib/dico"

                      )

                      ; load-module gcide; database

                      {

                      name

                      "gcide"

                      ; handler

                      "gcide dbdir=/usr/local/share/gcide-0.53 suppress-pr"

                      ; languages-from

                      "en"

                      ; languages-to

                      "en"

                      ;

                      }

                      user dicod; max-children

                      18

                      ; inactivity-timeout

                      5

                      ; server-info

                      <<EOT This is a Dico server. EOT

                      ;

                        Save your configuration file by pressing Ctrl + O, then Ctrl + X.

                          Test your GNU Dico installation:

                          sudo

                          dicod

                          --foreground

                            Run an instance of the Dico console program by running dico on a separate terminal.

                              Type .open localhost to connect to the local Dico instance.

                                Test your new Dico server by sending any English word to the console prompt.

                                Configure GNU Dico to Autostart During Bootup

                                You can create a systemd service for GNU Dico, allowing you to easily manage your online dictionary and run it without a dedicated command line.

                                Create a systemd service file:

                                touch

                                personal-dicod.service

                                  Open your new service file using your favorite text editor:

                                  nano

                                  personal-dicod.service

                                    Add the following lines of code inside your service file:

                                    [

                                    Unit

                                    ]

                                    Description

                                    =A basic GNU Dico Daemon Service

                                    [

                                    Service

                                    ]

                                    ExecStart

                                    =

                                    /

                                    usr

                                    /

                                    local

                                    /

                                    bin

                                    /

                                    dicod

                                    -f

                                    --stderr

                                    [

                                    Install

                                    ]

                                    WantedBy

                                    =multi-user.target

                                      Copy your service file to the systemd services directory:

                                      sudo

                                      cp

                                      .

                                      /

                                      personal-dicod.service

                                      /

                                      etc

                                      /

                                      systemd

                                      /

                                      system

                                      /

                                        Create the directory where dicod will store its pidfile:

                                        sudo

                                        mkdir

                                        /

                                        run

                                        /

                                        dicod

                                        sudo

                                        chown

                                        -R

                                        dicod:dicod

                                        /

                                        run

                                        /

                                        dicod

                                          Reload systemd to apply your new configuration:

                                          sudo

                                          systemctl daemon-reload

                                            Start your GNU Dico service by running the following commands:

                                            sudo

                                            systemctl

                                            enable

                                            personal-dicod.service

                                            sudo

                                            systemctl start personal-dicod.service

                                            Tip: if you intend on running GNU Dico on a public network, secure your Linux server from malicious actors.

                                            Linking GNU Dico to GNU Emacs

                                            Aside from using the GNU Dico console, you can also integrate your new dictionary server to external applications. For example, easily link your Dico server with GNU Emacs by using the “dictionary.el” package.

                                            To install the package, press Alt + X, then type “package-install.”

                                              Type “dictionary” in the command buffer prompt.

                                                After that, press Alt + X, then type “customize-variable.”

                                                  Type “dictionary-server” in the new buffer prompt.

                                                    Select the text box beside the “Dictionary Server” label and type localhost.

                                                        You can search your dictionary server by pressing Alt + X, then typing “dictionary-search” in the command buffer prompt.

                                                        FYI: Emacs is more than just a dictionary browser. Learn how you can also use it to create beautiful LaTeX documents without knowing any TeX code.

                                                        Frequently Asked Questions Dicod immediately terminates whenever I run it.

                                                        While this can be due to a number of issues, the most common cause for this is a misconfigured PID file. You can fix this by making sure that the dicod user and group exists in your system: sudo groupadd dicod && sudo useradd -s /usr/sbin/nologin -d /var/lib/dicod -g dicod dicod.

                                                        Also double check your “dicod.conf” file for any additional errors by running: dicod -t.

                                                        Is it possible to use a different online dictionary with GNU Dico?

                                                        Yes. However, you also need to make sure that Dico is loading the new dictionary’s module and database block in its “dicod.conf” file. For example, to use the chúng tôi database, you need to download a copy of its database files and load its module in your Dico configuration file.

                                                        Image credit: Unsplash. All alterations and screenshots by Ramces Red.

                                                        Ramces Red

                                                        Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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                                                        You're reading How To Create An Online Dictionary With Dico In Linux

                                                        How To Create An Immutable Class With Mutable Object References In Java?

                                                        Immutable objects are those objects whose states cannot be changed once initialized. Sometimes it is necessary to make an immutable class as per the requirement. For example, All primitive wrapper classes (Integer, Byte, Long, Float, Double, Character, Boolean and Short) are immutable in Java. String class is also an immutable class.

                                                        To create a custom immutable class we have to do the following steps

                                                        Declare the class as final so it can’t be extended.

                                                        Make all fields private so that direct access is not allowed.

                                                        Do not provide setter methods (methods that modify fields) for variables, so that it can not be set.

                                                        Make all mutable fields final so that their values can be assigned only once.

                                                        Initialize all the fields through a constructor doing the deep copy.

                                                        Perform cloning of objects in the getter methods to return a copy rather than returning the actual object reference.

                                                        If the instance fields include references to mutable objects, don’t allow those objects to be changed

                                                        Don’t provide methods that modify the mutable objects.

                                                        Don’t share references to the mutable objects. Never store references to external, mutable objects passed to the constructor. If necessary, create copies and store references to the copies. Similarly, create copies of our internal mutable objects when necessary to avoid returning the originals in our methods.

                                                        Example

                                                        Live Demo

                                                        final class Employee {    private final String empName;    private final int age;    private final Address address;    public Employee(String name, int age, Address address) {       super();       this.empName = name;       chúng tôi = age;       this.address = address;    }    public String getEmpName() {       return empName;    }    public int getAge() {       return age;    }    /* public Address getAddress() {       return address;       }    */    public Address getAddress() throws CloneNotSupportedException {       return (Address) address.clone();    } } class Address implements Cloneable {    public String addressType;    public String address;    public String city;    public Address(String addressType, String address, String city) {       super();       this.addressType = addressType;       this.address = address;       chúng tôi = city;    }    public String getAddressType() {       return addressType;    }    public void setAddressType(String addressType) {       this.addressType = addressType;    }    public String getAddress() {       return address;    }    public void setAddress(String address) {       this.address = address;    }    public String getCity() {       return city;    }    public void setCity(String city) {       chúng tôi = city;    }    public Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException {       return super.clone();    }    @Override    public String toString() {       return "Address Type - "+addressType+", address - "+address+", city - "+city;    } } public class MainClass {    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {       Employee emp = new Employee("Adithya", 34, new Address("Home", "Madhapur", "Hyderabad"));       Address address = emp.getAddress();       System.out.println(address);       address.setAddress("Hi-tech City");       address.setAddressType("Office");       address.setCity("Hyderabad");       System.out.println(emp.getAddress());    } }

                                                        In the above example, instead of returning the original Address object we will return a deep cloned copy of that instance. The address class must implement the Cloneable interface.

                                                        Output Address Type - Home, address - Madhapur, city - Hyderabad Address Type - Home, address - Madhapur, city - Hyderabad

                                                        How To Use Dictionary In Iphone? – Webnots

                                                        iPhone has many dictionary apps both for free and paid. However, you do not need to install any app in order to find the dictionary meaning or words. Your iPhone comes with built-in “New Oxford American Dictionary” for English language. In addition, you can also add other language dictionaries like British English, French or German. In this article, we will explore how to use dictionary in iPhone.

                                                        Related: How to request desktop sites in Safari iPhone?

                                                        Look Up Meaning of Words

                                                        When reading webpages or documents, you may encounter many words that you do not know the actual meaning. Understanding the definition of unknown words is a good and easy way of improving your language vocabulary. In order to get a meaning or definition of any word, simply tap and hold a word till it gets highlighted and tap on “Look Up”.

                                                        Select Look Up

                                                        This will show you a slide up windows with the definition of the highlighted word from the New Oxford American Dictionary.

                                                        View Meaning from Dictionary

                                                        Tap on the definition to read more details of the word like the meaning as noun and verb along with origin, usage, derivatives and other details.

                                                        View Detailed Meaning of Verb and Noun

                                                        Tap on “Done” to close the dictionary and continue your reading.

                                                        Related: How to improve battery health of your iPhone?

                                                        Using Define in Pages and Word

                                                        Apple shows the look up option in apps like Mail, Notes and Safari. However, when you are in Pages or Microsoft Word document, you will see other option named as “Define”.

                                                        “Define” works similar to “Look Up”.

                                                        Tap on a word to highlight and choose “Define”.

                                                        Define Option in iPhone Pages

                                                        This will show the definition in slightly different window compared to “Look Up”.

                                                        Results of Define Option

                                                        Define Vs Look Up

                                                        Earlier Apple was using “Define” as a standard way to find the meaning from dictionary. However, Apple changed this with iOS 10 and replaced “Define” with “Look Up” option. Unfortunately, these two options still exist and also works bit differently.

                                                        You can find the “Manage” and “Search Web” options on the bottom of “Define” windows instead of inside the window as shown in “Look Up”.

                                                        In addition, you can select any word within the “Define” dictionary definition and tap on “Look Up” to find further meaning. However, you can’t select the word to find further meaning from “Look Up” results.

                                                        Apple allows you to copy the “Define” results and paste it on your documents. You can do this on Pages, Microsoft Word or with any other documents app on your iPhone. However, you can’t copy the result from “Look Up”.

                                                        That’s bit confusing though, you can use the available option to find the meaning depending on the app you use.

                                                        Other Details About Using Dictionary

                                                        Dictionary look up will work on all major apps like Mail, Safari and Notes.

                                                        It is possible to get the meaning of words from multiple dictionaries. You can find the definition from all the available dictionaries on your iPhone.

                                                        Apple also offers translated dictionaries like German-English.

                                                        The dictionary will also show you other relevant meanings of the selected word. For example, biography or information from Wikipedia.

                                                        In addition to single word, you can also find the meaning of short phrases. You can drag the highlighted cursor to select the phrase and tap on “Look Up” to fin the meaning of that phrase.

                                                        When you are using documents, you can copy the definition from the dictionary using “Define” and paste it on your documents if required. This will help if you are collecting the words for your vocabulary or want to instantly refer the meaning on your documents.

                                                        If you are not finding the meaning or want to get additional details (especially on phrases), tap on “Search Web” option. This will open the word or phrase on your favorite search engine on Safari browser. If you are already on the Safari browser, it will open in a new tab. You can check and get the details from third-party websites.

                                                        Add Other Dictionaries in iPhone

                                                        As mentioned, by default your iPhone will show the definition from the New Oxford American Dictionary on standard English language. You have to add additional dictionaries if you don’t want to use the default one. In addition, if you are using the dictionary for the first time, you may need to add the dictionary to start with.

                                                        Select a word and tap on “Look Up” or “Define” option to open dictionary.

                                                        Select the last option showing “Manage Dictionaries” or choose “Manage” from the bottom.

                                                        Alternatively, you can go to “Settings” app and tap on “Dictionary” option available under “General” section.

                                                        Dictionary Settings in iPhone

                                                        You will find the list of all available dictionaries including Apple Dictionary.

                                                        Adding Dictionary in iPhone

                                                        Tap on the dictionary you want to get the definition of words. iPhone will download the dictionary files instantly. Again, you will see a slightly different screen with iCloud download button when you navigate from “Define” option compared to “Look Up” option.

                                                        You can select multiple dictionaries to get the definition from all of them.

                                                        Deleting Dictionaries

                                                        it is not a good idea to keep lots of dictionaries in the list and look up the meaning of a single word in different dictionaries. When you find your favorite dictionary, start using that one and delete remaining all options from the list.

                                                        Delete Dictionary from List

                                                        Translation and Dictionaries

                                                        The best part of iPhone dictionary is that you have also dictionaries with translation. This will greatly help you to improve your language learning skills. You can select one of the below translation dictionaries available on your iPhone.

                                                        Chinese, Simplified – English

                                                        Chinese, Traditional – English

                                                        Arabic – English

                                                        Dutch – English

                                                        French – English

                                                        German – English

                                                        Hindi – English

                                                        Italian – English

                                                        Japanese – English

                                                        Korean – English

                                                        Portuguese – English

                                                        Russian – English

                                                        Spanish – English

                                                        Thai – English

                                                        Vietnamese – English

                                                        Dictionary Meaning with Translation

                                                        Final Words

                                                        You can use the “Look Up” or “Define” options to find the meaning of words and improve your language skills. In addition, you can use other language dictionaries with translation to learn the meaning of words quickly.

                                                        How To Create An Anonymous Email Id??

                                                        There may be times when you don’t want the recipients to know who sent them an anonymous email. It could be anything – reporting, investigations, or simply information you want to send to someone without the other side knowing who sent it. This post focuses on how to create an anonymous email ID and protect your identity.

                                                        Anonymity vs Encryption

                                                        Before we explore our options, please be informed that “anonymity” and “encryption” are different. People often confuse the two.

                                                        Encryption means using algorithms that keep your data safe using different methods. That way, even if anyone triggers a Man in Middle Attack or something similar, they can’t make out anything of the encrypted data. Anonymity, on the other hand, means that the person(s) receiving the email or any hacker in between can’t figure out who is the sender of the emails and messages s/he is monitoring.

                                                        How to create an Anonymous Email ID?

                                                        There are many entities that provide let you create an anonymous email ID tweaking the service so that the emails cannot be tracked to their origin. The main players in the field of anonymous email service providers are ProtonMail and Guerrilla Mail.

                                                        1] ProtonMail

                                                        ProtonMail is one of the real anonymous email service providers. You need not enter any details about yourself. You create an anonymous email ID and password. They don’t ask for your name, age, etc. You may as well skip those security questions used for password recovery.

                                                        2] Guerilla Mail

                                                        Guerrilla Mail lets you create a scrambled email ID. They don’t ask you for identifiable information. You open the page and start sending emails to intended recipients. The incoming mails are kept only for an hour irrespective of whether or not you’ve read it.  Take a look at our list of disposable email ID providers.

                                                        Note: There are many others in the field like Hushmail, but not all are free to use so I did not include them here.

                                                        3] TOR Browser

                                                        TOR (The Onion Router) is a good bet for sending an anonymous email because of its architecture. The TOR Browser sends data through plenty of nodes (relays) thereby eliminating the origin address of the data packets. The number of nodes, that relay TOR data, are so many in number that anyone keeping an eye on data packets, cannot understand the order; in other words, the TOR system is almost unbreakable.

                                                        TOR had its own email service named TOR Mail that enabled users to create an email ID and send untraceable emails, but the FBI somehow tracked down an email in the year 2013. That makes it “almost” unbreakable. If someone has the know-how and required tools, they may trace the emails’ origin. That is to say that TOR is the best but still, it is not 100% dependable all the time.

                                                        4] Use popular email with VPN to send anonymous mail

                                                        If the above doesn’t feel satisfactory, you can use a VPN to create a new email account and send an email anonymously. In this case, you can use standard email providers like Gmail, Outlook, etc.

                                                        But first, determine what you are going to tell the email service provider because you will not be entering true data when creating a new anonymous email ID.

                                                        You need to turn on the VPN and set your country to something other than where you reside. Then fire up the browser. Go to the service providers’ website to create a new email ID. Put in fake information for everything, from name to phone number and other details – whatever the procedure asks you.

                                                        The only thing you need to consider is that you should open the VPN and set the country to the one you entered while signing up (when creating the ID). Then proceed to the email service providers’ website and access your email. Don’t quit VPN without closing the browser that you used to open your email.

                                                        Some may suggest proxies, but they don’t work anymore. Online entities can identify the real country of residence even though you may connect to those entities using a proxy.

                                                        TIP: It is the best of both worlds when you combine VPN with the TOR browser. It will take a while longer to load websites but then, you are truly anonymous!

                                                        Read next: How to hide IP address when sending an email?

                                                        How To Create Arraylist In Excel Vba With Excel Template?

                                                        Excel VBA ArrayList

                                                        Data structures are used to store a series of data in programming languages. It binds to the memory rather than address. An ArrayList is one of the data structures in excel. Comparing to normal arrays in excel ArrayList is dynamic. Therefore, no initial declaration of size is needed. ArrayList is not a part of VBA it is associated with an external library which can be used with VBA.

                                                        ArrayList can be defined as a list of a nearby memory location. Where the values are retrieved using the index numbers. The list starts from an index number ‘0’, the first element will be inserted into the ‘0’ index and rest is followed by 1, 2, 3, etc. ArrayList offers plenty of built-in operations, sorting, adding, removing, reversing, etc. are some among them.

                                                        Watch our Demo Courses and Videos

                                                        Valuation, Hadoop, Excel, Mobile Apps, Web Development & many more.

                                                        Adding the Library

                                                        To use the ArrayList into the VBA it needs to include the library ‘mscorlib.dll’ which comes with .NET framework.

                                                        It will lead you to a window with a list of different libraries which supports in VBA and Excel. Scroll down to find the ‘dll’. Tick mark to confirm the selection then press ‘OK’ button.

                                                        Now the library is included in your VBA code and it will support different methods associated with an ArrayList.

                                                        How to Create VBA ArrayList in Excel?

                                                        You can download this VBA ArrayList Excel Template here – VBA ArrayList Excel Template

                                                        Excel VBA ArrayList – Example #1

                                                        How to Add Values to the ArrayList using VBA?

                                                        ArrayList act as a list where we can add values. This will automatically store in the different portions starting from 0,1, 2, etc. The values can add or insert to the ArrayList using the add method.

                                                        In this example, you will learn how to add a list of values into an ArrayList. Follow the below steps to add ArrayList using VBA Code in excel.

                                                        Step 1: To add a list of values to an ArrayList create a function arraylist1.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Private Sub

                                                        arraylist1()

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 2: Now we want to include the ArrayList into the function as an object where a list is declared as an ArrayList.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Private Sub

                                                        arraylist1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        alist

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 3: Since this is an object to use it, you have to create an instance of the ArrayList. Set a new instance for this object.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Private Sub

                                                        arraylist1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        alist

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        alist =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 4: Now using the ‘Add’ property of an ArrayList adds the values to the ArrayList. Where the list is added into the index values in an order 0,1,2,3 etc.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Private Sub

                                                        arraylist1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        alist

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        alist =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList alist.Add "192"

                                                        'index(0)

                                                        alist.Add "168"

                                                        'index(1)

                                                        alist.Add "1"

                                                        'index(2)

                                                        alist.Add "240"

                                                        'index(3)

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 5: To check whether the values got added into the list, let’s print the array values using a message box. To print the values each index is printed since the values are stored in these partitions.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Private Sub

                                                        arraylist1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        alist

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        alist =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList alist.Add "192"

                                                        'index(0)

                                                        alist.Add "168"

                                                        'index(1)

                                                        alist.Add "1"

                                                        'index(2)

                                                        alist.Add "240"

                                                        'index(3)

                                                        MsgBox ("\" & alist(0) & "." & alist(1) & "." & alist(2) & "." & alist(3))

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 6: Press F5 or run button to run the program and the values will be printed as below. Here an IP address is stored in the ArrayList and while printing the values extra notations are concatenated to form the IP address in a proper format.

                                                        Automation error in VBA

                                                        It is a common error happens while running an ArrayList. An automation error may encounter ‘Run-time Error ‘-2146232576 (80131700) Automation Error’

                                                        Excel VBA ArrayList – Example #2

                                                        Sorting ArrayList Using VBA Code 

                                                        ArrayList supports different functions like sorting, reversing, etc. this help to sort the values inserted into an ArrayList. Once you add a list into the ArrayList it is possible to reverse the inserted list.

                                                        Follow the below steps to sort the ArrayList using VBA Code:

                                                        Step 1: Create a function called arraysort1 to perform the sorting within the inserted values into an ArrayList.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort1()

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 2: Declare an object ‘arraysort’ of the ArrayList. Use this object to add and sort the values within the ArrayList.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        arraysort

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 3: Similar to the first example need to create a new instance of the declared object. Set this instance as a new ArrayList.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        arraysort

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        arraysort =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 4: Now using the ‘Add’ method insert the elements to the ArrayList. Which is not possessing any order on values. Randomly inserted some values into the list.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        arraysort

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        arraysort =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45"

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        arraysort

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        arraysort =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45" MsgBox (arraysort(0) & vbCrLf & arraysort(1) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(2) & vbCrLf & arraysort(3) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(4) & vbCrLf & arraysort(5))

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 6: Press F5 on the keyboard or run button on the code window to run the program to print the ArrayList. The ArrayList is printed in the same order as it is inserted since we use the index numbers in its correct order.

                                                        Step 7: Now to this list apply the sort property of the ArrayList. Use the sort method to sort the inserted list. The sort property will sort the list of values in ascending order by default.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort1()

                                                        Dim

                                                        arraysort

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        arraysort =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45" arraysort.Sort MsgBox (arraysort(0) & vbCrLf & arraysort(1) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(2) & vbCrLf & arraysort(3) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(4) & vbCrLf & arraysort(5))

                                                        End Sub

                                                        Step 8: Hit F5 or Run button under VBE to run this code, Where the values are sorted and printed in order from smallest value to largest.

                                                        Excel VBA ArrayList – Example #3

                                                        Reversing the ArrayList using VBA Code

                                                        When you want to reverse the order of inserted values in an ArrayList reverse method is available. This will reverse the order of the list from its current order. Now we have already sorted the ArrayList in the previous example, which is in ascending order.

                                                        Let’s try to reverse the sorted array to make it descending order. Use the reverse method of ArrayList to do this.

                                                        Code:

                                                        Sub

                                                        arraysort2()

                                                        Dim

                                                        arraysort

                                                        As ArrayList

                                                        Set

                                                        arraysort =

                                                        New

                                                        ArrayList arraysort.Add "13" arraysort.Add "21" arraysort.Add "67" arraysort.Add "10" arraysort.Add "12" arraysort.Add "45" arraysort.Sort arraysort.Reverse MsgBox (arraysort(0) & vbCrLf & arraysort(1) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(2) & vbCrLf & arraysort(3) _ & vbCrLf & arraysort(4) & vbCrLf & arraysort(5))

                                                        End Sub

                                                        After applying the reverse method, the ArrayList will become in descending order and use the message box to print the reversed array. The sorted list is changed from large value to small value.

                                                        Things to Remember

                                                        ArrayList is dynamic in nature; it does not require re-initialization.

                                                        Different built-in methods are associated with ArrayList.

                                                        Compared to the array, ArrayList is easy to use in Excel VBA.

                                                        The supporting .NET libraries should be included in the VBA to work with ArrayList.

                                                        ArrayList is a continuing memory location which identified using index values.

                                                        Recommended Articles

                                                        This is a guide to VBA ArrayList. Here we discuss how to create ArrayList in Excel VBA along with practical examples and downloadable excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

                                                        How To Find Broken Symlinks In Linux

                                                        Introduction

                                                        Symbolic links, also known as symlinks, are a fundamental part of Linux file system, and they allow users to create shortcuts to files or directories. A symbolic link is a file that points to another file or directory, and it allows users to access a file or directory without having to use its full path. However, sometimes a symbolic link can become broken or outdated, which can cause issues for system or user. In this article, we will explain how to find and identify broken symlinks in Linux, and provide some examples of how to fix them.

                                                        What is a Broken Symlink?

                                                        A broken symlink is a symbolic link that points to a file or directory that no longer exists. When a user tries to access a file or directory through a broken symlink, they will receive an error message indicating that file or directory cannot be found. Broken symlinks can occur for various reasons, such as file or directory being deleted or renamed, or symlink being created incorrectly.

                                                        Why are Broken Symlinks a Problem?

                                                        Broken symlinks can cause issues for system or user. For example, if a broken symlink is used in a script, it may cause script to fail or produce unexpected results. Additionally, broken symlinks can take up disk space, as they still exist as files on system even if they are not pointing to anything.

                                                        How to Find Broken Symlinks in Linux

                                                        To find broken symlinks in Linux, we can use find command with -type l and -xtype l options. -type l option specifies that we are searching for symbolic links, and -xtype l option specifies that we are searching for broken symbolic links. Here is command to find broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

                                                        find . -xtype l

                                                        This command will find all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories and display their names.

                                                        We can also restrict search to a specific directory by replacing “.” in command with path to directory. For example, to find broken symlinks in /home/user directory, we can use following command −

                                                        find /home/user -xtype l

                                                        This command will find all broken symlinks in /home/user directory and its subdirectories and display their names.

                                                        In addition to displaying names of broken symlinks, we can also print out additional information, such as target of symlink and size of symlink file, by using -ls option. Here is an example command that displays names, targets, and sizes of broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

                                                        find . -xtype l -ls

                                                        This command will display a list of broken symlinks, their targets, and their sizes.

                                                        How to Fix Broken Symlinks in Linux

                                                        Once we have identified broken symlinks on our system, we can either delete them or fix them. To delete a broken symlink, we can use rm command followed by name of symlink. For example, to delete a broken symlink named “broken_link”, we can use following command −

                                                        rm broken_link

                                                        This command will delete broken symlink from file system.

                                                        To fix a broken symlink, we need to update symlink to point to a valid file or directory. To do this, we can use ln command with -sf options. -s option specifies that we are creating a symbolic link, and -f option specifies that we want to overwrite any existing file or directory with same name as symlink. Here is an example command that fixes a broken symlink named “broken”. To fix a broken symlink, we need to update symlink to point to a valid file or directory. To do this, we can use ln command with -sf options. -s option specifies that we are creating a symbolic link, and -f option specifies that we want to overwrite any existing file or directory with same name as symlink. Here is an example command that fixes a broken symlink named “broken_link” and points it to a valid file called “valid_file” −

                                                        ln -sf valid_file broken_link

                                                        This command will update broken symlink to point to valid file, and -f option will overwrite old symlink if it already exists.

                                                        We can also fix broken symlinks in bulk by using find command in conjunction with xargs command. find command can be used to find all broken symlinks, and xargs command can be used to pass list of broken symlinks to ln command to fix them. Here is an example command that fixes all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

                                                        This command will find all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories, and pass list of broken symlinks to ln command to fix them. readlink command is used to get target of each symlink, and -f option is used to get full path to target. {} placeholder is used to represent each broken symlink in list.

                                                        Conclusion

                                                        In conclusion, broken symlinks can cause issues for system or user, but they can be easily found and fixed using commands provided in this article. By using find command, we can identify all broken symlinks on our system, and by using ln command, we can fix them or delete them if necessary. It is important to regularly check for broken symlinks on our systems to ensure that they do not cause any issues and take up unnecessary disk space.

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