Trending March 2024 # How To Compile Linux Programs Under Windows With Cygwin # Suggested April 2024 # Top 9 Popular

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Windows and Linux are two very different systems, and as such, it often isn’t easy to port programs written for one to the other, especially when dealing with GUI programs. Although there are many different cross-platform libraries and SDKs, native programs written without portability in mind are quite hard to port.

When it comes to compiling and running programs written for Linux on Windows, there is a solution known as Cygwin. The Cygwin project is a collection of the most common tools and compilers (including the bash shell and the GNU compiler chain) for Windows. It also includes a library that provides a compatibility layer so that programs which call Linux specific APIs can be compiled. Cygwin isn’t an emulator or virtual machine, and it doesn’t allow Linux binaries to run on Windows without first being re-compiled.

Once all the packages have been downloaded and installed, follow the last steps until the installer exits. Start the “Cygwin Terminal” to enter into the Linux-like development environment. In the terminal you don’t use Windows commands like “dir” but rather shell commands like “ls”.

To demonstrate how to compile a Linux program under Windows, we will use the HTML-XML package from the W3. For a look at what it can do, see How to Manipulate HTML and XML Files from the Command Line.

Download the source files using “wget”:

tar

-zxf

html-xml-utils-

6.7

.tar.gz

The source files are now in the “html-xml-utils-6.7” directory. Enter that directory:

cd

html-xml-utils-

6.7

Before the files can be built, you need to run the “configure” shell script to generate the Makefile (the build instructions) which are suitable for this build environment. This is a common step on Linux (and Cygwin) when building packages from source.

Once “configure” has finished, you can start the build using “make”:

make

The build will fail part way through. I was in two minds about what to do next. Either I could switch to another project and build that from its source or battle on with the HTML-XML-utils. I opted for the latter as it shows that not everything will be a walk-in-the-park when trying to compile Linux programs under Cygwin. The solution to this particular problem is simple. The error message shows that the linker is unable to find the “iconv” library. A quick look at the link command shows that the library isn’t specified. The quick and dirty solution is to run the command manually and tell the linker to use libconv. The “proper” way to fix this would be to start delving into the Makefile etc. to find out why it isn’t working.

Run the following command, noting the inclusion of “-liconv” at the end:

gcc

-g

-O2

-o

chúng tôi hxindex.o scan.o html.o openurl.o url.o heap.o class.o errexit.o connectsock.o types.o tree.o genid.o dtd.o headers.o dict.o fopencookie.o

-liconv

Once the “hxindex.exe” file is built, you can continue with the rest of the build by typing “make” again. The way “make” works is it checks what has and has not been built, and then it continues the build process at the appropriate point. Since we have manually built “hxindex.exe”, “make” just carries on with the next binary in its list.

When “make” completes, you will have all the .exe files in the html-xml-utils-6.7 directory.

Gary has been a technical writer, author and blogger since 2003. He is an expert in open source systems (including Linux), system administration, system security and networking protocols. He also knows several programming languages, as he was previously a software engineer for 10 years. He has a Bachelor of Science in business information systems from a UK University.

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How To Create An Online Dictionary With Dico In Linux

Dico is a modern implementation of the traditional DICT protocol. It aims to create a fully modular dictionary server software that you can host almost anywhere. This tutorial shows how you can install and use Dico as your local “online” dictionary server in Linux.

Alternative: you can also install the SDCV dictionary app in the Linux terminal.

What Is an Online Dictionary and Why Use One?

Dictionary (DICT) servers are Internet programs that load and serve word definitions from an internal file. Unlike web dictionaries, DICT servers can be incredibly lightweight and flexible to changes, making it attractive for users that want to maintain their own dictionary at home.

Aside from that, modern DICT servers are also fully compatible with GNU Emacs, so you can create a Dico server, link it with GNU Emacs and load word definitions from inside the editor.

Lastly, DICT servers are also simple and easy to implement. Hosting one can be a good and fun starting point if you are a beginner at deploying Internet services.

Good to know: once you have your feet wet deploying server software, a good next step would be hosting your own Email server.

Installing GNU Dico

Run the following command to obtain GNU Dico’s dependencies.

sudo

apt

install

wget

gcc

make

m4

m4-doc python3 libltdl-dev libdico2 zlib1g-dev

Download the GNU Dico source archive from the developer’s website:

Extract the program archive in your current working directory:

tar

xvJf .

/

dico-

2.11

.tar.xz

Go inside the program’s directory.

cd

.

/

dico-

2.11

Run Dico’s initial configuration script:

.

/

configure

Start the program’s compilation process:

make

Install the program in your system’s “/usr/local/bin” directory:

sudo

make

install

Obtaining an Online Dictionary Database

Once you have installed the GNU Dico binary, download a dictionary database. It contains all the definitions that the program will serve once it is up and running.

One of the easiest ways to get a dictionary database is through the GNU Collaborative International Dictionary of English (GCIDE). It’s a free and open source collection of English words and definitions that spans back to 1913.

Download GCIDE from the maintainer’s website:

wget

ftp:

//

ftp.gnu.org

/

gnu

/

gcide

/

gcide-

0.53

.tar.xz

Extract the archive using tar:

tar

xvJf .

/

gcide-

0.53

.tar.xz

Copy the archive to your machine’s “/usr/local/share/” directory:

sudo

cp

-rv

.

/

gcide-

0.53

/

usr

/

local

/

share

/

Configuring and Running GNU Dico

At this point, your system has a basic GNU Dico installation. For example, you can run dico in your terminal, and it will give you a basic prompt.

However, you still need to configure some of its settings to make it work properly for your machine.

Go to your “/usr/local/etc” directory:

cd

/

usr

/

local

/

etc

/

Create the GNU Dico configuration file:

sudo

touch

.

/

dicod.conf

Open your new configuration file using your favorite text editor:

sudo

nano

.

/

dicod.conf

Add the following lines of code, a version of the default conf file that I have modified to work with GCIDE.

capability

(

mime,xversion

)

; timing

yes

; pidfile

/

var

/

run

/

dicod

/

dicod.pid; module-load-path

(

"/usr/local/lib/dico"

)

; load-module gcide; database

{

name

"gcide"

; handler

"gcide dbdir=/usr/local/share/gcide-0.53 suppress-pr"

; languages-from

"en"

; languages-to

"en"

;

}

user dicod; max-children

18

; inactivity-timeout

5

; server-info

<<EOT This is a Dico server. EOT

;

Save your configuration file by pressing Ctrl + O, then Ctrl + X.

Test your GNU Dico installation:

sudo

dicod

--foreground

Run an instance of the Dico console program by running dico on a separate terminal.

Type .open localhost to connect to the local Dico instance.

Test your new Dico server by sending any English word to the console prompt.

Configure GNU Dico to Autostart During Bootup

You can create a systemd service for GNU Dico, allowing you to easily manage your online dictionary and run it without a dedicated command line.

Create a systemd service file:

touch

personal-dicod.service

Open your new service file using your favorite text editor:

nano

personal-dicod.service

Add the following lines of code inside your service file:

[

Unit

]

Description

=A basic GNU Dico Daemon Service

[

Service

]

ExecStart

=

/

usr

/

local

/

bin

/

dicod

-f

--stderr

[

Install

]

WantedBy

=multi-user.target

Copy your service file to the systemd services directory:

sudo

cp

.

/

personal-dicod.service

/

etc

/

systemd

/

system

/

Create the directory where dicod will store its pidfile:

sudo

mkdir

/

run

/

dicod

sudo

chown

-R

dicod:dicod

/

run

/

dicod

Reload systemd to apply your new configuration:

sudo

systemctl daemon-reload

Start your GNU Dico service by running the following commands:

sudo

systemctl

enable

personal-dicod.service

sudo

systemctl start personal-dicod.service

Tip: if you intend on running GNU Dico on a public network, secure your Linux server from malicious actors.

Linking GNU Dico to GNU Emacs

Aside from using the GNU Dico console, you can also integrate your new dictionary server to external applications. For example, easily link your Dico server with GNU Emacs by using the “dictionary.el” package.

To install the package, press Alt + X, then type “package-install.”

Type “dictionary” in the command buffer prompt.

After that, press Alt + X, then type “customize-variable.”

Type “dictionary-server” in the new buffer prompt.

Select the text box beside the “Dictionary Server” label and type localhost.

You can search your dictionary server by pressing Alt + X, then typing “dictionary-search” in the command buffer prompt.

FYI: Emacs is more than just a dictionary browser. Learn how you can also use it to create beautiful LaTeX documents without knowing any TeX code.

Frequently Asked Questions Dicod immediately terminates whenever I run it.

While this can be due to a number of issues, the most common cause for this is a misconfigured PID file. You can fix this by making sure that the dicod user and group exists in your system: sudo groupadd dicod && sudo useradd -s /usr/sbin/nologin -d /var/lib/dicod -g dicod dicod.

Also double check your “dicod.conf” file for any additional errors by running: dicod -t.

Is it possible to use a different online dictionary with GNU Dico?

Yes. However, you also need to make sure that Dico is loading the new dictionary’s module and database block in its “dicod.conf” file. For example, to use the chúng tôi database, you need to download a copy of its database files and load its module in your Dico configuration file.

Image credit: Unsplash. All alterations and screenshots by Ramces Red.

Ramces Red

Ramces is a technology writer that lived with computers all his life. A prolific reader and a student of Anthropology, he is an eccentric character that writes articles about Linux and anything *nix.

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How Linux Zcat Command Works With Programming Examples

Introduction to Linux Zcat

In Linux Zcat, Linux ecosystem, we are able to compress the files with the help of gzip or gunzip. But when we need to check the compress file content without uncompressing the compressed files then we are using the zcat command.

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Note: The zcat utility is only working with the gzip or gunzip compress files. If it will work with the tar compression technique, it will not work. It will provide the garbage value. The Zcat command utility was written by Miloslav Trmac.

Syntax

Syntax of Zcat command:

zcat [ option ] [ name ]

zcat: We can use the zcat keyword in the syntax or command. It will take the two-argument as an option and file name. Provide the end result to display the compress file content without uncompressing the file.

option: We can provide the different flags as options that are compatible with the zcat command example “-fhLV”.

How does Linux Zcat Command work?

Basically, the zcat is a command-line utility. It is used to display the compressed file content without uncompressing the compressed file. It will swell the compressed file into standard output and allowing to end-user to look at the contents available in it. A few more updates, the zcat is compatible to run the gunzip –c command.

The zcat command is majorly working with two components i.e. option and the compressed file name. When any end-user or client will trigger the zcat command? The zcat command will accept the input as an option and compressed file as standard input and display the compress file content as standard output.

Examples to Implement Linux Zcat Command

Below are examples mentioned:

1. Zcat Command

It is a very simple and common way to use the zcat command in a Linux environment. It will print the compress file content which is provided to the zcat command.

Code:

zcat data.txt.gz

Output:

Explanation: We are creating a few sample files in the data directory. As per screenshot 1 (a), we have created the chúng tôi file and compress it with the help of gzip. With the help of the zcat command, we are able to read the compressed file content (refer screenshot 1 (b)). In the same file contented, we are not able to read with normal cat command (refer screenshot 1 (c)).

2. Zcat Command: Multiple Compressed File View

In zcat command, we are having the functionality to view the multiple compressed files at the same time in the same command.

Code:

zcat chúng tôi data1.txt.gz

Output:

Explanation: As per the above zcat command, we are able to read the number of compress file at the same time. From the data directory, we are reading the two compress files i.e. chúng tôi data1.txt.gz at the same time.

3. Zcat Command: Force File View

In the zcat command, we are having the functionality to display the file content whether the file is compressed or not. To print the file contented forcefully, we need to use the “-f” option with the zcat command.

zcat -f data.txt.gz

Output:

Explanation: As per the below screenshot, the zcat file is compatible with gzip files. But if we need to read the content of the normal file, it will not possible. Hence we need to use the “-f” option to read the file forcefully with the zcat command.

4. Zcat Command: With More Command

When do we need to display the huge compress file data? It would be more difficult to display the data in a single window. We can use the more command to view the zcat data.

Note: We can use the more command functionality with the zcat command.

Code:

Output:

Explanation: If we need to view the huge amount of log data, it would be more difficult to view or print in a single screen. We can use the more command functionality to read the huge amount of compressed log files.

Note: we are using pipe functionality to read the zcat data in more command.

5. Zcat Command: With Less Command

In the zcat command, we are having the functionality to display the huge amount of data with less command utility.

Note: We can use the more command functionality with the zcat command.

Code:

Output:

Explanation: As per the more command, we can read the huge compressed file. Similarly, we can use the less command functionality to read the huge amount of compressed log files.

Note: we are using pipe functionality to read the zcat data in less command.

6. Zcat command: Print Compression Information

With the help of the zcat command, we are able to get the compression information of the file. To print the compression information, we need to use the “-l” option with the zcat command.

Code:

zcat -l log.txt.gz

Output:

Explanation: As per the above command, we are able to find the compression status of the compressed file. We are using one of the log files i.e. chúng tôi The compression information will display the compressed, uncompressed, ratio information with the compressed file name.

7. Zcat Command – suppress Warning

Some times while printing any compress data, the lots of warning come. To avoid this condition, we need to use the “-q” option with the zcat command.

Code:

zcat -q data.txt.gz

Output:

Explanation: When we are reading the compress file content, sometimes the number of warning comes due to different issues. As per the below screenshot, we can avoid the warring while reading the compressed file contented. We can use the “-q” option with the zcat command to avoid the warning.

Conclusion

We have seen the uncut concept of “Linux Zcat Command” with the proper example, explanation and command with different outputs. The zcat command is compatible with the gunzip –c command. It will really helpful to print the compress file content without uncompressing the actual file.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Linux Zcat” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How To Install Openrazer On Linux

One of the things that’s most frustrating about building a new computer for Linux is peripherals, especially for gamers who are looking for lots of functionality out of their peripherals. If you have Razer peripherals, you may be in luck, because the OpenRazer project has a solution for you. Here we go over how to install OpenRazer on Linux.

Getting Started

The first place you should go is the project’s chúng tôi page. You can see what devices are supported and learn more about the installation process. It’s fairly simple, but it does take a bit of time and planning.

Note: I have a Razer Basilisk Essential, which is in the process of being supported, but I’ll still demonstrate the process.

Installing OpenRazer

First, add the user you log in as to the plugdev group. This ensures you will have control over pluggable devices, like mice and keyboards. To do that, simply run the following command:

sudo

gpasswd

-a

$USER

plugdev

After that, you can follow the specific instructions for your distro that are listed on the page.

Arch Linux

For Arch users, openrazer is in the AUR, which is quite convenient. They suggest using pacaur to install in order to avoid dependency loops.

All Other Officially Supported Distros

All other officially supported distros should get their packages from the OpenSUSE build service. There are commands available for you to use, and they vary based on your distro. For Fedora, I’ll be running these commands:

sudo

dnf

install

openrazer-meta

For Ubuntu, run these commands:

sudo

apt update

sudo

apt

install

openrazer-meta

For OpenSuse, which seems to be the best supported, run these commands:

zypper refresh zypper

install

openrazer-meta

You can find the commands for your distro there.

For Community-Supported Distros

There are various communities that have stepped up and worked out different ways to support OpenRazer on their distros. You can reference the installation instructions on their website. Some distros like Solus and Void Linux have made it very simple.

Once you have OpenRazer installed, restart your computer, and you should be able to then install one of the graphical front ends listed on their website, which are Polychromatic, RazerGenie, razerCommander, and Snake.

Troubleshooting General

Make sure you add your user to the plugdev group. Some distros might not have it, but it’s a really important step that allows your user to control those devices.

Also, if you’re having trouble with a device, make sure it’s on the supported devices list. It sounds simple, but if your particular variation of a device is not supported, the device won’t work. OpenRazer will pick up that it’s a Razer device, but it won’t know how to talk to it. Take my Basilisk Essential, for example. The Basilisk is supported, and I bought the Basilisk Essential thinking it would be the same thing. Big mistake.

Fedora

There is a bug specifically with Fedora that makes it install the wrong kernel headers. To counteract that, install the kernel-devel package before you do anything else by running this command:

sudo

dnf

install

kernel-devel

Hopefully, with the help of OpenRazer, you can get the best out of your Razer peripherals on your Linux system. If your Linux system is running slow, find the cause here. Also, learn how to use the Hosts file to access websites in Linux.

John Perkins

John is a young technical professional with a passion for educating users on the best ways to use their technology. He holds technical certifications covering topics ranging from computer hardware to cybersecurity to Linux system administration.

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How To Find Broken Symlinks In Linux

Introduction

Symbolic links, also known as symlinks, are a fundamental part of Linux file system, and they allow users to create shortcuts to files or directories. A symbolic link is a file that points to another file or directory, and it allows users to access a file or directory without having to use its full path. However, sometimes a symbolic link can become broken or outdated, which can cause issues for system or user. In this article, we will explain how to find and identify broken symlinks in Linux, and provide some examples of how to fix them.

What is a Broken Symlink?

A broken symlink is a symbolic link that points to a file or directory that no longer exists. When a user tries to access a file or directory through a broken symlink, they will receive an error message indicating that file or directory cannot be found. Broken symlinks can occur for various reasons, such as file or directory being deleted or renamed, or symlink being created incorrectly.

Why are Broken Symlinks a Problem?

Broken symlinks can cause issues for system or user. For example, if a broken symlink is used in a script, it may cause script to fail or produce unexpected results. Additionally, broken symlinks can take up disk space, as they still exist as files on system even if they are not pointing to anything.

How to Find Broken Symlinks in Linux

To find broken symlinks in Linux, we can use find command with -type l and -xtype l options. -type l option specifies that we are searching for symbolic links, and -xtype l option specifies that we are searching for broken symbolic links. Here is command to find broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

find . -xtype l

This command will find all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories and display their names.

We can also restrict search to a specific directory by replacing “.” in command with path to directory. For example, to find broken symlinks in /home/user directory, we can use following command −

find /home/user -xtype l

This command will find all broken symlinks in /home/user directory and its subdirectories and display their names.

In addition to displaying names of broken symlinks, we can also print out additional information, such as target of symlink and size of symlink file, by using -ls option. Here is an example command that displays names, targets, and sizes of broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

find . -xtype l -ls

This command will display a list of broken symlinks, their targets, and their sizes.

How to Fix Broken Symlinks in Linux

Once we have identified broken symlinks on our system, we can either delete them or fix them. To delete a broken symlink, we can use rm command followed by name of symlink. For example, to delete a broken symlink named “broken_link”, we can use following command −

rm broken_link

This command will delete broken symlink from file system.

To fix a broken symlink, we need to update symlink to point to a valid file or directory. To do this, we can use ln command with -sf options. -s option specifies that we are creating a symbolic link, and -f option specifies that we want to overwrite any existing file or directory with same name as symlink. Here is an example command that fixes a broken symlink named “broken”. To fix a broken symlink, we need to update symlink to point to a valid file or directory. To do this, we can use ln command with -sf options. -s option specifies that we are creating a symbolic link, and -f option specifies that we want to overwrite any existing file or directory with same name as symlink. Here is an example command that fixes a broken symlink named “broken_link” and points it to a valid file called “valid_file” −

ln -sf valid_file broken_link

This command will update broken symlink to point to valid file, and -f option will overwrite old symlink if it already exists.

We can also fix broken symlinks in bulk by using find command in conjunction with xargs command. find command can be used to find all broken symlinks, and xargs command can be used to pass list of broken symlinks to ln command to fix them. Here is an example command that fixes all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

This command will find all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories, and pass list of broken symlinks to ln command to fix them. readlink command is used to get target of each symlink, and -f option is used to get full path to target. {} placeholder is used to represent each broken symlink in list.

Conclusion

In conclusion, broken symlinks can cause issues for system or user, but they can be easily found and fixed using commands provided in this article. By using find command, we can identify all broken symlinks on our system, and by using ln command, we can fix them or delete them if necessary. It is important to regularly check for broken symlinks on our systems to ensure that they do not cause any issues and take up unnecessary disk space.

Is Linux Vs. Windows A Religious Decision?

Dick Federle is a highly experienced IT systems manager and architect, having designed and supervised many custom development jobs. Currently working for OTB Solutions , a consultancy based in Seattle, he previously managed Ernst & Young’s Business Architecture practice.

Along the way, Federle has noticed an odd phenomenon in the world of IT. He’s seen many managers make one of their most critical decisions – whether to opt for Windows or for Linux – on strictly personal grounds.

It’s as if they’re choosing between Windows and Linux based on a gut feeling. Almost as if it’s an abstract, philosophical decision, based on one’s innermost intuition, instead of a straight-ahead business decision.

“There are any number of [IT] shops – probably the majority, quite frankly – that have a religious opinion about whether they should be on one platform or another,” Federle tells Datamation. “It really has little or nothing to do with the reality of the virtues of any of the platforms.”

On the surface, managers carefully consider the Holy Grail of the platform debate: total cost of ownership, or TCO as it’s known in the reams of reports that very rationally detail Linux vs. Windows. Then they weigh issues like security, reliability, and flexibility.

But after all that, the gut kicks in. These managers, “read all the analyses, and all the articles, and they always boil it down to dollars and cents and everything else. But I wouldn’t be surprised if fewer than 50 percent of the people out there are actually making an architectural decision based on business reasons,” Federle says.

Instead, the Windows-Linux decision is driven by factors like whether “the CIO loves Windows, or hates Gates.”

Next page: One Man’s Choice

One Man’s Choice

As for Federle himself, he attempts – as much as anyone can – to remove the religious elements from the Windows-Linux debate. Based on his assessment of several key factors, he places himself in the Windows camp.

Especially if the decision between platforms takes into account initial development costs and ongoing maintenance effort. In this case Windows is surely less expensive, in his view.

“If you look at the Linux platform, it’s running on the Intel box, so your infrastructure cost isn’t going to be that much different,” than Windows, he says.

However, Windows allows custom development to be significantly cheaper, he opines, because of the way Microsoft is commoditizing development.

“They’re doing the same thing in the development world that they did in the desktop world,” he says. “On the development side, the level of technical expertise that it takes to build a meaningful line of business applications is being reduced significantly.”

The result: fewer highly paid programmers are needed to design a company’s IT infrastructure.

For instance, his consultancy recently built a Windows-based application that handles a blizzard of data flow for a large insurance company. Using complex ranking criteria, the app presents paid claims for the company to perform post-payment audits on. It processes about a million claims per month.

Furthermore, the Windows development platform enables companies to update applications themselves – they won’t need to hire an outside consultant. “You go in there, and you check the box saying ‘I want to display field X, and I want to sort on field Y, and I want to group and total by this, and that’s all just configuration buttons.”

In contrast to the Linux OS, the Windows platform’s easy configurability “reduces [the client’s] future burden on the IT resources,” he says.

Trillions of Transactions

Some industry observers, pointing to the countless bugs that bedevil Windows, claim the Microsoft platform is less secure than its Linux counterpart.

But Federle disagrees. “The idea that a platform is more secure by having the code actually visible to someone who’s a hacker is an interesting concept.”

He points out that virus writers can only create malicious code for machines they have access to. So less common platforms appear safer only by virtue of their rarity. “The Linux and Unix platforms and the IBM mainframe are no more secure than the Windows platform, but someone who’s writing a virus doesn’t have access to an IBM mainframe.”

Virus writers try to disrupt as many people as possible to get as much attention as they can. They’re not targeting the biggest communities when they target Linux, Unix or Mac users. Hence, Federle points out, these users are attacked less – but that doesn’t mean their OSes are safer than Windows.

“There are people who say, ‘I’m not going to put my mission critical on the Microsoft platform because it’s not stable enough.’ Well, Verizon runs all of its billings systems on it – and who knows how many trillions of transactions that handles.”

Next Page: Cost at High Volumes

Cost at High Volumes

In some cases, IT managers opt for Linux because they feel the open source model allows them to build out their systems without being limited by a proprietary model. Open source means lower license fees and fewer restrictions, or so the thinking goes.

But this is belief is a fallacy, in Federle’s view. There are, he estimates, some 25,000 ISVs for the Microsoft platform, including the ones who also develop Linux software. Such an immense pool of developers provides great flexibility for a Windows-based enterprise.

Moreover, “Saying the cost of [Linux] software is ‘free,’ it’s ‘freeware,’ well, no – if you’re going to run it in production you have to go buy the MySQL licenses, you have to buy the Oracle licenses.” And while Red Hat software is “dirt cheap,” it isn’t free, he notes.

Windows server software is quite modestly priced, he says. One of the server software licensees is $3,000, a low sum, and if companies buy in bulk this can be lowered to approximately $1,500. An enterprise the size of, say, Boeing, might spend no more than $300,000 to $500,000, a minor cost given its corporate girth. “They’re not going to save much money by going over to Linux.”

Heterogeneous Environments

Today’s IT infrastructures, Federle notes, are highly heterogeneous. Windows sits next to Linux, which sometimes lives on a network with Unix or an IBM mainframe.

“If you’re talking about a large organization, the likelihood that they’re going to be able to run a homogenous environment is pretty slim,” he says.

Yet this heterogeneity comes at a cost. Certain resources aren’t as easily leveraged when multiple OSes are cobbled together. Consequently, “you want to keep it as simple as you can, and you want to stick to your rules as much as you can.”

And you want to (and this is where it gets tricky) make your decisions based on sound business principles rather than emotional preferences. It’s best to avoid religion when choosing your operating system – if possible.

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