Trending February 2024 # Hiker With Broken Leg Rescued By Helicopter Thanks To Emergency Sos Via Satellite # Suggested March 2024 # Top 6 Popular

You are reading the article Hiker With Broken Leg Rescued By Helicopter Thanks To Emergency Sos Via Satellite updated in February 2024 on the website Bellydancehcm.com. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested March 2024 Hiker With Broken Leg Rescued By Helicopter Thanks To Emergency Sos Via Satellite

A hiker who broke her leg was airlifted to safety by helicopter after using her iPhone 14’s Emergency SOS via Satellite feature.

The woman was able to call for help, despite not even knowing how the feature worked …

Emergency SOS via Satellite

Apple first announced the feature during the iPhone 14 keynote, with the service going live in the US and Canada in November of last year. A month later, it rolled out to the UK, France, Germany, and Ireland, and its international expansion has continued since then.

With Emergency SOS via satellite — introduced with the iPhone 14 lineup — if a user is not able to reach emergency services because no cellular or Wi-Fi coverage is available, an easy-to-use interface appears on iPhone to get the user help utilizing a satellite connection. A short questionnaire appears to help the user answer vital questions with a few simple taps, which is transmitted to dispatchers in the initial message, to ensure they are able to quickly understand a user’s situation and location. Apple worked closely with experts to review standard questions and protocols to identify the most common reasons for calling emergency services. 

Following the questionnaire, the intuitive interface guides the user where to point their iPhone to connect and sends the initial message. This message includes the user’s questionnaire responses; location, including altitude; iPhone battery level; and Medical ID, if enabled. The questionnaire and follow-up messages are relayed directly via satellite to dispatchers that accept text messages, or to relay centers staffed by Apple‑trained specialists who can call for help on the user’s behalf. The transcript can also be shared with the user’s emergency contacts to keep them informed.

The feature has been described as a “game changer” by search and rescue teams, and has been credited with a number of helicopter rescues.

Hiker with broken leg rescued

ABC7 today reports on the latest successful rescue.

A woman who suffered a broken leg while hiking in Tujunga was able to call 911 despite not having cell phone service due to a new and innovative feature on the iPhone 14.

Juana Reyes was hiking with friends in a remote part of Trail Canyon Falls in the Angelos National Forest when the trail collapsed underneath her.

“We tried to get a hold of 911 but there was no service on our phones,” said Reyes in an interview with Eyewitness News. “Thankfully, my phone has that SOS satellite feature that was able to connect to… I don’t know exactly how it works, I’m assuming satellites.”

LA County search and rescue says that this is its third rescue so far this year made possible by the iPhone feature.

Unlike many iPhone features, which non-techies may not even know exist, Emergency SOS via Satellite automatically prompts users when required. If you attempt to make a 911 call, and no cell service is available, your iPhone 14 will automatically present you with a button to use the satellite message service instead.

One of the first responders involved in the rescue tweeted a video of Reyes being hoisted into the helicopter.

Ankle injury hoisted by @LACoFireAirOps after we were notified via iPhone 14 911 sos satellite feature. chúng tôi Mike Leum (@Resqman) June 24, 2023

All ended well, with Reyes now back at home and expected to make a full recovery.

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Iphone 14 And 14 Plus Announced: Minimal Upgrades, Notch, And Satellite Emergency System

iPhone 14 and iPhone 14 Plus – specs and features

First and foremost important: the iPhone 14 and 14 Plus will keep the notch design introduced with the iPhone X from 20917. Of course, it’s not the same as the old model, it’s a smaller notch like the one introduced within the last year’s iPhone 13 series. However, it means that Apple is keeping the old design language instead of the new fancier punch-hole design. Some users will probably be disappointed, while others may not really care much. The new iPhone 14 and 14 Plus comes with some design refreshments and have dust and water resistance. The iPhone 14 packs a 6.1-inch panel, whereas the 14 Plus brings a 6.7-inch panel. The latter model will be appreciated by those who always wanted a bigger iPhone, but can’t pay the price of the Pro Max variant. The screens are also more durable thanks to the use of Ceramic.

Performance is the same, but the camera experience gets better

In terms of performance, don’t expect big changes. Apple is keeping the A15 Bionic chipset. That may be shocking for some Apple fans that have been used to “yearly” upgrades in the performance department. The upgrade will come but is exclusive to the Pro variants. Apple states that there is a little increment in terms of performance, but only real life will tell us whether this is true or not. As we’ve said, due to this chipset, the iPhone 14 and 14 Plus may not be a great deal for those coming from the 13 series.

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The new iPhones also get some upgrades in the camera department. There is a new 12 MP main camera with a bright f/1.5 aperture and sensor-based stabilization. According to the company, there is a 49% improvement in low-light image quality. Furthermore, the Night Mode is twice as fast now. There is also a new 12 MP TrueDepth camera with autofocus. The cameras also get a new Deep Fusion image processing. Thus enabling a better low light performance and color rendering. This technology stands for “Photonic Engine”. Furthermore, the video recording is also getting a new stabilization mode. It stands as “Action Mode” and uses the whole sensor for gimbal-esque stability.

New Satellite SOS Emergency system

Apple is also introducing a revolutionary stallite emergency system. And it will be available with the iPhone 14 and iPhone 14 Plus. For now, the company will enable this service in the US and Canada. however, we expect more regions to get support in the coming months. With this system, you can send emergency messages and alerts even when your device has no cellular connectivity. This feature has been long speculated and is finally making its way to the iPhones.

Worth noting, that the crash detection system is also coming to the iPhones.

Pricing and “point” of the new iPhone 14 and 14 Plus

The iPhone 14 and 14 Plus may be confusing for some old-school Apple fans. However, we believe that these devices are Apple’s answer to these times of global inflation. The company had to cut some corners to keep these devices out of the “insanely expensive” spectrum. The most effective way was apparently to move them “below” and make them “incremental” upgrades rather than true “2024” flagships. This strategy can pay off, as it has been successful for some brands like Google. The true flagship spectrum will still be covered by the iPhone 14 Pro and iPhone 14 Pro Max.

The new iPhone 14 starts at a $799 price tag. The 14 Plus starts at an $899 price tag. The pre-orders will start on September 9. The iPhone 14 will be available by September 16, whereas the Plus model will arrive by October.

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How To Find Broken Symlinks In Linux

Introduction

Symbolic links, also known as symlinks, are a fundamental part of Linux file system, and they allow users to create shortcuts to files or directories. A symbolic link is a file that points to another file or directory, and it allows users to access a file or directory without having to use its full path. However, sometimes a symbolic link can become broken or outdated, which can cause issues for system or user. In this article, we will explain how to find and identify broken symlinks in Linux, and provide some examples of how to fix them.

What is a Broken Symlink?

A broken symlink is a symbolic link that points to a file or directory that no longer exists. When a user tries to access a file or directory through a broken symlink, they will receive an error message indicating that file or directory cannot be found. Broken symlinks can occur for various reasons, such as file or directory being deleted or renamed, or symlink being created incorrectly.

Why are Broken Symlinks a Problem?

Broken symlinks can cause issues for system or user. For example, if a broken symlink is used in a script, it may cause script to fail or produce unexpected results. Additionally, broken symlinks can take up disk space, as they still exist as files on system even if they are not pointing to anything.

How to Find Broken Symlinks in Linux

To find broken symlinks in Linux, we can use find command with -type l and -xtype l options. -type l option specifies that we are searching for symbolic links, and -xtype l option specifies that we are searching for broken symbolic links. Here is command to find broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

find . -xtype l

This command will find all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories and display their names.

We can also restrict search to a specific directory by replacing “.” in command with path to directory. For example, to find broken symlinks in /home/user directory, we can use following command −

find /home/user -xtype l

This command will find all broken symlinks in /home/user directory and its subdirectories and display their names.

In addition to displaying names of broken symlinks, we can also print out additional information, such as target of symlink and size of symlink file, by using -ls option. Here is an example command that displays names, targets, and sizes of broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

find . -xtype l -ls

This command will display a list of broken symlinks, their targets, and their sizes.

How to Fix Broken Symlinks in Linux

Once we have identified broken symlinks on our system, we can either delete them or fix them. To delete a broken symlink, we can use rm command followed by name of symlink. For example, to delete a broken symlink named “broken_link”, we can use following command −

rm broken_link

This command will delete broken symlink from file system.

To fix a broken symlink, we need to update symlink to point to a valid file or directory. To do this, we can use ln command with -sf options. -s option specifies that we are creating a symbolic link, and -f option specifies that we want to overwrite any existing file or directory with same name as symlink. Here is an example command that fixes a broken symlink named “broken”. To fix a broken symlink, we need to update symlink to point to a valid file or directory. To do this, we can use ln command with -sf options. -s option specifies that we are creating a symbolic link, and -f option specifies that we want to overwrite any existing file or directory with same name as symlink. Here is an example command that fixes a broken symlink named “broken_link” and points it to a valid file called “valid_file” −

ln -sf valid_file broken_link

This command will update broken symlink to point to valid file, and -f option will overwrite old symlink if it already exists.

We can also fix broken symlinks in bulk by using find command in conjunction with xargs command. find command can be used to find all broken symlinks, and xargs command can be used to pass list of broken symlinks to ln command to fix them. Here is an example command that fixes all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories −

This command will find all broken symlinks in current directory and its subdirectories, and pass list of broken symlinks to ln command to fix them. readlink command is used to get target of each symlink, and -f option is used to get full path to target. {} placeholder is used to represent each broken symlink in list.

Conclusion

In conclusion, broken symlinks can cause issues for system or user, but they can be easily found and fixed using commands provided in this article. By using find command, we can identify all broken symlinks on our system, and by using ln command, we can fix them or delete them if necessary. It is important to regularly check for broken symlinks on our systems to ensure that they do not cause any issues and take up unnecessary disk space.

How To Return Amazon Packages Via Ups

If you’ve ever had to return an Amazon package, you know that the process can be confusing. Luckily, returning an Amazon package via UPS is simpler than using the postal service. In this article, we’ll show you how to return your package using UPS, but that’s not all. We’ll also give you some tips on how to use Amazon hub lockers, Kohl’s stores, and Whole Food Market to return your purchase.

Table of Contents

Returning Amazon Packages through UPS

Returning an Amazon package via UPS is one of the easiest return options you can choose. There’s not much work for you as UPS makes the whole process easy. Its return service is completely free for some clothing items, damaged products, and items that were sent by mistake. UPS also packages and labels the products for you.

There are two ways to use UPS to return your Amazon order. You can either take it to one of its stores or have a UPS driver come to your house and pick up the package. Keep in mind that most Amazon returns via UPS are free of charge, but if you choose the pick-up method, you’ll have to pay a fee.

UPS Return Methods Explained

When you decide to return an item to Amazon, there are several steps to complete. According to Amazon’s return policy, you have 30 days from the date of purchase to return it. Their online return center will guide you through the return process.

1. Go to the Amazon website or Amazon app.

2. Log into your Amazon account.

3. From the Amazon home screen, go to your Orders.

4. Find the order you want to return and select Return or replace Item. You can find this option right next to the selected order.

5. Amazon will ask you for a reason for returning the item. Choose the appropriate one from the list that pops up. On this page also pick the refund method.

6. Find the return method section and pick between the UPS Drop-off or UPS Pickup options.

7. Press Submit to complete the return.

UPS Drop-off Method

If you choose to take your package to the nearest UPS store, all you have to do is take the item to them. You don’t need to pack it or print the label. UPS can do that for you. But if you want to save some time, you can pack it in the box you received it, print the label, and attach it to the box.

Before you go to the UPS store to return the package, check your email. UPS will send you a return shipping code which you have to show to their employee when you arrive at their store.

UPS Pickup Method

If you choose the Pickup Method, the Amazon website should tell you when you can expect the UPS driver to come to your house and take the return package. You will need to pack the item yourself, but you won’t need to print and attach the return label. UPS can do this for you.

Not all Amazon items are eligible for the UPS pickup return option.

Amazon QR Code Explained

Amazon QR code is a new feature that can be very helpful if you live near a UPS store.

If the item you’re returning is eligible for a no-box-no-label return, you need to choose the Drop-off return method during your return process on Amazon’s website. Amazon will email you a QR code that you can show to the UPS employee in the store. They will scan the QR code and confirm the return of the item. That’s it. You won’t have to worry about packing or labeling the item yourself. However, the QR code doesn’t work if you choose the pick-up return option.

UPS is not the only service that uses an Amazon QR code to confirm the return of a package. You can use it for all in-store returns at Amazon physical stores and hubs, Kohl’s stores, and some Whole Food Markets. If you’re interested in other services that accept Amazon returns, continue reading.

Other Drop Off Locations for Amazon Return Packages

When you choose your shipping method, you will see other options besides UPS. They are all great alternatives if you don’t have a UPS store near you.

Return the Package to Kohl’s

When you start the Amazon return process, instead of UPS you can choose Kohl’s drop-off. You’ll receive a QR code that you need to present at Kohl’s. After they scan it, they will pack, label, and ship your Amazon product. Their service is free too. You may even get lucky and receive Kohl’s coupon after you make your Amazon returns there.

Head to Amazon’s Own Physical Stores or a Hub Locker

If you live near an Amazon physical store, or their hub locker, you can use their services to return your package. Stores such as Amazon Go, Amazon Fresh, and Amazon Style also need to scan the QR code in order to return an item. Not all items can be returned through the Amazon Store Dropoff option. If your package is not eligible, you’ll be offered other return methods to pick from.

Amazon Hub lockers are another great way to return your package. When you choose this option Amazon will email you a dropoff code that you will insert into the locker’s touchscreen display. Just follow the instructions on the screen to drop off your package in the locker. Note that in order to use Amazon’s physical stores and the Hub locker, your return items have to be properly packaged and boxed.

Also, you should be aware that Amazon is closing some of its physical stores across the country, and finding one near you can be challenging.

Whole Foods Market Accepts Amazon Returns

When you start the Amazon return process, you can select Whole Foods Market as a drop-off location. But be aware that only some of them accept the no-box free returns. For others, you’ll have to pack and label the package yourself. You can also choose the preferred store, but if the ones near you are not listed, it means those store locations aren’t eligible for returns.

Again, Amazon will email you the QR code that you need to show to Whole Food Market employees in order to return your package. The returns are made at the store’s access point, either at a return kiosk or a customer service desk.

Try Out DoorDash Service

DoorDash is now offering a new feature: package returns. That means that you can request a Dasher to come to your house and pick up the Amazon package for return. At the moment, they offer to take your package to the nearest UPS, FedEx, USPS, or physical store. But they won’t take your package to the lockers. Their service is not free and your return item has to be packed, sealed, and labeled properly.

Continue Shopping on Amazon Worry-Free

Fix: Problems With Via Hd Audio In Windows 10/11, 7

Fix: Problems with VIA HD Audio in Windows 10/11, 7

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Most new operating systems have driver issues and Windows 10 isn’t an exception. According to users, they have reported problems with the VIA HD Audio driver for Windows 10, and if you have a problem with these audio drivers today we have a solution that might help you.

But first, here are some more examples of similar issues that can be resolved using the same solutions:

VIA HD Audio deck not opening

VIA HD Audio front panel not working

VIA HD Audio driver Windows 7 64 bit

VIA HD Audio headphones not working Windows 10

What to do if VIA HD Audio stops working in Windows 10, 8.1, 7 Fix: VIA HD Audio not working in Windows 10, 8.1, 7 1. Uninstall old drivers and download the latest ones

Probably the most common solution for fixing problems with VIA HD Audio is updating your drivers. This is especially important for Windows 10 because updating your drivers is important after the upgrade to the new system. So, if you’re not sure how to do that, follow these steps:

Users have reported that 6.0.11.0500b drivers have fixed the sound issues while microphone issues remain. VIA has confirmed that there are some issues related to sound and their cards, and they claim that fully functional drivers will be released shortly.

1.1 Update drivers automatically

If you don’t want to wander VIA’s website in search of the right driver, you can use a third-party tool that will do this for you. This software can scan your PC out of date drivers as soon as you install it and provides an accurate account of all of the elements that need to be updated.

Plus, it is guaranteed that you get the correct drivers for your device and not end up with incompatible ones that may damage your PC even more. The tool will find outdated drivers and install the current ones automatically very fast.

That being said, you only have to try this tool for yourself and ease the puzzling method of installing PC drivers manually.

⇒ Get Outbyte Driver Updater

2. Change the default format of your speakers

Expert tip:

Now your sound should be working, and if there are still issues, repeat the process and choose a different value.

We have to point out that this also works with your microphone, and the process is almost the same.

This is just a workaround and not the best or the permanent solution, but the number of users has confirmed that it works. As we already stated, both Microsoft and VIA have noticed that there are some issues between VIA’s cards and Windows 10, and VIA has stated that they will release an updated version of their drivers optimized for Windows 10 soon, so we’ll just have to be bit patient until that happens.

3. Set VIA HD Audio as Default Audio Device

If you have multiple devices or simply drivers that can act as the Default Audio Device, there’s a chance VIA HD Audio is not set for that. So, we’re going to check if VIA HD Audio is set as your default audio device, and set it if not. Here’s how:

4. Use the Audio Troubleshooter

The next thing we’re going to try is Windows 10’s built-in audio troubleshooter. Here’s how to run it:

5. Disable Audio Enhancements

Although Audio Enhancements are meant to improve the audio experience in Windows 10, they usually interfere with drivers. So, sometimes the best solution is to simply disable Audio Enhancements. Here’s how to do that:

6. Perform the SFC scan

The SFC scan is another built-in troubleshooter we’re going to try. This tool can help you resolve various issues within Windows, and hopefully, this one too. Here’s how to run the SFC scan:

Go to Search, type cmd, and open the Command Prompt as Administrator.

Type in the following command, and press Enter: sfc/scannow

Wait for the process to finish.

Restart your computer.

7. Restart the Audio service

If none of the previous solutions helped you resolve the problem with VIA HD Audio, let’s try restarting the Audio service. Here’s how to do that:

If you have any other Windows 10-related issues you can check for the solution in our Windows 10 Fix section.

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Zika Virus Next Public Health Emergency

The Next Pandemic Global health professor Donald Thea says he’s concerned about Zika, “but prepared to be alarmed.”

In February 2024, Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), declared Zika virus “a public health emergency of international concern.” In a statement, Chan said the 2024 outbreak is an “extraordinary event” and a public health threat to the world.

For decades the virus, transmitted by the Aedes mosquito, affected mostly monkeys in equatorial Africa and Asia. In humans, Zika occasionally caused a mild, flu-like illness. A story in today’s New York Times also reported a case discovered in Texas earlier this week of Zika virus infection transmitted by sex, raising new concerns about how the virus is spread.

BU Research spoke to Donald Thea, professor and director of the Center for Global Health & Development at Boston University’s School of Public Health, about Zika: what do we know and what do we still need to learn?

BU Research: This virus was discovered in 1947, and nobody’s ever freaked out about it before. When did you realize that this might be something bigger or different?

Thea: It was the reports that were coming out of northeast Brazil of microcephaly that concerned everybody. Our Brazilian colleagues noticed that there was a sharp increase in that area. And because it seemed to be concurrent with the outbreak of this virus, they put two and two together and assumed that there was a connection. However, a firm epidemiologic connection is yet to be established.

And that was in October 2024?  

Yes. Preceding that, there had been reports of increases in microcephaly in an outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia in 2013. And that was the first place that, in retrospect, we saw this disease begin to emerge. Prior to that, there had never really been any reports of microcephaly or Guillain-Barré syndrome that I’m aware of.

The microcephaly numbers in Brazil are really high.

I think we have to be a little bit careful about those numbers. The latest numbers seem to indicate that there are about 4,000 cases of microcephaly reported from Brazil. But microcephaly is a syndrome; it’s not a disease, and there are variations in how you define it. It is characterized by a small cranium, a small brain, and poor brain growth. Now, there’s normal variation in head size. So people have gone back and reassessed the first 700 cases out of the 4,000. And they have declassified as microcephaly or found other causes for about 400 of those cases. Those numbers are approximate but it’s really quite interesting. In Brazil, they’re beginning to question the numbers. A 26-fold increase in microcephaly in one year seems to be very, very high. And the term that they’ve used is “almost not credible.”

Still, it appears that there is certainly a big increase in microcephaly. Is there something else that might be causing it?

So that’s part of what we have to be careful about. Microcephaly is quite a rare condition but we do know that there are a number of other infections that cause it. Making the diagnosis of Zika can be tricky, also. It’s not particularly easy to do. You get infected, you become symptomatic, you have virus in your blood, and that virus in your blood lasts for about a week, during which time you can diagnose it with laboratory tests. But because this virus is of the same family as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, there are cross-reactions.

What’s a cross-reaction?

When you’re infected with a virus, your body mounts an antibody response to that virus. Say you had dengue in the past, and I give you a Zika test—your Zika test may be a false positive, because your body still carries antibodies to dengue that caused the Zika test to be positive. So we have to be very careful about the tests that we use, when we use them, and how we apply them to populations. This is garden-variety disease outbreak surveillance, but it has to be done properly for us to get a really sound idea of what is the actual incidence of Zika in the population.

Is the response from WHO excessive, since we know so little? Is it a result of the widespread criticism on their slow response to Ebola?

I think our experience with Ebola was very sobering. And if, in fact, this relationship between Zika virus infection and microcephaly exists, these are potentially devastating effects on children, on the next generation. And if there is widespread transmission, affecting newborn children, it’s obviously a very, very serious problem and a deeply emotional problem. But as our opinion piece in the Boston Globe indicated, we do think that WHO may have acted prematurely in calling this an international public health emergency.

What are the other central nervous system problems that might be connected to Zika?

There appears to be evidence of central nervous system calcification on ultrasounds of some of the children. There also appears to be diminished natural brain formations. Gyri and sulci are the normal curves and indentations in the brain, and they seem to be different or less in some of these children. But again, we are absolutely at the very beginning of investigating this disease and its effects and cannot yet conclude that these changes are due to infection with Zika.

The vast majority of people who get Zika are asymptomatic, which is also a little bit worrisome. Eighty percent of people who get infected have no symptoms. Twenty percent have the typical syndrome, which is very, very mild. And prior to some of the reports of Guillain-Barré, which need to be confirmed, it’s essentially a very benign illness, not typically requiring hospitalization. So these more profound effects are obviously very worrying.

And those other central nervous system effects have not been verified?

Correct.

Given the report of a sexually transmitted case in Texas, are you more concerned about this mode of transmission?

Yes, a little. One or two cases is a curiosity, more cases are a trend and imply that this might not be a completely rare event. We know that infectious virus exists in the blood for about a week after symptoms begin and this is likely the period when sexual transmission can occur. Thus, it is prudent to abstain from intercourse during, and for a reasonable time after, symptoms subside. Again, we don’t know how long infectious virus remains in the semen and hopefully as more cases are identified, we can learn more about this. But until we have proven no association between  Zika and birth defects, it is imperative that anyone who is pregnant abstain from unprotected intercourse with someone who might be at-risk of Zika and certainly one who is symptomatic. Lastly, we need to remain focused on the mosquito, which will always be the major route of infection, by far.

Will sexual transmission of the disease make it more difficult to prevent outbreaks of Zika?

It will depend on the efficiency of sexual transmission and the length of time that Zika persists in the semen or female genital tract. That said, I doubt that sexual transmission will ever become a major route of transmission. But then again, as we’ve seen with Ebola, Zika also could also be sheltered in the testes and remain in the semen for some time.

So right now the mosquitoes are the big worry, right?

Yes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

Well, for sheer devastation, Anopheles, which carries malaria, is worse. But Aedes is a particularly difficult mosquito because unlike Anopheles, which breeds in clean water, Aedes seems to have an affinity for dirty water. So it tends to breed in small pools of dirty water like you would find in tires in the backyard during the rainy season, or plates, or pots, or any kind. And so urban transmission is more prevalent with diseases of Aedes than is rural transmission.

What measures are being taken to prevent transmission right now? Are people just spraying for the mosquitoes? Are they spraying DEET all over themselves? You can’t be a pregnant woman and spray DEET all over yourself, can you?

Well, you may have to. Brazil has mobilized 220,000 army recruits who are fanning out over the urban and peri-urban area of Rio, where the Olympics are going to be, spraying with insecticides to try to bring the mosquitoes under control. But basically, we have no vaccine; we have no treatment. The only thing we can do to protect ourselves is to wear protective clothing or apply insect repellant, or remove ourselves from areas where the mosquito tends to be active—go behind screen doors, in air-conditioned rooms.

This sounds like a real problem for pregnant women in Brazil.

Potentially it is. And the recommendation by the authorities there to simply not get pregnant is very problematic, because there are all sorts of issues related to the availability of family planning services. Birth control pills and other products can be difficult to obtain, even if you have a highly motivated population.

How is the virus spreading to other countries? Are the mosquitoes, like, piggybacking on people and getting on airplanes?

No, the more important factor is the transfer of the reservoir of the virus. So people who have the virus in their bloodstream travel to an area that does not have Zika, get bit by a mosquito, and then it goes on to bite other people. That is how it starts out.

Not to be too provincial, but do we have these mosquitoes in Boston?

We really don’t have Aedes aegypti in Boston. We certainly don’t have it during the winter, during the fall, during the early spring. However, we do have Aedes albopictus, which is also known as the Asian tiger mosquito. It’s much hardier than Aedes aegypti and has been able to sustain colder temperatures.

It seems like every day, the world map has bigger splotches of Zika on it.

But we have to be really careful, because that could be an artifact in the same way that the microcephaly could be an artifact. It may well be that there had been lots of Zika in these areas, we just never looked for it. It’s not a common test. It’s not a highly available test. It’s a disease presentation that mimics others, looks like dengue, looks like chikungunya. So it may well be that there’s lots of Zika out there that we just never knew about.

So you’re saying a lot of research needs to happen really quickly. How?

Funds need to be mobilized, and national and international bodies like Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization really need to step up and convene expert panels so we can get the best and most current information available on the table for everybody to see, and the best minds together to plan out in a structured and rational way to study this disease.

Do you see that starting to happen?

Yes. I mean, the health system and the public health research community in South and Central America is quite sophisticated, and there’s obviously a lot of concern. They’re beginning to do some of these epidemiologic studies. There’s a Phase 1 candidate vaccine that hopefully will be tested sometime during this calendar year. So there’s a lot of effort and energy being mobilized. But we will need more.

We talked a little bit about Ebola and you said it was sobering. But are there things that happened there, lessons learned, that might be applied now?

I think one of the lessons that we learned in West Africa was that it’s important to react quickly. And I think one of the other lessons that we learned is that it’s really important to have global surveillance, and it’s really important to build local capacity to do the kind of surveillance you need to get the earliest warning of these disease outbreaks.

Some experts are saying they’re “concerned” about Zika. But Chan said it’s “alarming.” What are you? Are you concerned or alarmed?

I’m concerned, but prepared to be alarmed. I’m prepared to be alarmed when there’s new data.

What would be the step down from “concerned”? “Relaxed”? Do you think it’s going to drop to “relaxed”?

I don’t think so. When it comes to the kinds of effects that may be linked to this, I don’t think anybody’s ever going to feel relaxed, unless we show conclusively that these devastating effects are not due to Zika. But we should never relax regarding the global nature of infectious diseases. There’s always a new one just around the corner.

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