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Introduction to MySQL OpenSource

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What is RDBMS?

RDBMS is an abbreviation for Relational Database Management System. It is a collection of programs that allows to store and manipulate the data. It always stores structured data. RDBMS stores data as database objects in a Table, which comprises a set of related entries organized in rows and columns. A database stores a group of related tables. Various companies like Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Teradata, and many more provide RDBMS with different capabilities, but the main purpose of all the RDBMS is the same.

What is MySQL?

MySQL is an open-source relational management database system. MySQL is a fast and easy-to-use RDBMS to develop various small-scale and large-scale applications. Various applications like Joomla, WordPress, Drupal, and many more are widely using it. MySQL is popular because of the various features it has.

Some of them are listed below:

MySQL Software is released under an open-source license. So, there is nothing to pay for. It can be used freely.

MySQL Software works on various operating systems and can be used with various programming languages like Java, C, C++, PHP, etc.

MySQL Opensource uses standard SQL language to query the data.

The maximum data size that the table stores is based on the operating system constraints on file size.

Is MySQL OpenSource?

MySQL Software is an Open-source RDBMS software. The source code of MySQL OpenSources is available under the terms of GNU General Public License and a variety of proprietary agreements. For Proprietary use, several paid versions are available that offer additional functionalities. A Swedish firm originally developed MySQL called MySQL AB, which Oracle Corporation now owns. The MySQL server software edition is available in various editions, including the Commercial edition and Community edition, which are described below:

MySQL Community Edition: An active community of open-source developers supports the freely downloadable version of MySQL RDBMS. There are a lot of forums where users can post their queries and get all the updates on MySQL.

MySQL Commercial Edition: MySQL is available as a paid version under this edition. The commercial edition of MySQL includes various editions of MySQL Opensource, listed below.

MySQL Enterprise Edition: It has the most comprehensive set of features, management tools, and technical support to achieve scalability, reliability, and uptime. This reduces the risk involved in cost and complexity in deploying, developing, and managing business-critical applications.

MySQL Standard Edition: Enables us to deliver high-performance and scalable Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) applications. It provides a transaction-safe ACID properties complaint database.

MySQL Classic Edition: The Classic Edition serves as an embedded database for ISVs (Independent Software Vendors), OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers), and VARs (Value-Added Resellers) who develop read-intensive applications utilizing the MyISAM storage engine. It has been established as a zero-administration database with high-performance capabilities.

MySQL Cluster CGE: It is a distributed database providing linear scalability and high availability. It provides features like in-memory, real-time access with transactional consistency across distributed datasets. It has a globally distributed cloud infrastructure. Also provides a replication factor for the data between clusters across geographical sites which helps to prevent data loss.

Features of MySQL Opensource

Relational Database System: MySQL OpenSource is a relational database system.

Client/Server Architecture: MySQL is a client-server system. A database server is installed in some systems, and many clients try to communicate with the server to query the data. The client can run on the same machine as the server, or it might be on different devices, also.

Query Language: MySQL Opensource uses Structured Query Language is a database programming language.

Replication: It enables the replication of the database contents on multiple computers to prevent data loss in cloud infrastructure.

Platform Independent: You can install the MySQL server on various operating systems.

Connectors: MySQL Opensource provides different types of connectors like chúng tôi JDBC and ODBC, chúng tôi driver, etc., to connect MySQL with various programming languages like Java, chúng tôi chúng tôi and many more.

Easy to use: MySQL is easy to use. It is available both as an editor also as a command-line interface.


So, from the above points, you must know about MySQL Opensource and its availability. So, after going through the details about MySQL Opensource, we can now conclude that MySQL is one of the best RDBMS databases with many features. As we know, it is available both as an open-source and a commercial edition. Users can choose the MySQL edition based on their requirements. The open-source edition is ideal for individuals seeking to learn any RDBMS database and is helpful for learning, development, or exploration purposes, particularly for students. It can be easily downloadable and installed since the Commercial edition is a paid version. Companies or institutions can mainly use it to develop business-critical applications as this edition provides technical support like deployment, maintenance, and availability, reducing the complexity risk. The commercial edition is also available in the cloud, making it highly available.

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Open Source Ecm In A Windows World

Informa, a technical publishing company with some 7,000 employees, straddles the worlds of Linux and Windows.

The company uses Linux in all its applications that interface with customers. The London-based Informa has very active Linux development teams in its Dutch, German and UK offices. These developers create software for uses ranging from content distribution to marketing.

“They’re all Web apps that deliver something to the broad public,” says Bob Hecht, the company’s VP of content strategy.

The Windows-centric side of Informa is its internal network, which supports its production and management functions. Although the company has open source developers based in Florida and New York, “We tend to, for expediency, write to the Windows platforms, because our infrastructure is all Windows boxes,” Hecht tells Datamation.

Despite the company’s clear dividing line – Linux for customer apps, Windows for its internal network – Hecht decided to take a major step: He introduced an open source element into Informa’s Windows-only internal network.

Surprisingly, the open source tool he introduced was an enterprise content management (ECM) application. In most companies that’s a critical app, but for Informa – whose entire business is content distribution – its ECM program is a defining element of the network.

Why did Hecht want Informa to take such a major step? Cost was the key consideration. Additionally, “I’m a huge Linux fan and supporter, and what has been happening in open source is just an incredible move.”

A New Tool

The open source ECM tool Informa chose is Alfresco Enterprise Network, developed by Alfresco. Launched in the fall of 2005, the software is not quite yet a year old. In its short life, the ECM tool has been adopted by companies like Boise Cascade and Knight Ridder Digital. The application is designed to run in the Linux, Mac, Unix or Windows environments.

One of Informa’s goals in adopting Alfresco was to allows employees to use the editor of their choice to participate in any stage of a document’s creation, from authoring to reviewing, approval to distribution. The company wanted support for EXL-FO (Extensible Stylesheet Language Formatting Objects) and Web services standards. It wanted its content management system to be open source so that it could incorporate third party tools without being limited to a proprietary software model.

Alfresco enables a network manager to apply an array of content management rules to virtual folders. For instance, “You say, ‘anything that goes into this folder, do this with it,’” Hecht explains. So any file can be automatically translated into the correct file format, locked, or versioned. The software also handles an array of security rules. It uses the Lucene Text Search Engine.

Alfresco employs CIFS (Common Internet File System), a protocol for allowing users with different platforms to share files. “It uses a CIFS mapping tool to make the Alfresco content repository look like a Windows folder,” he says. So users navigate within the comfortable, well-known Windows environment.

Because Alfresco supports the JSR-168 portlet standard, users can work in their native portal when necessary. The application employs a configurable Aspect-Oriented system where rules are defined to prompt actions.

The Cost Factor

Some users might expect a relatively new open source app running in a Windows environment to create network snafus. On the subject of Alfresco’s stability on a Windows network, Hecht says it’s hard for him to say, chiefly because he’s never run the app on top of Linux. Not that Alfresco isn’t stable, he explains, but “The only thing I can say with confidence is, I’d feel that it’d be more stable under Linux.”

Actually, there are some Alfresco tools that work better in a pure Windows environment, he says.

The Alfresco enterprise-level product is priced at three tiers: silver, gold and platinum, or $10,000, $15,000, or $20,000 per CPU. (Alfresco is also available as a free, unsupported download.) The software doesn’t need to be implemented onto all a company’s CPUs, Afresco sales director Jason Hardin tells Datamation. “Let’s say they have 200 users, and two CPUs with back-up would be just fine.”

Hecht, for his part, says Informa is moving at a “very cautious” pace with its new ECM tool, but that “I’m viewing Alfresco as a long-term solution for my company.”

“I’m putting in small systems, because the product is not even a year old yet,” he says. “There’s a tremendous amount of functionality that’s in the technical road map for this product and almost all of it is important for a mature enterprise content management solution.”

Making The Case For Open Source Software

As budgets contract, it is becoming more and more important for schools to consider alternatives to expensive proprietary software. Open source software can provide a viable alternative to traditional software at a fraction of the cost. It is available for free, and is as stable as traditional commercial software (provided schools choose mature software packages). Furthermore, most open source software packages have large communities of developers and users who work towards the common goal of improving the software. This collaborative environment mirrors the style of work educators often seek to create in the classroom.

Open Source vs. Web 2.0

In the last several years educators have begun adopting Web 2.0 sites as alternatives to traditional installed software. The propagation of Web 2.0 sites has provided options not previously available for schools, however there are important distinctions that need to be drawn between Web 2.0 and open source to avoid conflating the terms. First, Web 2.0 sites are not open source. That is to say, the end user has no ability to view, edit, or change the source code of the application. The only permission typically given to the user of a given Web 2.0 site is use of the site. Open source software, on the other hand, affords you the ability to download the source code (the building blocks) of the software.

Web 2.0 sites are hosted on the creating company’s servers, meaning use of the site is dependant on sufficient bandwidth and the site’s servers must be running at a high rate of speed. However, the costs of running Web 2.0 sites can lead to sites shutting down or going to a pay model, leading to frustrated users. Open source software cannot move to a pay model due to inherent restrictions in open source licensing. With open source software, there is no fear that a favorite package will one day cost money. For example, I personally know of many educators who used chúng tôi as a podcast-hosting service. It worked well and was free, until Garageband (the parent company) decided to shut it down. This left many educators searching for a replacement tool.

Open Source Alternatives to Traditional Software

One of my favorite ways to find open source software that is an alternative to traditional software is using chúng tôi This site will offer free and open source substitutes to traditional software. For example, if a school wanted to find an open source alternative to Adobe’s Photoshop software, a visit to chúng tôi reveals an open source package called Gimpshop. This is just one example of many possible alternatives to traditional commercial software.

One way open source software can save schools money is by replacing Microsoft Office. Schools often spend large amounts of money on Microsoft licenses, propagating the dependence on commercial, proprietary software. One alternative to Microsoft Office is LibreOffice. LibreOffice is a free and open source software package that looks and feels much like Microsoft Office and can interact with Office documents.

In my classroom, we often use LibreOffice in place of Microsoft Office because our district has yet to upgrade past the 2003 version of Microsoft Office. LibreOffice gives us newer features and compatibility we did not have with Office 2003. We also use Audacity to record audio. We use Audacity to record podcasts, we create “radio commercials” as projects, and learn to edit audio. Without this free tool, we would have had to invest in a commercial software package for audio editing. This decision has saved us a significant amount.

The other open source software package we use frequently is called iTalc. iTalc is similar to SMART Sync (formerly called SynronEyes) and NetSupport. iTalc allows me to see student screens to provide remote support, demonstrations, and supervision while students are working on their computers. As in the other cases, the use of this software has saved us a significant amount of money.

Practical Advice for Implementing Open Source Software

A proper implementation plan can make the difference between users who thank you and users who get frustrated. There are several ways to ease the transition to an open source software package, especially when it is replacing a traditional commercial package. Here are some tips for planning your transition:

1. Involve key stakeholders. If you educate users ahead of time and prepare them, the transition will be easier. Help your users see the need, help them see the cost savings, and show them that the differences in the software are minimal.

2. Start with early adopters. Each district has an easily identifiable group of users who would be willing to try this out and report possible issues. These same users will become your “go to” folks when the switch goes live.

3. Create short how-to videos and/or screencasts addressing common transition issues. The time it takes to create these will save you help desk requests in the future.

4. Roll out the change over time. Consider running both packages side by side for a year so that users have the chance to try it out.

Open source software can save your school/district/community money while still providing the features users require. In today’s budget crisis, consider how using open source software can replace some of your commercial software.

How Open Source Python Drives The Openstack Cloud

There are a lot of different programming languages in use today. When it comes to the cloud, thanks in part to the strong position of OpenStack, the open source Python language has emerged as being one of the most important. OpenStack is written in Python and is in used by many leading IT vendors including IBM, HP, Dell and Cisco.

But how and why did Python become the language of choice for OpenStack?

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To answer that question, Datamation sat down in a video interview with Joshua McKenty, co-founder and CTO of Piston Cloud and one of the key figures at NASA in the original Nebula cloud compute project.

McKenty wrote a study for NASA examining what language it should adopt for web applications in general.

“At the time, NASA had three thousand different web apps, written in 18 different languages and frameworks, just from a security standpoint it was a nightmare to maintain,” McKenty said. “So I prepared a trade study and did a quantitative and qualitative analysis of six languages and nine frameworks and came up with using Django and Python as the things that were most appropriate for NASA.”

Django is a popular open source Python web framework. McKenty noted that the study wasn’t about identifying Python as the best language in general. The analysis took into account the regional availability of resources, compatibility with NASA partners, security as well as personnel expertise.

In building its cloud compute platform, NASA also made the decision to use the most stable version of Python, which at the time was Python 2.6. The Python 2.6 release was announced back in October of 2008.

During the same timeframe, Rackspace had come to the same decision about using Python as the language for its cloud infrastructure technologies. Rackspace’s legacy cloud was built on Ruby. OpenStack came together in July of 2010, when NASA and Rackspace joined their respective cloud projects.

Python 2 to 3

While Python 2.x was the most stable version of Python in 2008, in 2013 the Python community has moved on with the Python 3.x branch as its core focus. Moving from Python 2.x to Python 3.x for OpenStack is a non-trivial task.

In addition to being on the OpenStack Foundation Board, McKenty is also a member of the Python Software Foundation, as are a number of his fellow OpenStack board members.

“We have insight into where the Python community is trying to go in the transition to Python 3.x and yet we’re keenly aware of the challenges of moving the OpenStack codebase in that direction,” McKenty said.

OpenStack has over 1.25 million lines of code, according to McKenty. Transforming existing code to Python 3.x will be a tricky exercise. Moving to Python 3.x is something that will take time, which isn’t always possible when project are racing forward with new feature releases.

In McKenty’s opinion, new projects should be written in Python 3. When it comes to existing project he is a bit cautious.

“The work to port existing projects to Python 3 should be undertaken,” McKenty said. “But I think it should be timed to happen at the point at which each of the projects is mature enough that the majority of the community can focus on the effort and it’s not in conflict with on-going development.”

Watch the video interview with Joshua McKenty below:

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at Datamation and chúng tôi Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

Apache Cloudstack 4.1 Autoscales The Open Source Cloud

The open source CloudStack project is out this week with its first major release since becoming a top level Apache Software Foundation project. The new release provides new tools that enable more scalable cloud deployments.

The CloudStack 4.1 release is the first since the project’s graduation from the Apache incubator in March of this year. The first CloudStack release as an Apache incubator project came in November 2012 with the 4.0 release. The Apache CloudStack 4.0 release was built on the chúng tôi technology that Citrix had acquired in July of 2010.

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Joe Brockmeier, PMC Member Apache CloudStack, explained to Datamation that CloudStack’s release cycle is a time-based approach, as opposed to being strictly feature driven.

Among the new features in the CloudStack 4.1 release is Region Support, which is similar to a capability currently offered by Amazon AWS.

“This is about making CloudStack more flexible for people that are running geographically distributed clouds,” Brockmeier said.

Another key feature that gets a boost is Auto Scaling. According to CloudStack’s documentation, “Auto Scaling allows you to scale up or scale down back-end services or application virtual machines(guest VMs) based on various conditions you define and thereby ensure optimum use of virtual resources.”

The Auto Scaling feature in CloudStack 4.1 will work with Citrix’s NetScaler load balancer. Brockmeier stressed that the technology is not specific to Citrix, as the Apache project is always trying to be open and inclusive. He expects that over time, other load balancing solutions from mulitple vendors will be plugging into the feature as well via an open interface.

Security gets a boost in CloudStack 4.1 with egress firewall rules for guest networks.

“Basically we’re talking about setting up firewalls for any guest traffic coming from virtual machines that is going out to the public network,” Brockmeier said. “That’s where you are thinking about what you want to allow out of virtual machines instances as opposed to what traffic do you want to allow to reach them.”

From an access control perspective, Brockmeier noted that today CloudStack has three core classes of users. There is the root domain, which has control of the entire cloud, then there are sub-domains and domain users. Going a step further, CloudStack also provides Single-Sign-On capabilities with LDAP and ActiveDirectory. Moving forward, additional options for more granular Role Based Access Control are likely to land in CloudStack.

With the CloudStack 4.1 release now generally available, the focus of attention will turn to development of CloudStack 4.2.

While it is still early in the process, a number of features may be included in the next release of CloudStack, including support for Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012. The egress rules for firewall will be supported on the Juniper SRX security appliance and IP address reservation capabilties are also expected to be part of CloudStack 4.2.

The current plan is for the CloudStack 4.2 release to become generally available in the August, September timeframe.

Sean Michael Kerner is a senior editor at Datamation and chúng tôi Follow him on Twitter @TechJournalist.

Ada Initiative Supports Women In Open Source, Counters Sexism

In the last two years, sexism in free and open source software (FOSS) culture has been increasingly discussed and documented. (See Sexism: Open Source Software’s Dirty Little Secret.) However, little has been done about it.

Both Aurora and Gardiner have been active in FOSS women’s groups for over a decade. However, the catalyst for the Ada Initiative was the hostile responses to Noirin Shirley’s account of being sexually assaulted at ApacheCon in November 2010. The incident led to Aurora, Gardiner, and other members of the Geek Feminism blog to draft sample anti-harassment policies for conferences, and eventually to Aurora quitting her work as a full-time kernel developer at Red Hat to focus on the issues involved.

Named after Ada Lovelace, an associate of Charles Babbage who is often credited with being the first computer programmer, The Ada Initiative is intended as a means to do the kind of intensive work that is difficult — if not impossible — when relying on volunteers.

The current plan is to find funding for two years’ full time work for at least Aurora and Gardiner. Others may be hired as funding permits, or for special projects.

“We’re hoping to rely on corporate donations, probably with some early funds raised through individual donations” says Gardiner. The Ada Initiative has already announced its first sponsor, Linux Australia, and its founders hope to announce other sponsors shortly.

Assuming that the necessary funds are raised, The Ada Initiative’s co-founders have several ambitious goals.

One of the earliest priorities, according to Gardiner, “is the first substantive research on women in open source since the FLOSSPOLS survey that everyone relies on, but which are now five years out of date.” The Ada Initiative will spend the first six months developing a research methodology and doing a new survey, then repeat it at the end of two years, leaving a consistent standard that can be used afterwards, either by The Ada Initiative or its successors.

More immediately, the organization will be working within FOSS and related communities in three ways. According to Aurora, “one is creating reasonable policy frameworks in general on things like how to successfully run [things like] a Women in Open Source Scholarship. There are a lot of people who want to run a Women in (fill in the blank) Project, and they just don’t know how. The things that we develop and write down we can share with them.”

Aurora continues, “The next one is to actually do in-person workshop and training.” Examples of these events include what Aurora refers to as Allies Workshops for male and institutional supporters and First Patch Week, an intensive short course that would encourage women’s participation in FOSS by teaching them via mentors about the cultural mechanics of proposing, writing, and submitting code modifications to a project.

However, Aurora adds, “One thing we are very clear on is that we are not going to be fee for service. We are not going to be earning money because some bad thing has happened.”

Another point that the founders emphasize is that men are welcome to contribute to The Ada Initiative as mentors or other consultants– and, in fact, that much of the audience for its activities will be male or represented by men.

“We think there is a large community of men who would really like women to be a greater part of open [culture],” Aurora says, “and we have to give them the information they need to help them understand how to be part of this movement.”

Gardiner and Aurora also want to stress that The Ada Initiative is complementary to existing organizations for women — and is not intended as a replacement or umbrella organization, let alone as a competitor.

Instead, Gardiner suggests that The Ada Initiative will take on projects that existing organizations are less apt to undertake. Not only are many groups, such as Debian Women or KDE Women focused on specific projects, but, because of traditional divisions of domestic labor, women still frequently have less time to volunteer.

Moreover, some goals are simply harder to achieve with volunteers. Gardiner suggests that volunteers are best-suited to activities like coding, which can be divided into a series of smaller tasks, or event planning, which involve concentrated bursts of effort over a short period of time. By contrast, larger issues that involve multiple projects or intensive work over long periods of time are easier to organize when people are working on them full-time.

At any rate, Aurora notes, “Especially in open source, the majority of participants are paid, and it seems a bit much to expect that women are going to be different and participate in their free time. We want to get women involved professionally full-time.”

According to Gardiner, women who want to be involved in FOSS “often find that their tolerance for the level of conflict is really short. Very quickly, you’ll find this level of hate rhetoric, trolling, and puerile behavior that is pretty exceptional.”

However, Gardiner and Aurora hope to avoid burnout because of the way that The Ada Initiative is being organized and planned. “Just being able to make some sort of positive difference and being able to work actively and intensively” may make a difference,” Gardiner says.

Moreover, Aurora observes that, in previous activist efforts, “generally there’s been one person who has done the bulk of the going to conferences, being the public face, and being the person who gets the death threats which inevitably happen. Kathy Sierra is just one of the high profile examples of that.[Sierra is a programming instructor and game developer who cancelled her appearance at a tech conference due to threatening blog posts and death threats.] One of the things we’re doing is having a minimum of two people for the Ada Initiative, so it’s depersonalized. People are hopefully going to be more likely to attack The Ada Initiative than a person.

“The second part of burnout is that activism takes a lot of emotional energy. It’s extremely draining, and when you have to work a full time job to support yourself then you come home to death threats and angry emails and people being upset about the way you’ve phrased something, pretty soon you decide to stop doing that. So we also need to be able to go home in the evening and relax, and the only way we can figure out how to do that is to get paid for [activism].”

And if the founders burnout anyway over the next two years? Then, “in an ideal world, we’ll have grown a couple of excellent candidates who would love to go to work for The Ada Initiative,” Aurora says.

The planning for The Ada Initiative includes evaluating progress towards its goals at each step of the way. According to Gardiner, the project will be reconsidered in six months if it has not found adequate sponsorship, with any funds raised returned to their donors

Similarly, Gardiner concedes that, “it is, for instance, not realistic to expect that in 2013, fifty percent of developers will be women.” Instead, Aurora and Gardiner are viewing the next two years as an initial phase in the project.

During that time, they hope to observe and document small but definite changes in the participation of women in FOSS and related areas. Aurora suggests that measures of success will be such things as “the number of women who have submitted their first patch through one of our programs, establishing a baseline for women in open source and culture, the number of groups and organizations that we have assisted, [and] the number of conferences that have adopted some form of anti-harassment policy.”

By contrast, signs of failures might be the number of women who fail to keep up their involvement, or of conferences that, after adopting an anti-harassment policy, fail to enforce it.

The Ada Initiative is confronting complex problems that many others have faced with limited success, but, overall, its founders are convinced that the time has come for their approach.

“It’s the right thing to do, and it seems like it’s far overdue,” Aurora says. “A lot of people want to do something and they have nowhere to go to do it, so there’s this pent-up frustration and helplessness. We hope to give people a focus.”

ALSO SEE: Sexism: Open Source Software’s Dirty Little Secret

AND: Eight Completely Free Linux Distros (And One More)

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