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Definition of MySQL AES_Encrypt

The MySQL AES_Encrypt function implements the AES algorithm to encode a provided string as arguments. The AES algorithm, which stands for Advanced Encryption Standard, encrypts the data using a key length of 128 bits, extendable up to 256 bits. MySQL AES_Encrypt() encodes a specific string and produces a binary series. If the argument provided to the function is NULL, the output will also be NULL.

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We, a user, provide too small a key length. It may be null-padded, i.e., due to the memset, but if it’s too big, then it may xor the additional bytes using the first key_size bytes; suppose when the critical size will be 4bytes along with the key as 12345678, then it will be xor to 5678 using the outcome as the key with 1234. Therefore, for the best security, we must implement a random key length of the size configured AES to be used. Hence, for providing AES-128, we need a 128-bit as a random key or 32 hex characters.

Syntax of MySQL AES_Encrypt AES_ENCRYPT (Encryp_String, Key_String);

The function named Encryp_String describes the arguments mentioned above, which are Encryp_String and Key_String.

Encryp_String:  This string will be encrypted.

Key_String: This is the key string to encrypt the first argument String.

These input arguments can be of any length. If any of these arguments, such as the key value or the string to be encrypted, are NULL, the function will return NULL. AES is an algorithm that operates at the block level, where padding encodes strings of irregular lengths. The resulting length of the string can be calculated using the following formula:

16 * (trunc(str_len/16) + 1);              

AES is a two-way encryption and decryption mechanism that provides security for sensitive data records while allowing the original data to be retrieved. The AES algorithm utilizes an encryption key as a seed to achieve this. AES implements a compound mathematical algorithm comprising two concepts: confusion and diffusion. Here, the confusion process helps to hide the relationship between the original data and the encrypted data result. In contrast, the Diffusion process functions to shift, alter or adjust the data compositely.

When executed, the function AES_ENCRYPT() in MySQL will return the value, which is a binary string, after converting the original plaintext. The MySQL AES_ENCRYPT() function supports MySQL versions 5.7, 5.6, 5.5, 5.1, 5.0, and 4.1.

How does AES_ENCRYPT Function Work in MySQL?

AES_ENCRYPT() function in MySQL applies encryption of data records by using the official AES algorithm, formerly recognized as ‘Rijndael’, where the AES standard allows several key lengths. The default key length is 128 bits, but 196 and 256 bits can also be implemented as described. The key length in AES is a trade-off between safety and performance.

Let us view the code example to show the working of the AES_Encrypt() function as below:

SELECT AES_Encrypt('mysqlcoding','mysqlkeystring');

The above MySQL query statement encodes the string specified like ‘mysqlcoding’ with the key mysqlkeystring. The output for this will be the following after execution:

AES_Encrypt() allows the regulator of the block encryption mode and will receive init_vector as an optional initialization vector argument where:

This system variable block_encryption_mode governs the mode for the server’s block-based encryption algorithms whose value is aes-128-ecb by default, indicating encryption using a key length of 128 bits and mode ECB.

The optional argument init_vector delivers an initialization vector for this block encryption mode, which needs it.

Modes that require the init_vector argument should have a length of 16 or more bytes, with any bytes beyond 16 being ignored. But an error will take place if init_vector is missing. So we can write as follows:

SELECT AES_ENCRYPT (Encryp_String, Key_String, @init_vector);

But the modes that do not need the optional argument init_vector will be disregarded, and an associated warning is produced if it is stated.

To use an initialization vector (IV), a random string of bytes can be generated by invoking RANDOM_BYTES(16). When the encryption mode requires an IV, you should consistently use the generated vector for the encryption and decryption of any string.

Certainly! Below is a table list that explains various allowed block encryption modes along with the associated initialization vector (IV) argument required:

Block Encryption Mode  Initialization Vector Needed



CFB1 Yes

CFB8 Yes

CFB128 Yes


Examples of MySQL AES_Encrypt

Let us illustrate some examples to show the MySQL AES_Encrypt() function works as follows:

1. Executing AES_Encrypt() function on a string by SELECT statement:


The MySQL AES_Encrypt() uses the SELECT statement to find the outcome and encrypt the string in the MySQL server.


2. Executing AES_Encrypt() function on a bigger string by SELECT statement:

SELECT AES_ENCRYPT('MySQLdatabasefunction','key');




4. Executing AES_Encrypt() function implementing a sample table in the database:

INSERT INTO demo VALUE (AES_ENCRYPT('mystring','key'));

If explained in the above query, the function encrypts the particular string mystring with a key and enters the encrypted string as output into the table ‘demo’.

5. Executing AES_ENCRYPT() function with key value:

SELECT AES_ENCRYPT('All is Well','Google');


The AES_ENCRYPT() function accepts the key value “Google” and the string to be encrypted, “All is Well,” as arguments.


The MySQL AES_ENCRYPT() function is considered insecure because it defaults to using ECB mode unless configured otherwise.

Depending on what the server’s block_encryption_mode a user configures, we can use the key length from the list of supported ones, such as 128, 256, and 192, where the AES standard algorithm also permits these key lengths.

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Syntax And Different Examples Of Jquery Innerwidth()

Introduction to jQuery innerWidth()

jQuery innerWidth() is an inbuilt jQuery method. It gives the current computed inner width for the first matched element and sets the width for each matched element. This method is supported by browsers- Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Safari.

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The method innerWidth() method includes the padding value but excludes the margin and border value as represented in the below diagram.

Syntax of jQuery innerWidth()

Syntax Parameter Description Value Type Version

$(selector).innerWidth() NA NA 1.0

$(selector). innerWidth (Value) 1. Value: A numerical value as the measurement value. 1. Handler: String/Number 1.8.0

$(selector). innerWidth (Function) 1. Function: To set the width of the matched element whose index is given as an input argument. 1. Function: Function 1.8.0

Examples of jQuery innerWidth()

Given below are the examples of jQuery innerWidth():

Example #1: Without using any parameter

innerWidth() method can be used without providing any input argument. It is used to get the width measurement for the first matched element including the padding value. This method without input argument becomes a read-only property of the window.


<script type = ”text/javascript” $(document).ready(function() { var color = $(this).css(“background-color”); var width = $(this).innerWidth(); $(“#result”).css({‘color’: color, ’background-color’:’white’}); }); }); #div1 { margin:10px;padding:12px; border:3px solid #666; width:60px;} #div2 { margin:15px;padding:6px; border:5px solid #666; width:60px;} #div3 { margin:20px;padding:12px; border:3px solid #666; width:60px;} #div4 { margin:15px;padding:6px; border:5px solid #666; width:60px;}


Before innerWidth() method is called:

After innerWidth() method is called:

Example #2: With the ‘value’ parameter

For jQuery innerWidth(), a value of type string or number can be given as input argument value. This syntax can be used to modify the width of the selected element to the value that is passed to the method as input argument value.


$(document).ready(function(){ $(“div”).innerWidth(500) $( ”p” ).text( ”InnerWidth for div session:” + $( ”div” ).innerWidth() ); }); });


Before innerWidth() method is called:

After innerWidth() method is called:

Note: For the syntax innerWidth(value), if a number is provided as value, jQuery treats in terms of pixel unit by default unless any specific unit is not mentioned. If a string value is provided, any CSS measurement can be used for the width value.

Example #3: innerWidth() With ‘function’ parameter

In this syntax, the method innerWidth() accepts function as input argument. This syntax of innerWidth() method accepts any function that is with or without input arguments.


//The width of the div element is decided by the function output of myfunc() and $(document).ready(function(){ $(“div”).innerWidth(myfunc()); $( ”p” ).text( ”InnerWidth for div session:” + $( ”div” ).innerWidth()); }); }); function myfunc() { return 100+$( ”div” ).innerWidth() }


Before innerWidth() method is called:

After innerWidth() method is called:

Screen 1: myfunc method is called once.

Screen 2: myfunc method is called twice.

Additional Note

This method returns the value of the inner width in terms of pixels.

In the case of an empty set of elements, the method gives the result as ‘undefined’.

This method does not support .doc or window object. For such an object. width() method is used.

The resultant value can be fractional as well. If the code takes the round value for the result, it may give incorrect dimensions for the site in the zoomed condition as the browser may not include any API to detect such condition.

If the matched element or its parent element is in hidden state, innerWidth() may not give an accurate result. In order to avoid such erroneous result, it is required to ensure the visibility state of the element to be true then revert back to the hidden state after the method execution is completed. Though it works for accuracy, still reliability of this approach is under question mark.

InnerWidth(), OuterWidth() and Width() are similar to each other. They are different from each other in terms of inclusion or padding, margin and border values. InnerWidth() includes padding value only where as OuterWidth() includes both padding and border value. Width() does not consider only element width.

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Circular Flow Of Income: Definition, Examples, Types, Methods

Circular Flow of Income Meaning

The Circular Flow of Income is a macroeconomic concept explaining how income or money flows through various sectors of an economy. 

For example, McDonald’s uses dollars to pay the landlord for the space it rents or its employees’ salaries. In either scenario, the dollar returns to someone’s wallet after entering their household’s income. The family or someone from the family then uses the received payment to spend on food at McDonald’s. Thus, the money finally returns to the beginning of the flow.

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Key Highlights

The circular flow of income explains the flow of money from producers to households and back to the producers.

There are two aspects to this concept, namely, real flow and money flow

The three primary methods involved in the process are value-added, income, and expenditure method

Its analysis helps the government determine and adjust its monetary and fiscal policy.

Circular Flow of Income- How Does it Work?

Usually, businesses, individuals, and the government runs an economy

In a free market, companies produce and sell products to earn revenue. They use the income to pay wages to people who outsource their services to these firms

The households then partially spend their income on food, clothing, entertainment, etc., and use the rest for savings and buying things outside of the economy (imports), also called leakages

To equalize the leakages, some firms do business outside the country (exports), and some borrow money for investment. It is known as an injection, as the money eventually returns to the flow

The money spent on necessities by the citizens returns to the firms, which explains the Circular Flow of Income.

Example of Circular Flow of Income Example #1:

A ketchup factory’s factors of production are tomatoes, industrial land, and laborers. As a result, the households enjoy monetary compensation for the rented industrial land, farmers profit from selling tomatoes, and the laborers get wages.

Once the final ketchup bottles are in the market, the households purchase the ketchup bottles using wages, rent, or profits. The money goes to the producers, and factory owners, eventually completing the circular flow.

Example #2:

As a result, she uses the money from the rent to buy the furniture. Therefore, the money the XYZ company paid as the rent came back to them as business profits. It explains the income circular flow.

Circular Flow of Income Types Real Flow

It is the flow of factor services, like land, labor, and entrepreneurship, from households to companies

There is no involvement of money; both sides only exchange services

It generally helps determine an economy’s growth.

Money Flow

It explains the movement of money from the flow of factor payments, such as rent, wages, and interest from firms to households.

Here, there is an exchange of funds between households and firms

Nominal flow is another name for money flow.

Methods of Calculation & Formulas Value-added Method

This method calculates the national income as per the different production phases of goods and services

It aims to calculate the value added to the product during the various stages of production.

Formula: National Income = Net Domestic Product at Factor Cost + Net factor income from abroad

Income Method

This method totals the income individuals earn in exchange for their services. It takes into account the rent, interest payments, wages, and profits

It is also known as NDPfc, i.e., net domestic product at factor cost.

Formula: National Income = Rent + Wages + Profit + Interest + Mixed Income

Expenditure Method

It calculates the expenditures of individuals, businesses, and the government

The formula sums the consumer purchase (C), government expenditure (G), investments by business firms (I), and net exports (NX).

Formula: National Income = C + G + I + NX

Final Thoughts

The Circular Flow of Income is the economic concept of the constant flow of money. It shows the interdependence of different economic sectors. In addition, it highlights the link between earning and spending in an economy. Thus, it becomes vital to understand the income flow to understand the economic wealth of a nation.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs) Q1. What are the four sectors in the circular flow of income? Q2. What are the three primary income flows of an economy?

Answer: Total production, income, and spending are the three ways income flows in an economy. Production concerns the entire demand and supply of goods and services. On the other hand, income and spending consider the cash inflow and outflow through the economy.

Q3. What are Leakages and Injections in the Circular Flow of Income?

Answer: While leakages are withdrawals of money from the circular flow, injections are the addition of money. Leakage happens when individuals save money that does not pass through the regular flow—for example, savings, imports, and taxes. Injection occurs when households/firms borrow money from institutes like banks. It helps increase the flow of income in an economy—for example, investment, exports, and government expenditure.

Q4. What are the different phases of the Circular Flow of Income?

Answer: There are three phases in the circular flow of income: Generation, distribution, and disposition. In the generation phase, the firms initiate the production of goods and services with the aid of the factor service. In the distribution phase, income factors like rent, wages, etc., move from the firms to households. The last phase, i.e., the deposition phase, the public utilizes their income on the goods and services the firms generate.

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Punitive Damages: Definition And Meaning

If compensatory damages are regarded as an insufficient remedy, punitive damages are frequently granted. The court may impose them in order to protect plaintiffs from receiving insufficient compensation, to provide redress for hidden torts, and to reduce the burden on the criminal justice system. Punitive damages are crucial in cases of law violations that are difficult to find.

What is the Meaning of Punitive Damages?

Punitive damages, also known as “exemplary damages” or “exemplary punishment,” are financial penalties imposed on the defendant for egregious behaviour and/or to reform or prevent the defendant and others from repeating the actions that gave rise to the litigation. Even though punitive damages are not meant to make up for lost wages for the plaintiff, they may be awarded to them in full or in part.

In addition to compensatory damages, a defendant who is found guilty of a crime or violation is also required to pay punitive damages. When compensatory damages, or the money paid to the injured party, are deemed to be insufficient, they are granted. Punitive damages go above and beyond reimbursing the wronged party. They are intended specifically to penalize defendants whose actions are deemed to be willful or extremely negligent. Since they are meant to serve as a warning to prevent repeat offences, punitive damages are also known as exemplary damages.


The plaintiff orders a medication after hearing from a firm that it will aid in speedy weight loss and is made of natural materials. Yet, the plaintiff becomes very ill as a result of the tablets’ specific components. In this case, the court has the option of awarding punitive damages to the plaintiff in addition to compensatory damages due to the company’s fraudulent statements and to deter future misconduct.

Purpose of Punitive Damages

Punitive damages are always awarded in conjunction with other damages; they are never awarded separately. In essence, they provide a means of imposing further punishment on the criminal for their actions. Making the offender pay a sum that goes above compensatory damages is intended to prevent the defendant and other people from committing the same wrongdoing in the future. Punitive damages may be included in a personal injury claim’s compensatory damages, which pay for the victim’s medical bills, hospital bills, property damage, and other costs.

Punitive Damages in Tort Law

In tort lawsuits involving personal harm or medical negligence, plaintiffs may ask for punitive damages in the majority of states. While state laws vary in the specific criteria for punitive damages, plaintiffs normally must demonstrate that the defendant did one of the following −

With malice aforethought or

In a flagrantly careless or reckless manner.

Compare this to a scenario where a manufacturer decides to distribute a product even if test findings indicate it may not be safe for use or consumption by the general public. In such a situation, the plaintiff can use the manufacturer’s knowledge as evidence of extreme carelessness or negligence to support a claim for punitive damages.

What Factors Influence Punitive Damages

As previously stated, a defendant should only be given punitive damages for particularly heinous behaviour. Some of the elements that may affect whether or not punitive damages are awarded include the following −

Intent to Harm

An intentional tort is one that is done with the intent to cause harm. For instance, you may bring a claim for intentional assault: In an assault, the perpetrator is acting with the goal of causing injury.

Gross Negligence and Recklessness

Punitive damages may be awarded to a defendant who engages in conduct that is “wanton and wilful wrongdoing,” which is defined as gross negligence or recklessness. This kind of gross negligence or recklessness is exemplified by the driver who was driving through the school zone above.

Bhim Singh V. State of J.&K

Exceptional damages were awarded by the Supreme Court in cases of unlawful detention. Bhim Singh, a member of the Legislative Assembly, was in this case held and arrested in order to keep him away from attending the Assembly meeting. Bhim Singh had already been released when the Supreme Court’s judgement on the writ suit to challenge the imprisonment was made. Although the Supreme Court decided it was an appropriate case to impose exemplary damages in the amount of Rs. 50,000 within two months, it was no longer necessary to order that he be released.

How Often Are Punitive Damages Given

According to the most recent report issued by the US Department of Justice, although court cases involving significant punitive penalties appear to make the headlines frequently, plaintiffs don’t pursue punitive damages that frequently. Punitive damages were only granted in 30% of the situations where the plaintiffs won against the offender when they were pursued. Because plaintiffs often need to demonstrate that the defendant acted in a particularly abhorrent manner, punitive damages can be challenging to obtain.


In the coming decade, there will be close attention paid to the issue of how punitive penalties should be. Legislative bodies are flooded with lobbyists hawking legislation to curtail or abolish punitive damages as a result of the uproar over their revision. As a result of numerous provisions of the federal and state constitutions, courts are also being dragged down by claims of due process, illegal takings, and disproportionate fines.

Limits may eventually serve only to undermine public confidence in our legal system by eliminating the only remaining civil process that punishes a party for acting with fraud, oppression, or malice against another. While the fate of such damages will be decided by the legislature or the courts, at some point, setting limits may not serve any useful purpose.


Q1. Is punitive damages a penalty?

Ans. Punitive damages are often defined as losses that exceed what is required to fully compensate the plaintiff. Punitive damages, in accordance with the majority of courts, are assessed to hold the defendant accountable for its violation and to dissuade the offender and others from repeating the same behaviour.

Q2. What is the test for punitive damages?

Ans. In order to establish a case for punitive damages, the plaintiff must demonstrate that the defendant’s actions were harsh, vengeful, repugnant, or malevolent, according to the terms used by McIntyre J. in writing for the majority in Vorvis v.

Q3. Are moral damages punitive damages?

Ans. Punitive damages are not compensatory, in contrast to moral damages. They are intended to punish the defendant for acting in a way that clearly deviates from accepted norms of decency by being spiteful, repressive, and haughty.

Q4. Are punitive damages available in arbitration?

Ans. Nonetheless, unless the parties expressly exclude such a remedy in the governing arbitration clause, punitive damages may be granted in arbitrations under the Federal Arbitration Act (“FAA”), according to the United States Supreme Court and a New York intermediate appellate court.

Q5. What are punitive damages under Consumer Protection Act?

Ans. A claim or award of relief cannot be made or granted based solely on evidence of “unfair trade practises”; loss must also be proven to have occurred. Punitive damages are given in response to willful misconduct unrelated to the actual loss incurred. A claim of this nature must be especially argued.

Frivolous Litigation: Definition And Meaning

Frivolous Litigation is an English concept that means a lawsuit that is manifestly presented without merit, unjustified, or without any basis. It is the act of bringing a pointless lawsuit. These are filed in the court but have less possibility of succeeding in a courtroom trial. A frivolous lawsuit may occasionally be brought just to irritate or bother the opposing party. In other circumstances, a frivolous lawsuit may be brought in an effort to impede or postpone another legal action. A court will frequently reject a frivolous case without even considering the merits of the allegation.

What is the Meaning of Frivolous Litigation?

Use of the legal system to pursue unjustified claims is known as frivolous litigation. It also involves behaving carelessly by failing to conduct even rudimentary study on the pertinent legal issues and historical details, or by presenting an argument despite knowing it would undoubtedly fall short. The fact that a claim was unsuccessful does not mean the claim itself was baseless.

Frivolous lawsuits may be founded on nonsensical legal doctrines, include excessive or repeated motions or supplementary lawsuits, be rude or irritating to the court, or ask for excessive relief. A claim or defence would be deemed frivolous if it had any factual support or if no case was made for its reasonable extension or reinterpretation of the law.

Rationale behind Frivolous Litigation

There are instances where people with mental illnesses bring frivolous cases. However, majority of the time, frivolous lawsuits are brought for the following reasons −

Harassing the accused − Getting sued is tremendously frustrating. The defendant must invest time, effort, and money even if the case has no validity in order to get it dismissed. Furthermore, if people learn about the case and believe it to be valid, the defendant’s reputation may be damaged. For these reasons, plaintiffs frequently utilise frivolous lawsuits as a means of harassing defendants.

Consequences of Frivolous Litigation

Most courts are overloaded with justifiable lawsuits. It’s a good idea to have a backup plan in place in case the backup plan fails, and as a result there are certain consequences of filing frivolous litigation −

The important thing is that judges have the power to punish attorneys and penalise claimants who bring unfounded claims.

A defendant in a frivolous action has the right to pursue a claim against the plaintiff for malicious prosecution.

The costs of having to fight against the frivolous case are included in the damages in a claim for malicious prosecution, which is a tort action.

Limitation on Frivolous Litigation

The limitations may be boiled down to only five distinct criteria, which are as follows −

The current defendant must have actively participated in the beginning, continuation, or procurement of the original civil process;

The original proceeding must have concluded in favour of the present plaintiff;

There must be harm of the sort that the court considers proper for an action of this character;

There must be a lack of probable cause for the original action; and

There must have been “malice” in the bringing of the original action.

Impact on Filing Frivolous Litigation

The attorney who files a suit might suffer severe consequences if it is subsequently determined to be frivolous. The majority of successful frivolous claims are brought without legal representation.

If a judge describes an argument as “frivolous,” it is the very worst thing that might happen. It indicates that the individual presenting the position is totally incompetent and has wasted everyone’s time. That simply indicates that there was no other side, regardless of how eloquently the case was argued or whether the court merely chose the other side. Therefore, the court might impose a fine.


In frivolous litigation, there is always a chance that a judge may reject a lawsuit as frivolous if it is filed with the understanding that it is unlikely to prevail in court. A frivolous lawsuit may also subject the person who filed it to a number of legal sanctions. There are also legal repercussions for bringing baseless claims such as contempt of court accusations, monetary fines, and criminal prosecutions. Therefore, frivolous litigation has no legal and factual support in filing a suit.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is a frivolous complaint?

Ans. A “frivolous” lawsuit or complaint lacks any substance or value. A frivolous claim is frequently one that is so unimportant, without validity at first glance, or lacking in substance that an inquiry would be excessively time- and money-consuming.

Q2. What are the examples of frivolous litigation?

Ans. The frivolous litigation has a wide range of categories such as −

Submitting a dishonest or incorrect claim for vehicle insurance.

Submitting a medical malpractice claim with an excessively high demand for damages.

Attempting to sue an insurance provider for a claim that lacks legal support; and suing a person just for the goal of bothering them.

Q3. What is the difference between frivolous and meritless litigation?

Social Learning Theory With Examples

Social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behavior of others. It has roots in psychology and sociology and has been used to explain various human behavior, including aggression, altruism, and moral development.

The basic premise of social learning theory is that people learn by observing the behavior of others. If we see someone behaving in a certain way, we are more likely to imitate that behavior. This process is especially important in the development of aggressive and antisocial behavior.

One of the most influential proponents of social learning theory is Albert Bandura. His famous Bobo doll experiments showed that children who saw an adult model acting aggressively towards a Bobo doll were likelier to behave aggressively when allowed to do so.

Another important figure in the history of social learning theory is psychologist Lev Vygotsky. He argued that children learn best by observing and imitating adults who are more skilled than they are. This concept is known as scaffolding and forms the basis for much of modern educational practice.

There are many different applications of social learning theory. It has been used to explain why people conform to group norms, why they engage in criminal activity, and how they develop prejudice and stereotypes. It can also be used to design educational programs that promote pro−social behavior.

Who Uses Social Learning Theory?

There are three main ideas in social learning theory −

People can learn by observing others.

People are more likely to imitate behavior they see as successful.

People can learn new behaviors through observation and imitation, even if they don’t directly experience the consequences of those behaviors themselves.

So, who uses social learning theory? Teachers use it to design lessons and classroom activities. Businesses use it to create training programs and to understand how employees learn best. And parents use it to help their children learn new skills and values.

How does Social Learning Theory Work in the Classroom?

In social learning theory, the focus is on observing and copying the behavior of others. This type of learning can take place in several ways, including but not limited to the following−

Imitating the behavior of someone who is respected or admired

Observing the consequences that come from certain types of behavior

Trying out new behaviors to see how others receive them

In the classroom, social learning theory can be used to help students learn by observing and imitating the behavior of their peers or teachers. For example, if a student sees another student raise their hand to ask a question, they may be more likely to do the same. Or, if a student observes that their teacher always greets each student with a smile at the beginning of class, they may start to do the same.

When Should You Use Social Learning Theory? 1. When you want to teach someone a new skill or behavior

If you want to teach someone how to do something – like ride a bike, for instance – social learning theory suggests that they’ll learn best by observing others doing it. So, if you’re trying to teach someone to ride a bike, it would be helpful to show them somebody else riding one first.

2. When you want to change an existing behavior that’s proving problematic

If someone has a behavior causing problems – like smoking, for example – social learning theory suggests that they can learn to stop doing it by observing others who don’t smoke. So, if you’re trying to help someone quit smoking, it would be helpful to show them somebody else who doesn’t smoke and is living happily without cigarettes.

Types of Social Learning Theory

There are three primary types of social learning theory −

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory

Each of these theories has different implications for how people learn and interact with their environment and with each other. Here is a brief overview of each theory −

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn by observing and imitating the behaviors of others. This theory has been used to explain various human behavior, from aggression to altruism.

Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism emphasizes the role of culture and language in shaping cognitive development. According to this theory, children learn best when actively constructing their knowledge rather than passively receiving information from others.

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory describes the complex web of relationships between individuals and their physical and social environments. This theory emphasizes the importance of understanding how individual behavior is shaped by the various systems we live (e.g., family, school, and community).

Strategies to Teach with Social Learning Theory

There are a few key ways that teachers can implement social learning theory in their classrooms. First, providing opportunities for students to model desired behaviors is important. This could be done through role−playing activities, video modeling, or simply having students observe and describe a situation where they see the desired behavior is enacted.

Second, providing opportunities for students to practice the desired behavior is important. This could be done through simulation activities, role−playing games, or other hands−on activities.

Finally, providing feedback to students as they are practicing the desired behavior is important. This feedback should be specific and positive and help the student understand how their behavior impacts those around them.

Social Learning Theory Examples

In social learning theory, behavior is learned by observing and imitating others. This type of learning does not require any reinforcement; it is simply a process of copying the behaviors of those around us. While psychologist Albert Bandura first proposed this theory, it has since been expanded upon and applied to many situations.

One well−known example of social learning theory is the Bobo doll experiment. In this study, children were shown a film of an adult behaving aggressively toward a Bobo doll. The children who saw the film later behaved similarly when they were allowed to play with the doll themselves. This demonstrated that children could learn aggressive behavior simply by observing it in others.

Other examples of social learning theory can be seen in real−world situations. For instance, studies have shown that people are more likely to vote if they see their friends and family doing so. Additionally, people are more likely to give blood if they see someone close to them donating blood. Social learning theory can even explain why some people choose to smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol, despite knowing the risks involved − they have observed others around them engaging in these behaviors and decided to imitate them

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