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What’s the weirdest thing you learned this week? Well, whatever it is, we promise you’ll have an even weirder answer if you listen to PopSci’s hit podcast. The Weirdest Thing I Learned This Week hits Apple, Anchor, and everywhere else you listen to podcasts every-other Wednesday morning. It’s your new favorite source for the strangest science-adjacent facts, figures, and Wikipedia spirals the editors of Popular Science can muster. If you like the stories in this post, we guarantee you’ll love the show.FACT: You used to be able to die “by planet”
By Sara Chodosh
I’ve spent more time than most looking at death statistics. It’s kind of an occupational hazard of being both a health/science person and a data person. I am generally used to them being both quite depressing and pretty mundane—in the modern era in the US the vast majority of deaths are from cancer and heart disease, followed by accidents and respiratory issues. Elsewhere in the world it’s less mundane but much more depressing (read: lots of deaths due to preventable diseases that we largely don’t suffer from in high-income countries).
So it was something of a pleasant surprise to come across “The Diseases, and Casualties this year being 1632” (strange comma included). I think because the causes of death listed here—Affrighted, Made away themselves, Suddenly—are so removed from how we quantify death today this whole list kind of comes across as funny, or at least amusing. And really what’s ultimately most amusing is the total lack of understanding of disease. “Suddenly” is not an acceptable item on a death certificate in the 21st century because even if someone did drop dead suddenly we could do an autopsy to figure out what actually happened. A stroke, perhaps, or a heart attack. But in the 17th and 18th centuries you just…died. You often did so at home or maybe at work, and the person who came to pick up your body for burial probably knew about as much about why you died as did the person who saw you die in the first place, which is to say: not a lot.
Of course the more I dug into this list the less funny it became. Death is death, and the more you think about what life was actually like for these people the sadder the whole thing gets. I highly recommend reading the paper I found explaining all the terms—it’s a fascinating look at birth and death, and at how much has changed in just a few hundred years. And we could all probably use a reminder right now of how much better life is today than it used to be.FACT: This ferret named Felicia is a scientific hero
By Rachel Feltman
Some listeners may recall that in 2023, the Large Hadron Collider, which is a big ol’ particle collider in Switzerland, shut down because of a weasel. There was a massive power outage that turned out to be the result of a small mammal now thought to be a marten weasel, which chewed through some power lines and sadly died, but not before taking the LHC with it, albeit temporarily.
Animals are not infrequent sources of trouble in these facilities. In 2009, a soggy baguette caused an electrical short at the LHC, and the prevailing theory is that a passing bird dropped it down into the equipment. In 2006, a Fermilab newsletter even recounted an only somewhat facetious report of a “coordinated attack” on the facility by a family of raccoons.
But speaking of Fermilab, and back to ferrets, I want to talk about a more positive animal interaction at a particle collider.
So, in the early 70s, back when Fermilab was still called the National Accelerator Laboratory, engineers couldn’t get the particles up to the necessary speed without the magnets inside shorting out. Eventually, they figured out that tiny metal shavings left behind by the construction of the tube were interfering.
But how do you clean out a ring-shaped tube that stretches for something like four miles?
They found their solution in Felicia, the smallest available ferret from a fur farm in Minnesota, and purchased her for $35. For more on how she helped change the particle physics game, listen to this week’s episode.FACT: Swedish scientists once crafted a crash test dummy shaped like a moose
By Mary Roach
When to swerve, and when to hit? Most drivers now know that when it comes to deer, the safest thing to do is to simply collide with the unfortunate animal. But when large animals like moose and camels come into play, the potential consequences of a run-in become much more dire—and the choice to swerve becomes the smarter option. For more on the scientific investigation into moose jaywalkers, check out the latest episode of Weirdest Thing—and my latest book, Fuzz: When Nature Breaks the Law.
If you like The Weirdest Thing I Learned This Week, please subscribe, rate, and review us on Apple Podcasts. You can also join in the weirdness in our Facebook group and bedeck yourself in Weirdo merchandise (including face masks!) from our Threadless shop.
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This article will show you how to fix VPN Connection Error 628, The connection was terminated by the remote computer before it could be completed in Windows 11/10. Some users have complained that they receive this error when connecting to their VPN client directly or launching the VPN client from a batch file or PowerShell script. In another situation, this problem occurs when an admin tries to connect VPN to the standard user accounts. While the admin account is able to connect to VPN, the own account of users gives the connection error. This VPN connection error message may look like this:
Error 628: The connection was terminated by the remote computer before it could be completed.Fix VPN Connection Error 628 in Windows 11/10
To fix VPN Connection Error 628, The connection was terminated by the remote computer before it could be completed on a Windows 11/10 PC, the solutions covered below are helpful. Before trying these fixes, you should update router firmware or modem drivers and see if it helps. Also, re-check the login credentials you are entering for your VPN connection. If the problem continues, use these solutions:
Temporarily disable the antivirus program or firewall
Allow the required Protocols
Re-install WAN Miniport drivers
Reset TCP/IP or Internet Protocol.
Let’s see these solutions in detail.1] Temporarily disable the antivirus program or firewall
This is a basic fix but can be very helpful. It is possible that the antivirus program or firewall you’re using might be considering the VPN connection a threat and therefore blocking the connection from establishing.
If this is the case, then temporarily disable your antivirus program and/or firewall and check if you are able to connect to VPN. If yes, then you should add your VPN client or service to the allowed list or add it to the exception list to allow VPN through Firewall and antivirus program in your Windows 11/10 system.2] Allow the required Protocols
This is the most helpful solution to fix VPN connection error 628. In order to establish a VPN connection, it is necessary to allow the required protocols which may include CHAP, PAP, and MS-CHAP v2. Otherwise, this may fail in establishing the VPN connection. Here are the steps:
Open the Control Panel on your Windows 11/10 PC
Select the Network and Internet category
Now select the Network and Sharing Center option
A Network Connections window will open where you will see all the available connections be it Wi-Fi, disconnected VPN connection, Ethernet, etc.
In the Properties box, switch to the Security tab
Set the Type of VPN using the drop-down menu. For example, if the connection is PPTP, select Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
Select Allow these protocols option. After this, select the following protocols:
Unencrypted password (PAP)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP v2)
Press the OK button.
If selecting all these protocols doesn’t work, then select only CHAP protocol, MS-CHAP v2, or PAP protocol, and save the changes. Now try to connect VPN and it should solve the problem.
Related: Fix VPN Error 691, The remote connection was not made or denied3] Re-install WAN Miniport drivers
This solution is helpful if VPN has made changes to WAN Miniports and because of this VPN connection is resulting in error 628. If this is the case, then you need to re-install the WAN Miniport drivers using the Device Manager. The steps are:
Open the Device Manager window
Use the View menu and select Show hidden devices option
Now expand the Network adapters section
Press the Uninstall button
Repeat these steps to uninstall WAN Miniport (IP) and WAN Miniport (IPv6) device drivers
Open the Action menu and select Scan for hardware changes option.
This will re-install those WAN Miniport drivers.4] Reset TCP/IP or Internet Protocol
This fix also helped some users and might also work in your case. Your VPN connection may fail if TCP/IP or Internet Protocol is corrupted because of which you are facing internet connectivity issues and packets are not transferring over the network. So, reset TCP/IP or Internet Protocol on your Windows 11/10 system, restart it, and see if this works.What is error 868 VPN Windows 11?
VPN error 868 occurs when you try to establish a connection to your VPN client but the connection is not established with the server. It may occur when your security software blocks the connection or the port is blocked by your network provider. To solve this error, clear or flush the DNS cache, temporarily disable your security software, or change the network and then connect to VPN.Why is Windows 11 unable to connect to VPN?
You may face trouble connecting to VPN in Windows 11/10 for different reasons. It may happen if the correct VPN protocol is not set, network drivers are outdated, there is some problem with WAN Miniport drivers, the IPv6 protocol is causing an issue, etc. So, if VPN is not working on your Windows PC, then re-install network drivers, disable the IPv6 protocol, re-install WAN Miniport drivers, change the VPN protocol, etc. The problem may also be with the VPN tool itself. So, in that case, re-installing the VPN tool you’re using can fix the issue.
Read next: Fix VPN Error 609, A device type was specified that does not exist on Windows PC.
As astronomers continue to take stock of the universe’s black holes, it’s becoming increasingly obvious that they’re missing something big. The cosmic dead ends come in two sizes, small and impossibly large, with a glaring gap in the middle.
Researchers tally up the pipsqueak “stellar mass” black holes, which weigh dozens of times the mass of our sun, primarily through the spacetime ripples sent out when pairs collide. These black holes are the familiar tombstones left behind after stars die and explode as supernovae.
And astronomers can’t miss the “supermassive” black holes at the other end of the scale. These monsters anchor entire galaxies, packing millions to billions of suns’ worth of mass into an area the size of our solar system. They also shoot out unmistakable jets of energy that are among the cosmos’s most brilliant spotlights.
[Related: Something sent one of the universe’s heaviest black holes flying]
A third group must plug in the hole, many researchers believe: so-called “intermediate mass” black holes weighing in the thousands to hundreds of thousands of solar masses range. While bulky enough to merge to form supermassive black holes, these bloated brutes would be nearly undetectable. Their mergers don’t rattle current gravitational wave observatories, and they don’t churn out blazing jets. Astronomers have noticed hints in odd x-ray flares, but nothing conclusive.
Now, a trio of Australian researchers may have found a way to finally get a handle on these cosmic phantoms. If they’re right, astronomers have unwittingly had the crucial evidence for decades. By searching an old NASA catalog of energetic flares from the 1990s, the team turned up one intriguing signal, an odd double flash of gamma rays suggesting that intermediate black holes are not only real, but common.
“The data has been sitting there for quite a long time,” said Rachel Webster, the head of astrophysics at the University of Melbourne who co-authored the research.Seeing double
Webster has been thinking about this method of seeing the invisible for 30 years. Back then, the big mystery in astronomy was gamma ray bursts—unthinkably powerful blasts of high-energy light. No one knew what was causing them, but the bursts seemed to be coming from every direction. If they were beacons from across the universe, Webster and a colleague reasoned in 1992, maybe astronomers could use them to probe the intervening darkness.
The idea is to look for repeat offenders. Gamma ray bursts, which astronomers now know come from cataclysmic stellar explosions and neutron star collisions, are messy events. No two are exactly alike. But if some gob of matter—like, say, an intermediate mass black hole—interfered with the rays as they raced across the universe, it could play a cosmic prank. Its gravitational pull could draw some rays into taking a detour. This light might arrive at Earth late, and astronomers would see two identical flashes.
[Related: Astronomers used telescopic ‘sunglasses’ to photograph a black hole’s magnetic field]
When Webster’s graduate student, James Paynter, wrote software to sift through a database of 2,700 gamma ray bursts collected by NASA’s Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the 1990s, one pair of bursts leapt out. More than 20 years ago, the satellite saw one flash. A few seconds later, it saw the same burst again. The 2.7 second delay implied that some of the gamma rays had run into a roadblock—an invisible mass weighing 55,000 suns.
An intermediate mass black hole isn’t the only explanation. Other dark and massive objects could have delayed the gamma rays too, such as a star cluster or a patch of dark matter. But such star clusters are rare, and billowy clouds of dark matter tend to bend light differently. So the team feels that an intermediate mass black hole is the most likely culprit. They published their results on Monday in Nature Astronomy.One of a crowd
The research team, which includes Monash University astrophysicist Eric Thrane, extracted all the information possible from the event. Other whispers of intermediate mass black holes have boosted confidence that the fabled objects exist, but identifying double gamma ray bursts is the first way to study the whole group.
“The real power of our discovery is not only that we can provide an estimate of the mass,” Webster said, “but we can also estimate their space density.”
The fact that the team saw just a single double-flash in a batch of thousands is telling. Intermediate black holes (or similarly sized dark objects) aren’t a dime a dozen, or Paynter would have found a bunch. They also aren’t exceedingly rare, because he didn’t have to search through a million bursts. The one-in-a-few-thousand rate suggests that a cube three million light years across should contain more than 2,000 intermediate black holes. And our own Milky Way, the researchers figure, might harbor roughly 45,000 such grande black holes.
If they’re right, this detection could be just the tip of a dark iceberg. Next, Webster plans to “race through” other inventories containing thousands of unanalyzed gamma ray bursts, which should be more than enough to find another pair of flashes in the dark.
“That would really put a nail in it,” Webster says. “You can always think of ways out of one. It’s harder to think of ways out of two.”
Like many seismologists, Bruce Banerdt checks his email every morning for the latest quake report. Unlike others, however, he fervently hopes that the “big one” has finally hit. That’s because the information in his daily briefing comes from an entirely different planet, where “marsquakes” pose no threat to human lives or infrastructure. If a big one does come along, traveling straight through the planet and shaking NASA’s InSight Lander on the surface, it will bring nothing but good news to the researchers seeking a window into Mars’s insides.
The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) probe landed on Mars in November of 2023, and its suite of instruments, which includes an exquisitely sensitive seismometer as well as magnetic field and weather sensors, has been monitoring the Red Planet’s various rumbles and hums for more than a year. On Monday, the InSight team shared what they’ve learned from the probe’s first ten months of activity with five articles published in Nature Geoscience. The initial results support some expectations while raising new mysteries, and represent a step toward the ultimate goal of understanding why our neighbor looks so different from Earth.
“InSight’s understanding of how these two planets formed and evolved differently will help us understand the formation and evolution of our own planet, and ultimately even planets in other solar systems,” says Ingrid Daubar, a planetary scientist at Brown University and InSight team member.Red Rumbles
The mission highlight has been confirming that Mars, like the Earth and the moon, shakes.
“We finally, for the first time, have established that Mars is a seismically active planet,” said Banerdt, the InSight Principal Investigator, in a press briefing on February 21.
NASA first sought marsquakes with the Viking landers in the 1970s, but their seismometers remained on the decks of the probes where they measured only wind. InSight placed its instrument directly on the ground with a robotic arm, where it can pick up tremors finer than the width of a single hydrogen atom, according to Daubar. As of September 30, it had registered 174 seismic events, more than 20 of which reached magnitude 3 to 4—perhaps just strong enough for an astronaut to notice, depending on the quake’s depth, but not strong enough to damage any infrastructure.
Earthquakes originate mostly from friction as the tectonic plates that make up our planet’s crust catch and slip on one another as they float over molten rock below. The Martian surface, however, sits more or less still. Most of its quakes come from that surface’s slow contraction over time. Deep down the planet still harbors heat from its formation, and it shrinks as it cools, forcing the crust to crack and shrink with it.
The modest quakes InSight has recorded so far appear to have traveled through the crust, and their numbers more or less match what seismologists predicted based on the behavior of the Earth and moon. Bigger rumbles travel farther though, so the team hopes to infer the location and makeup of Mars’s mantle if they can record some stronger vibrations in the mission’s second year. The current dearth of large quakes is slightly surprising relative to their frequency on Earth and the moon, according to Banerdt, but that could change any day (the catalog of quakes has since reached 450 and counting).
But even the shallow shaking hints at new discoveries. The team tracked two large tremors back to Cerberus Fossae, a region showing visible signs of new faults and lava flows in the last 10 million years (which counts as recent in geologic terms). Simple models predict that this area should have settled down by now, but the quakes suggest that it could still be active today, perhaps even hiding molten magma underground.Magnetic rocks
More surprises have arisen from InSight’s instrument for measuring magnetism. Earth’s magnetic field springs from its churning metal core, but Mars’s center congealed billions of years ago. Nevertheless, the lander measured an unwavering magnetic field at the surface ten times stronger than what orbiting spacecraft had measured from 100 miles in the sky.
The team interprets this field as evidence of an invisible layer of magnetized rocks buried perhaps a few miles beneath the lander. Back when Mars had a molten core, its field would have lined up the metals in the rocks, and they stayed that way even after the planet froze—a sign that the crust hasn’t experienced any dramatic heatwaves that could have disrupted the magnetization. By further studying the field and even surface rocks in the future, researchers hope to also determine exactly when the core solidified.
More mysterious are magnetic blips and spikes lasting just seconds to minutes long. Researchers say these measurements point to new phenomena high in the atmosphere, perhaps complex interplay between Mars and the solar wind’s electric and magnetic fields.Missing dust devils
But what might be InSight’s most puzzling mystery is unfolding where the atmosphere meets the surface. The lander doubles as a weather station, measuring wind, temperature, and pressure in nearly real time (you can check out what the weather was doing this week, with a 12 to 24 hour time delay, here). It appears to have touched down in one of the windiest places yet explored, detecting whirling vortices approaching 60 miles per hour—although in the thin Martian air that would feel like a light breeze.
But dust devils—when a windy vortex visibly spins dust into the air—are nowhere to be seen. “The weird thing is,” says Don Banfield, a planetary scientist at Cornell and InSight team member, “we’ve looked several hundred times in the midafternoon timeframe and we have not yet imaged a single one.”
There’s plenty of dust though. InSight’s solar panels are slowly getting blocked by falling grains and satellite imagery confirms that the vortices leave visible tracks across the land surrounding the probe. But the two are barely interacting, and no one knows why. “We really don’t get it. It’s not like one of these things I’m throwing out like, ‘this is fascinating for science,’” Banfield says. “No, we really don’t understand this.”
That’s a problem for a desert planet, where dust shapes the climate much like water shapes that of Earth. What’s more, dust management will be a big part of the lives of any future explorers. Moon dust gave the Apollo astronauts endless trouble during their brief jaunt off world, from hay fever to jammed suit joints, and Mars dust will be no different. NASA will have to understand how the red sand gets into the air and where it goes quite well before it designs airlocks and spacesuits that have to operate for months to years in the gritty environment.
So far InSight may have raised more questions than it’s answered, but when you’re landing novel instruments on an alien planet, what else would you expect? “We’re still trying to get our arms around what Mars is telling us,” Banerdt said during the briefing. “We’re really in the same situation geophysicists were for the Earth in the early 1900s, seeing these wiggles and using the best analysis tools we have. But it’s still a very mysterious situation.”
Earlier this week, Brazilians elected Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (popularly known as Lula) as their new leader over right-wing President Jair Bolsonaro. Lula’s victory is a historic comeback after he served 19 months in prison for bribery charges. But the real winner of the election? The Amazon rainforest. Lula, who had previously been the president of Brazil from 2003 to 2010, has made pledges for new climate policies, including reducing the amount of deforestation that was largely ignored under Bolsonaro’s presidency. And a win for the Amazon is a win for the planet in its fight against climate change.
“Everybody in the world can breathe a sigh of relief since the Brazilian Amazon is important in regulating the world climate,” explains Philip Stouffer, a conservation biologist and professor at Louisiana State University who has been researching the rainforest since 1991. “Our world battle against climate is maintaining the carbon in rainforests, and this election result moves the needle in a positive direction for maintaining that carbon.”
The Amazon rainforest has shrunk significantly in the last few decades. Since 1988, about 10,000 acres (nearly the size of California) of the Amazon has been destroyed everyday. The chief causes can be traced back to the impacts from climate change and human activity, explains Chris Boulton, an associate research fellow at the University of Exeter’s geography department. On one hand, weather changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have contributed to Amazonian destruction. For example, longer dry seasons and frequent “100-year droughts” have made it harder for the rainforest to recover, making it less capable of absorbing carbon. “The Amazon is usually called the lungs of the Earth because it takes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere,” explains Boulton.
On average, the Amazon rainforest absorbs about 123 billion tons of carbon. But deforestation and other human activity is helping to turn this carbon sink into a carbon source. Destroyed trees release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases back into the atmosphere. Under Bolsonaro’s rule in 2023 to 2023, the Amazon rainforest lost 4.8 million acres in just 2023 alone. Deforestation also reached its highest levels in 15 years as of 2023. What’s more, Boulton says that taking away trees breaks down the Amazon’s water recycling network—the forest needs about 80 percent of its trees to maintain it—making it harder to sustain itself during a drought.
[Related: The Amazon is on the brink of a climate change tipping point]
Boulton studies climate tipping points, when the accumulation of small changes cause large and irreversible climate conditions. He says the Amazon is getting closer to reaching that point of no return. “Our work earlier this year shows that around 75 percent of the forest is showing early signals where you’re moving towards a tipping point,” he explains. “It’s only in those areas where you’re getting a lot of rainfall that you don’t see an approach towards a tipping point.”
The Amazon is on its way to the tipping point, at an estimated 20 to 25 percent. Once that threshold is passed, researchers project the lush rainforest would collapse and become a dry savannah. One geographer studying land changes in the Amazon forecasts that the tipping point will be reached by 2064. Stouffer warns that a transition to savannah would have catastrophic effects on the global climate. As carbon would go back to the atmosphere, the trapped greenhouse gases would speed up global warming. The warmer temperatures would cause frequent flooding, fires, and the extinction of animals who live exclusively in rainforests.
“That’s why there’s a lot of optimism because Lula had a good track record at slowing deforestation when he was president before [in 2003 to 2011],” says Stouffer.
[Related: Brazil’s president Bolsonaro plans to plunder the Amazon, which is bad news for all of us]
One of Lula’s proposed policies highlighted in his victory speech is zero deforestation, which entails increased surveillance of the Amazon and promoting sustainable development. He also plans to reignite talks for global cooperation on rainforest conservation—a welcoming development to countries such as Norway who stopped sending rainforest protection funds to Brazil in 2023 during Bolsonaro’s presidency. The Nordic country announced on Monday it will resume subsidies.
Stopping deforestation will be an uphill battle for the new administration as Bolsonaro leaves an office that crippled environmental agencies and dismantled dozens of environmental laws, such as those that imposed harsh fines for illegal deforestation, promoted biodiesel production, and limited mining permits. But if all goes well, one analysis predicts that Lula could reduce 89 percent of deforestation in the Amazon over the next decade, cementing his once-tarnished legacy into one as a formidable global environmental leader. Lula will officially take office as the 39th president of Brazil on January 1, 2023.
Was 2014 really the hottest year on record?
Is climate change real, has the Earth got warmer, and was 2014 truly the hottest year on record? NASA waded into the heated argument over heat with unequivocal claims that we can’t ignore rising temperatures, citing not only its own numbers but those of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and concluding the environment is getting hammered by greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. However, while the claims may be bold, other researchers are less convinced that the results are so clean-cut, arguing that the sheer complexity of taking an average of the world’s temperature leaves certainties far from reach.
According to NASA and NOAA, nine of the ten warmest years since figures were recorded have been since the year 2000, only 1998 spoiling the clean sweep.
More worryingly, according to the two agencies, 2014 was “the warmest year on record” and there has been an continuing acceleration of temperature rises. Although average temperatures have gone up by around 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (or around 0.8 degrees Celsius) since 1880, numbers crunched by the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) in New York suggests it’s within the past thirty years that the major damage has been done.
Scientists from both teams are under no illusions about what is causing the change, blaming emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases for the gradual increase.
“This is the latest in a series of warm years, in a series of warm decades. While the ranking of individual years can be affected by chaotic weather patterns, the long-term trends are attributable to drivers of climate change that right now are dominated by human emissions of greenhouse gases” Gavin Schmidt, Director, GISS
However, their certainty isn’t shared throughout the climate change community. According to parallel research by Berkeley Earth, the situation is simply too complex – and the differences in the numbers too small – to draw such clean-cut conclusions.
“The global surface temperature average (land and sea) for 2014 was nominally the warmest since the global instrumental record began in 1850,” the California team concurs, but goes on to caution that “however, within the margin of effort, it is tied with 2005 and 2010 and so we can’t be certain it set a new record.”
As Berkeley Earth flags, warmth is not ubiquitously raised across the planet. For instance, Michigan experienced its 14th coldest year, it’s pointed out.
The final conclusion from Berkeley is that, while the highest temperature year can’t necessarily be figured out, the Earth’s average temperature for the last decade is still high and has been consistently so for the past decade.
It’s not the first time NASA has issued ominous warnings about climate change, insisting last year that it was probably too late to reverse melting glaciers. Still, even with the numbers collected from tens of thousands of stations around the globe, arguments over whether temperature changes are man-made or natural continue to rage, and differences in opinion among researchers are unlikely to settle them any time soon.
VIA NASA; Berkeley Earth
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