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In this article, we have listed all the important formulas and equations related to DC generators used in different electrical practices like design, simplify, and analysis. This page can serve as a DC generator formula handbook for electrical engineering students and professionals.

DC Generator Definition

An electromechanical energy conversion machine that converts rotational mechanical energy into DC electrical energy is referred to as a DC generator. A DC generator consists of two parts namely stator and rotor. The stator forms the field system of the machine, while the rotor acts as the armature.

Types of DC Generator

Based on armature and field winding connections, generators are classified into the following three types −

Series DC Generator − The field winding is connected in series with the armature winding.

Shunt DC Generator − The field winding is connected in parallel with the armature winding.

Compound DC Generator − It has both series and shunt field windings connected with the armature winding.

Main Parts of a DC Generator

A typical DC generator consists of three-main parts namely – magnetic field system, armature, and commutator and brushgear.

EMF Equation of DC Generator

The mathematical expression which helps to determine the induced or generated EMF of the DC generator is known as the EMF equation of the DC generator. It is given by,

\$\$mathrm{E_{g}=frac{NPphi Z}{60A}}\$\$

Where, N is the speed of armature in RPM, P is the number of poles in the machine, ϕ is the magnetic flux per pole, Z is the number of armature conductors, and A is the number of parallel paths in armature winding.

The emf equation for wave wound DC generator (A = 2) is given by,

\$\$mathrm{E_{g}=frac{NPphi Z}{120}}\$\$

The EMF equation for lap wound DC generator (A = P) is given by,

\$\$mathrm{E_{g}=frac{Nphi Z}{60}}\$\$

Generated Power and Load Power of DC Generator

The power developed in the armature of a DC generator is called generated power. The generated power by a DC generator is given by,

\$\$mathrm{P_{g}=E_{g}I_{a}}\$\$

The amount of power that is supplied to the load by a DC generator is called load power. The load power of a DC generator is given by,

\$\$mathrm{P_{L}=V_{T}I_{L}}\$\$

Where, VT is the terminal voltage, and IL is the load current.

Terminal Voltage of DC Generator

The part of total emf induced available at the load terminals of a DC generator is known as the terminal voltage of the DC generator.

Terminal Voltage of Series DC Generator

For a series DC generator, the terminal voltage is given by,

\$\$mathrm{V_{T}=E_{g}-I_{a}left ( R_{a}+R_{se} right )}\$\$

Where, Eg is the total generated emf, Ia is the armature current, Ra is the armature winding resistance, and Rse is the series field resistance.

Terminal Voltage of Shunt DC Generator

For a shunt DC generator, the terminal voltage is given by,

\$\$mathrm{V_{T}=E_{g}-I_{a}R_{a}}\$\$

Armature Current of DC Generator

The total current that flows through the armature winding when a load is connected to a DC generator is known as the armature current of a DC generator.

Armature Current of Series DC Generator

The armature current of a series DC generator is given by,

\$\$mathrm{I_{a}=I_{se}=frac{E_{g}-V_{T}}{R_{a}+R_{se}}}\$\$

Armature Current of Shunt DC Generator

The armature current of a shunt DC generator is given by,

\$\$mathrm{I_{a}=I_{sh}+I_{L}}\$\$

Where, Ish is the shunt field current, and IL is the load current.

Field Current of Shunt DC Generator

In the shunt DC generator, the electric current that flows through the shunt field winding to produce the working magnetic flux is known as its field current.

\$\$mathrm{I_{sh}=frac{V_{T}}{R_{sh}}}\$\$

Where, Rsh is the resistance of shunt field winding.

Total Output Power of DC Generator

The amount of electrical power that is delivered to the load by the DC generator is known as the total output power of the DC generator.

The output power of a DC generator is given by,

\$\$mathrm{P_{out} = P_{in} – (core: losses + copper: losses + mechanical: losses + stray: losses)}\$\$

Where, Pin is the total input mechanical power, and Pout is the total output electrical power.

DC Generator Losses

The amount of generated power which is wasted in the form of heat and does not delivered to the load is called power loss. In a DC generator, the total power loss is given by,

\$\$mathrm{Losses = P_{cu}+P_{i}+P_{m}+P_{stray}}\$\$

Where, Pcu is the copper loss in armature and field windings, Pi is the iron losses in iron cores of generator, Pm is the mechanical loss (friction and windage losses), and Pstray is the stray loss such as power loss in metal body due to induction.

Efficiency of DC Generator

The ratio of the output power to the input power to a DC generator is known as efficiency of the DC generator.

\$\$mathrm{Efficiency,eta = frac{Output: power}{Input: power}}\$\$

For a DC generator, we have defined three efficiencies namely, mechanical efficiency, electrical efficiency, and overall efficiency.

Mechanical Efficiency of DC Generator

The ratio of mechanical power in the armature to the total input mechanical power is referred to as the mechanical efficiency of the DC generator. It is given by,

\$\$mathrm{eta_{mech} = frac{Mechanical: power: developed : in: armature}{Input:mechanical: power}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow eta_{mech} = frac{E_{g}I_{a}}{omega tau }}\$\$

Where, ωτ is the mechanical power input through the shaft.

Electrical Efficiency of DC Generator

The ratio of output electrical power to the armature power is known as electrical efficiency of the DC generator.

\$\$mathrm{eta_{elect} = frac{Output: electrical: powerleft ( V_{T}I_{L} right )}{Armature: powerleft ( E_{g}I_{a} right ) }}\$\$

Overall Efficiency of DC Generator

The ratio of output electrical power to the input mechanical power is known as the overall efficiency of the dc generator.

\$\$mathrm{eta_{overall} = frac{Output: electrical: powerleft ( V_{T}I_{L} right )}{Input: mechanical: powerleft (omega tau right) }}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow eta_{overall} = frac{V_{T}I_{L}}{V_{T}I_{L}+Losses }}\$\$

Condition for Maximum Efficiency of DC Generator

For the maximum efficiency of a DC generator, the variable losses (copper losses in field and armature windings) and the constant losses (core losses and mechanical losses) must be equal, i.e.,

\$\$mathrm{Variable: losses = Constant: losses}\$\$

Conclusion

In this article, we listed all the important formulae of DC generators used for design and analysis of the DC generator. All these formulae are very important for electrical engineering students and practicing electrical professionals.

You're reading Dc Generator � � Formulas And Equations

## Solution Of Difference Equations Using Z

Z-Transform

The Z-transform is a mathematical tool which is used to convert the difference equations in discrete time domain into the algebraic equations in z-domain. Mathematically, if \$mathrm{mathit{xleft ( n right )}}\$ is a discrete time function, then its Z-transform is defined as,

\$\$mathrm{mathit{Zleft [ xleft ( n right ) right ]mathrm{, =, }Xleft ( z right )mathrm{, =, }sum_{nmathrm{, =, }-infty }^{infty }xleft ( n right )z^{-n}}}\$\$

Solving Difference Equations by Z-Transform

In order to solve the difference equation, first it is converted into the algebraic equation by taking its Z-transform. Then, the solution of the equation is calculated in z-domain and finally, the time-domain solution of the equation is obtained by taking its inverse Z-transform.

Note − The various responses of a system are −

Forced Response – When the initial conditions are neglected, then the response of the system due to input alone is called the forced response of the system.

Natural Response  – the input is neglected, the response of the system due to initial conditions alone is called the natural response of the system.

Total Response – The response of the system due to initial conditions and input considered simultaneously is called the total response of the system.

Impulse Response – When the input to the system is a unit impulse signal, then the response of the system is called the impulse response of the system.

Step Response – When the input to the system is a unit step signal, then the response of the system is called the step response of the system.

Numerical Example

A discrete-time LTI system is described by the following difference equation −

\$\$mathrm{mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}:+:frac{1}{8}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{2}}right)}:mathrm{=}:mathit{x}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:mathrm{+}:mathit{x}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}}\$\$

Also, it is given that \$mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathrm{-1}right)}:mathrm{=}:0\$ and \$mathit{x}mathrm{left(mathrm{-2}right)}:mathrm{=}:-1\$ Then, find −

The natural response of the system

The forced response of the system

Solution (i) – Natural Response of the System −

As the natural response of the system is the response due to the initial conditions only. For natural response,\$mathit{x}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}\$ = 0. Therefore, the difference equation of the given system becomes −

\$\$mathrm{mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}:+:frac{1}{8}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{2}}right)}:mathrm{=}:0}\$\$

Now, taking the Z-transform of the above equation, we get,

\$\$mathrm{mathit{Z}mathrm{left [ mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}:+:frac{1}{8}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{2}}right)} right ]}mathrm{=}:0}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrowmathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathrm{left [ mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}+mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathrm{-1}right)} right ]}:+:frac{1}{8}mathrm{left [ mathit{z^{-mathrm{2}}}mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}+mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathrm{-1}right)} +mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathrm{-2}right)}right ]}mathrm{=}:0}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{because mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathrm{-1}right)} :=:0:and:mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathrm{-2}right)} :=:-1}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{-Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}mathrm{left ( 1-frac{3}{4}mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}+frac{1}{8}mathit{z^{mathrm{-2}}} right )}-frac{1}{8}:=:0}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:=:frac{frac{1}{8}}{mathrm{left ( 1-frac{3}{4}mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}+frac{1}{8}mathit{z^{mathrm{-2}}} right )}}:=:frac{mathrm{left ( frac{1}{8} right )}mathit{z^{mathrm{2}}}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z^{mathrm{2}}}-frac{3}{4}mathit{z} +frac{1}{8}right )}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:=:frac{mathrm{left ( frac{1}{8} right )}mathit{z^{mathrm{2}}}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}}\$\$

By taking the partial fraction, we get,

\$\$mathrm{frac{mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}}{mathit{z}}:mathrm{=}:frac{mathrm{left ( frac{1}{8} right )}mathit{z}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}:mathrm{=}:frac{mathit{A}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}}:+:frac{mathit{B}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow frac{mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}}{mathit{z}}:mathrm{=}:frac{frac{1}{4}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}}:-:frac{frac{1}{8}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:mathrm{=}:frac{mathit{z}}{4mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}}:-:frac{mathit{z}}{8mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4}right)}}}\$\$

Now, to obtain the natural response of the system, we take inverse Z-transform on both sides, i.e.,

\$\$mathrm{mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)} right ]}:=:mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ frac{mathit{z}}{4mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}} right ]}:-:mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ frac{mathit{z}}{8mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}} right ]}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:mathrm{=}:frac{1}{4}mathrm{left ( frac{1}{2} right )}^{mathit{n}}mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-frac{1}{8}mathrm{left ( frac{1}{4} right )}^{mathit{n}}mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}}\$\$

This is the natural response (i.e., response due to initial conditions) of the given system.

Solution (ii) – Forced Response of the System −

Consider a unit step sequence is applied to the system. Then, the forced response of the system is the step response. For step response, \$mathit{x}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:mathrm{=}:mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}\$.

Hence, the difference equation of the system becomes,

\$\$mathrm{mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}:+:frac{1}{8}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{2}}right)}:mathrm{=}:mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:+:mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}}\$\$

As the forced response of the system is due to input alone, i.e., the initial conditions are neglected.

Taking the Z-transform on both sides, we get,

\$\$mathrm{mathit{Z}mathrm{left [ mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)}:+:frac{1}{8}mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{2}}right)} right ]}:=:mathit{Z}mathrm{left [ mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:+:mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n-mathrm{1}}right)} right ]}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}-frac{3}{4}mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:mathrm{+}:frac{1}{8}mathit{z^{-mathrm{2}}}mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:=:frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-1}:+:frac{1}{mathit{z}-mathrm{1}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}mathrm{left ( 1-frac{3}{4}mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}mathrm{, +, }frac{1}{8} mathit{z^{-mathrm{2}}}right )}:=:frac{mathit{z}+1}{mathit{z}-1}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:=:frac{mathit{z}+1}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-1 right )}mathrm{left ( 1-frac{3}{4}mathit{z^{-mathrm{1}}}+frac{1}{8}mathit{z^{-mathrm{2}}} right )}}:=:frac{mathit{z^{mathrm{2}}mathrm{left ( mathit{z} +1right )}}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-1 right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z^{mathrm{2}}}-frac{3}{4} mathit{z}+frac{1}{8}right )}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:=:frac{mathit{z^{mathrm{2}}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}+1 right )}}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-1 right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}}\$\$

Now, taking partial fraction, we get,

\$\$mathrm{frac{mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}}{mathit{z}}:=:frac{mathit{zmathrm{left ( mathit{z}+1 right )}}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-1 right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}:=:frac{mathit{A}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-1 right )}}:+:frac{mathit{B}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}}:+:frac{mathit{C}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{Rightarrow frac{mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}}{mathit{z}}:=:frac{mathrm{left ( frac{16}{3} right )}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-1 right )}}-frac{6}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{2} right )}}:+:frac{mathrm{left ( frac{5}{3} right )}}{mathrm{left ( mathit{z}-frac{1}{4} right )}}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)}:=:frac{16}{3}mathrm{left ( frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-1} right )}-6mathrm{left ( frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-frac{1}{2}} right )}:+:frac{5}{3}mathrm{left ( frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-frac{1}{4}} right )}}\$\$

Now, taking inverse Z-transform on both the sides of the above equation, we get,

\$\$mathrm{mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ mathit{Y}mathrm{left(mathit{z}right)} right ]}:=:frac{16}{3}mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-1} right ]}-6mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-frac{1}{2}} right ]}:+:frac{5}{3}mathit{Z}^{-1}mathrm{left [ frac{mathit{z}}{mathit{z}-frac{1}{4}} right ]}}\$\$

\$\$mathrm{therefore mathit{y}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:mathrm{=}:frac{16}{3}mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}-6mathrm{left ( frac{1}{2} right )}^{mathit{n}}mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}:+:frac{5}{3}mathrm{left ( frac{1}{4} right )}^{mathit{n}}mathit{u}mathrm{left(mathit{n}right)}}\$\$

This is the forced response (step response) of the given system.

## Alexa Rank Tracker Built In Google Sheets With Formulas And Apps Script

Update May 2023:

Sadly, the Alexa service, on which this post is based, has been discontinued, so the techniques shown below no longer work. However, the Apps Script to save the data on a daily basis is still a valid technique, and so I leave this post up for that reason.

Original Post:

This tutorial will show you how to create an Alexa Rank tracker in Google Sheets, using a couple of formulas and a few lines of code.

Alexa Rank is a third-party tool that measures how popular a website is. The lower your ranking, the higher your site traffic is.

For example, Google is ranked #1 and Facebook and Wikipedia also have very low rankings (and giant traffic). The full tool has a host of useful features, but I’ll show you how you can get a website’s Alexa Rank number and build an archive in your Google Sheet.

Here’s my website Alexa Rank over time:

I’ve been running this Sheet since December 2023, about 1 year after my website was created. In that period, my Alexa global ranking has dropped from 320,000 to 30,000, and my Alexa US ranking has dropped from 160,000 to 15,000.

Alexa Rank Tracker Import Formulas

The first step is to setup a small settings Sheet with the formulas to import the Alexa Rank tracking data.

There are two columns: one for the global ranking figure and one for the US ranking figure.

Import Formulas

In cell B3, enter this formula to import the global rank:

In cell C3, enter this formula to import the US rank:

These formulas work by importing the content of the Alexa site info for the given website, and them parsing it with a Google Sheets REGEX formula to extract the relevant numbers.

For more information on these formulas, and an alternative Alexa formula, have a look at this post: How to import social media statistics into Google Sheets: The Import Cookbook

Error Handling

On row 4, in cells B4 and C4 are two manually typed values for the ranking, which are just used as backup values in case the import formula fails (which has happened only a handful of times in the past few years).

Periodically, I’ll paste in the latest formula values as text on row 4, to keep the backup as current as possible.

On row 5, use the IFERROR function in Google Sheets to catch errors and use the backup values instead:

=IFERROR(

B3

,

B4

)

and

=IFERROR(

C3

,

C4

)

That’s it for the settings Sheet.

Archive Sheet

Add another blank Sheet to your Alexa Rank tracker Sheet, with 3 columns: date, global rank and US rank.

Call it alexa_rank.

Apps Script Code To Save Alexa Rank Data

function saveAlexaData() { const dataSheet = ss.getSheetByName('alexa_rank'); const settingsSheet = ss.getSheetByName('settings'); const d = new Date(); const global_count = settingsSheet.getRange(5,2).getValue(); const us_count = settingsSheet.getRange(5,3).getValue(); dataSheet.appendRow([d,global_count,us_count]); dataSheet.getRange(dataSheet.getLastRow(),1).setNumberFormat('MMM-YY'); }

Save and Run this script.

(You’ll be prompted to grant the script permission to access your Sheet files the first time you run it.)

It adds a row of data with the date and ranking data to your Sheet.

Run again if you want to see it add new data (but you’ll want to delete this row to avoid duplication).

Trigger To Run Code Automatically

Now let’s set it up to run on a daily basis.

Under the Triggers option in the left hand sidebar menu, create a new trigger.

Set it to time-driven and run it once a day.

The formulas reflect the value of the Alexa Rank at the current time. The script saves a copy of those ranking values at that point in time. Once the script has been running for a while, you’ll have an archive of historic data.

Chart To Display Ranking Trend

Format it as you wish.

Voilà! You can now see your Alexa Rank over time.

Using Google Sheets as a basic web scraper

How to import social media statistics into Google Sheets: The Import Cookbook

## How To Throw An Error In An Async Generator Function In Javascript

The code often throws an error, and handling errors is more important. JavaScript also allows users to throw a custom error using the ‘throw’ keyword. We can catch the errors in the catch block.

We can use the try-catch syntax to catch errors thrown by normal functions. Let’s understand it by the example below.

Example 1 (Throw Errors in Regular Function)

In the example below, we have created the throwError() regular function, which uses the throw keyword to throw an error with the custom error message. We have executed the function inside the try block. If the function throws any error, controls go to the catch block, and that’s how we can detect the error.

let content = document.getElementById(‘content’); function throwError() { throw new Error(‘Error from normal function’); } try { throwError(); } catch (e) { content.innerHTML = e; }

If we make the throwError() function asynchronous, it will generate another error, as we can handle the errors thrown by the synchronous function using the try-catch block.

To solve the problem, users must use the then-catch block syntax to resolve the promises.

Syntax

Users can follow the syntax below to resolve the errors the async function throws.

// print content })

In the above syntax, throwError() is a function that returns the promises, which we solve using the then and catch block.

Example 2 (Throw Error From Async Function)

In the example below, the throwError() function is an asynchronous function, as we have added the ‘async’ keyword before the function keyword. We have thrown the error from the async function as we throw from the regular function.

After that, we handled the promise using the then and catch block. In the output, users can observe that as the async function throws an error, control goes to the catch block.

let content = document.getElementById(‘content’); async function throwError() { throw new Error(‘Error from Async function’); } content.innerHTML = res; content.innerHTML = err; }) Example 3 (Throw Error by Rejecting Promise in Async Function)

We can return the promises from the async function. The rejecting promise in the async function works like throwing the error. We have used the reject() method inside the callback function to reject the promise.

The ‘then-catch’ block is used to resolve the promise returned by function, and users can see that controls go to the catch block.

let content = document.getElementById(‘content’); async function throwError() { reject(“This promise is rejected from the async function.” ); }); } content.innerHTML = res; content.innerHTML = err; })

Users learned to throw an error from the asynchronous function. Users can use the ‘throw’ keyword like the regular function to throw an error. Users need to handle the error using the ‘then-catch’ block as the async function returns the promise rather than handling using the try-catch block.

## 2023 Email Marketing And Enewsletter Systems And Software Reviews

Our recommendations and reviews on email marketing broadcast software options

Since I delivered one of the first training courses on Email marketing in 2001, I have regularly been asked for recommendations for affordable E-mail broadcast software packages for Email marketing and sending Enewsletters. Today, email services are far more sophisticated when I first became involved with Email marketing 15+ years ago. The main changes are:

All Email services have some features of Marketing Automation including dynamic content, automated email sequences based on actions and lead-scoring scoring based on content interacted with (particularly important for B2B Email marketing)

Many email services are now part of broader ‘Marketing Cloud services’ particularly relevant for larger businesses. These are covered in our enterprise marketing cloud review

This post highlights some of the options for businesses of different sizes that are most commonly used in the UK and delegates on my E-mail marketing courses have recommended to me. It’s an informal post I originally started on a previous site in 2005 to point marketers on courses to for a shortlist of suppliers to review and I’ve added to it and removed sites over the years. It also includes recommended reviews site.

I always recommend hosted (Email Service Provider or ESP, or SaaS) email marketing solutions rather than software since, in general, the reporting/tracking and bounce management capabilities of the cheaper desktop e-mail packages are inferior. There are also management problems with deliverability and blacklisting which are best managed by an external email service provider in my opinion.

Although you can use an email service provider in another country, I recommend using a local provider since this is easier for support and resolving deliverability problems locally. So I have highlighted UK Email marketing companies at the start of the list, but options for US and Asia Pacific are also covered.

The E-mail broadcast / management (E-mail Service Provider, ESP) solutions which are most cost-effective (below \$50 per month for low volumes) recommended to me by delegates on my courses are as follows. I have grouped them by region, since often, local support is useful to deal with local deliverability issues.

2023 update: Email Marketing RFP Guide

Since I originally created this comparison around ten years ago I have updated it with new Email marketing services available in different countries which can give better local support.

Choosing the best email service provide can be challenging since there are so many features. Although some providers may offer ‘Marketing Automation’, there are many features within that. To help here we offer premium members this downloadable checklist of features to look for when choosing an email.

A detailed checklist of email marketing features businesses should look for when comparing email marketing or enewsletter service.

Access the Email marketing platform RFP template checklist

Services comparing Email Marketing Software

Use publisher sites to compare criteria for email marketing systems side-by-side

In the next sections, we have recommendations of ESPs we’re familiar with who have local support which can be vital for timely response and knowledge of local deliverability issues.

Popular UK-based Email marketing systems most suited for small and medium businesses

NewZapp - a relatively low cost, capable UK-based solution

dotMailer - another cost-effective UK solution

Pure 360 - UK-based Email marketing specialists with options for SMEs and larger companies wishing to run trigger-based personalized Email marketing campaigns

Newsweaver - Offices in UK and Ireland with clients ranging from large multinationals to SMEs. Have examples of SMEs Email templates on their site

CommuniGator – a service focused on B2B Email marketing and Email marketing automation

European-based ESPs Enterprise email service providers and Marketing Cloud providers with UK offices

These focus on providing services for large brands with complex needs of systems integration, higher quality support and delivery of services in different countries. Companies I have worked with in the UK at training days for their clients include:

MailChimp (US email service often recommended for its ease of use)

Constant Contact (again US-based but used widely in Europe)

Benchmark Email (a US-based email marketing platform with offices in Europe and worldwide). They differ from some of the other providers since along with ease-of-use and affordability, personalised support is included in all plans.

Asia Pacific Email management systems

Of course, there are literally hundreds of E-newsletter broadcast solutions and these represent the most widely used lower-cost options.

Key criteria to consider for an Email or Enewsletter system are – can the solution:

Track E-mail response at an individual level? Essential for follow-up?

Create automated email sequences for event-triggered or behavioural emails?

Integrate with actions on a websites, e.g. search or browse a product category?

Track campaign response across time / multiple campaigns?

Integrate response with customer database?

Manage profiling and subscription/unsubscribe?

Bounces, e.g. Out-of-office auto-replies?

Deliver WYSIWYG editing for marketing staff?

## Asus Rog Phone Accessories And Docks: Pricing, Availability And Features

ASUS’ ROG Phone is undoubtedly one of the most interesting phones to come out this year, and it’s now available in India (Buy from Flipkart for Rs 69,999). Some may say that ASUS is trying way too hard to make gaming phones happen, whereas others truly believe that the Republic of Gamers branding brings the innovation smartphones needed in 2023.

I am not going to talk about the specs that this phone brings to the table. You can see those here:

Weight200 grams

Display6-inch 18:9 (2160 by 1080) 90Hz AMOLED with Corning Gorilla Glass 6

ProcessorOverclocked Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 (2.96GHz)

RAMUpto 8GB LPDDR4X

Storage128GB / 512GB UFS2.1

Rear Camera12MP (F1.8) + 8MP (120° wide-angle)

Front Camera8MP (F2.0)

SoftwareROG Gaming X mode UI based on Android 8.1 Oreo

ConnectivityWiFi 802.11a/b/g/n/ac/ad, Bluetooth 5.0, NFC, WiFi Direct, GPS, AGPS, GLONASS, BDS, Dual SIM LTE

SensorsFingerprint sensor, Face recognition, Accelerator, E-Compass, Gyroscope, Proximity sensor, Ambient light sensor, Ultrasonic sensor

Battery4,000mAh (QC4.0)

ROG Phone Case

The ROG Phone is a looker, there’s no doubt about it. But if you want to keep the phone looking fresh, then you might want to invest in a case. The ROG Phone case is ASUS’ official case, so it fits perfectly, even though it’s priced at a hefty Rs 2,499.

It also replicates the cool design of the phone, and has a window for the Aura-illuminated ROG logo. It also gives you full access to the exclusive AirTriggers on ROG Phone, which is just awesome.

According to ASUS, the ROG Phone case provides tough everyday protection against dust, knocks, scratches, bumps, etc. Well, having used the phone with the case on, it is safe to say that it’s case you should be getting in case you plan on buying one.

ROG Phone AeroActive Cooling Fan

It comes with a fan (duh!) and also vents for heat dissipation. It connects to the phone via the USB Type-C port, but it adds a port of its own and a headphone jack, so you don’t have to worry about missing out on anything. And yes, it also has an RGB ROG logo. Thankfully, you don’t have to pay for this accessory as it comes with the retail package of the ROG Phone.

ROG Phone GameVice Controller

The GameVice controller adds a inventory of physical gaming controls to the ROG Phone. With this controller, you can get dual analog joysticks, left and right fire triggers and bumpers, a D-pad, along with A, B, X, Y and L3, R3 buttons.

The GameVice controller is best when paired with the ASUS WiGig Display Dock for an immersive big-screen gaming experience. Unfortunately the WiGig Display Dock is not available in India due to some regulatory hurdles. You can bu the GameVice Controller for Rs 5,999.

ROG Phone TwinView Dock

The TwinView Dock turns the ROG Phone into a powerful dual-screen console by adding things like the front-facing quad-speaker system, two extra physical trigger buttons, haptic feedback engine, etc. It also has an enhanced cooling system and a 6,000 mAh battery to keep you hooked on to your game.

ROG Phone Professional Dock

There’s also the ASUS Professional Dock, which you can use to connect your smartphone to a TV or monitor for a more cinematic gaming experience. Unlike the Desktop Dock, where the phone is slid into the dock (see below), the Professional Dock lets you hook up the phone to a dongle-like dock using the Type-C port.

You get an Ethernet port for wired internet connections, an HDMI with 4K@30Hz support, two USB 3.1 Type-A ports and a single USB 3.1 Type-C port as well. This one is priced at Rs 5,500 and is the most affordable of all the accessories – besides the case.

ROG Phone Desktop Dock

If you want to take your experience to the next level, then you might want to check out the Desktop Dock. As the name suggests, this dock essentially turns your phone into a mini-console, with which you can connect to an external 4k UHD 60Hz monitor, a mouse, keyboard, and all that good stuff.

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ROG Phone Accessories: Pricing and Availability

Well, those were some of the cool accessories which you can get for the ROG Phone. The ROG Phone has been launched in India for Rs 69,999, and it’s available to purchase starting today on Flipkart.

The ROG Professional Dock will be available at Rs 5,499, while the GameVice joystick accessory is priced at Rs 5,999. When it comes to the TwinView Dock, you will have to shell out Rs 21,999, and Rs 12,999 for the Desktop Dock. Finally, the ROG Phone Case comes at a hefty Rs 2,499. The total price of the phone and all the accessories will come to Rs 1,18,994.

There’s no word about the launch of accessories, though. But we’ll keep you post as and when the accessories go on sale in India, so keep your eyes peeled.

Buy the Asus ROG Phone from Flipkart (Rs 69,999)

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