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Cucumber is a testing tool that supports Behavior Driven Development (BDD). It offers a way to write tests that anybody can understand, regardless of their technical knowledge. In BDD, users (business analysts, product owners) first write scenarios or acceptance tests that describe the behavior of the system from the customer’s perspective, for review and sign-off by the product owners before developers write their codes. Cucumber framework uses Ruby programming language.
In this Cucumber framework tutorial, you will learn:How BDD works in Cucumber Automation?
Consider you are assigned to create Funds Transfer module in a Net Banking application.
There are multiple ways to test it in Cucumber Testing framework
Fund Transfer should take place if there is enough balance in source account
Fund Transfer should take place if the destination a/c details are correct
Fund Transfer should take place if transaction password / rsa code / security authentication for the transaction entered by user is correct
Fund Transfer should take place even if it’s a Bank Holiday
Fund Transfer should take place on a future date as set by the account holder
The Test Scenario become more elaborate and complex as we consider additional features like transfer amount X for an interval Y days/months , stop schedule transfer when the total amount reaches Z , and so on
The general tendency of developers is to develop features and write test code later. As, evident in above case, Test Case development for this case is complex and developer will put off Testing till release , at which point he will do quick but ineffective testing.
To overcome this issue, Cucumber BDD (Behavior Driven Development), was conceived. It makes the entire testing process easy for a developer
In Cucumber BDD, whatever you write must go into Given-When-Then steps. Lets consider the same example above in BDDGiven that a fund transfer module in net banking application has been developed And I am accessing it with proper authentication WhenI shall transfer with enough balance in my source account Or I shall transfer on a Bank Holiday Or I shall transfer on a future date And destination a/c details are correct And transaction password/RSA code/security authentication for the transaction is correct Then amount must be transferred And the event will be logged in log file
Isn’t it easy to write and read and understand? It covers all possible test cases for the fund transfer module and can be easily modified to accommodate more. Also, it more like writing documentation for the fund transfer module.Advantages of Cucumber Software
It is helpful to involve business stakeholders who can’t easily read code
Cucumber Testing tool focuses on end-user experience
Style of writing tests allow for easier reuse of code in the tests
Quick and easy set up and execution
Cucumber test tool is an efficient tool for testingCucumber vs Selenium vs ALM
In this section, we will study the difference between Cucumber, Selenium and UFT.
Cucumber HP ALM (QTP) Selenium
Cucumber software is free
QTP is expensive
It is free
Cucumber software is a behavior driven development tool
It’s a Functional Automation Tool
It’s a Functional and Performance ( Selenium Grid) test tool
Plugin in Cucumber testing tool works faster
Plugin are slower compare to Cucumber and Selenium
Plugins are slower than cucumber
Cucumber Framework supports other language as well beyond Ruby like Java, Scala, Groovy etc.
QTP supports only VB script
Selenium supports Java, .Net and many other languages
Writing automation steps are joint effort of testers and developer
In QTP only tester writes automation steps
Like Cucumber Tool, writing automation steps are joint effort of testers and developer
Cucumber testing tool supports only web environment
Support web, desktop and any client server application
Supports only web environment
Also Check:- UFT vs Selenium: Difference Between Selenium and HP UFT
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Kids are now receiving their first doses of Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine, as the company begins phases two and three of their new vaccine trials.
About 6,750 healthy children aged 6 months to 11 years will take part in this two-part 14-month study, dubbed KidCove. In the first segment, each child will receive two shots spaced out by 28 days—the same regimen that was first tested in adults last year—but they will receive doses of either 50 or 100 micrograms each. Children under the age of two will receive shots that are either 25, 50, or 100 micrograms. Adult doses are 100 micrograms, for both the initial shot and the booster.
The first part of the study will inform which dosing size will be used in the second part, where those children will either receive the vaccine or a placebo.
In addition to the shots, the study will involve regular telemedicine check-ins, and will require the kids and their parents to log any daily symptoms into a smartphone app.
“This pediatric study will help us assess the potential safety and immunogenicity of our COVID-19 vaccine candidate in this important younger age population,” Moderna’s Chief Executive Officer, Stéphane Bancel, said in the company’s news release.
Immunogenicity, which is one of the main goals of the study, is different from efficacy, the goal of the original adult studies. Rather, it studies the type of immune response the vaccine provides and how well it works over time.
Pediatricians have been urging officials that even though they’re a segment of the population less affected by Sars-CoV-2, children should not be left behind when studying how well a vaccine works.
[Related: How to prepare for getting the COVID-19 vaccine]
In a letter to the White House last month, Lee Savio Beers, the president of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) wrote that “having a COVID-19 vaccine available for children is essential for our nation to end the pandemic” and that “we must make sure that vaccine trials in children are equitable and include those at increased risk who could most benefit from a vaccine, particularly Black and Latinx children.”
According to AAP data, more than 3.2 million children have been infected by Sars-CoV-2 in the U.S., and at least 266 have died.
Moderna gave their vaccine to adolescents aged 12-17 in a phase 3 clinical trial back in December. Those trial results are expected to come in quickly, by the end of the summer, giving parents an optimistic outlook for their teens to return to school in the fall. Given that the study in younger kids will still be underway, children under 12 are not likely to be vaccinated until 2023.
“The reason for that is…you do need to be a little more cautious in progressing and working down dose levels to find the right dose,” Stephen Hoge, the president of Moderna said on the Today Show. Things like sensitivity and side effects will be scrutinized more carefully in younger kids especially, and so naturally these trials will take a little longer.
Other companies are also on the move to test their COVID-19 vaccines in children. Right now, Pfizer and BioNTech are doing trials in children ages 12 to 15, and are currently planning their next trials on younger kids. AstraZeneca began testing its vaccine in kids aged 6 and older in the UK and Europe a month ago, and The New York Times reported that Johnson & Johnson will also be rolling out trials in older and then younger children.
Children under age 18 make up about a fourth of the US population, so ensuring the vaccines are safe and effective for them will be crucial as we continue to make our way out of the pandemic.
What is chúng tôi & What is it Used For? Run an anti-malware program to remove the threat from your PC
The chúng tôi file has been reported to be consuming a high amount of CPU resources by multiple users.
Read this guide to understand what this EXE file is and if it is an important system file or not.
INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE
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Many readers have reported that they are seeing the chúng tôi process on their Task Managers, which is consuming high memory. They are confused about whether they should keep it intact or not.
In this guide, we will give you all the details that you need to know about chúng tôi and whether this is harmful or important for your PC. Let us get right into it.
After reading several forums and going through various reports, we discovered that chúng tôi is a malicious process that runs on your PC because of a virus infection.
This file is noticeably created by the FORBOT-BJ WORM. This worm virus is meant to steal sensitive data from your computer.
The virus basically creates and edits the registry files and makes the chúng tôi process run automatically on Windows startup.
If it says Microsoft, then it could be a system file. However, in case it says Unable to verify or something else, then it is a sure-shot malicious file.
Software, especially cryptocurrency miner software can mask themselves as important system files and cause various issues on your computer after infecting them.
This chúng tôi file is also a part of malicious programs that can infect your sensitive files and lock them behind paywalls or steal them and send them to the attacker over the network.
Moreover, the chúng tôi file isn’t an important system file, and you can easily disable the process and it will cause no harm to your PC. So, you can remove it from your computer.1. Run an antivirus scan
The best way to remove any virus or malware from your computer is to simply perform a virus scan and remove the detected problem.
For that, you can use the Windows Security tool that comes built-in with Windows OS. However, this isn’t as effective as dedicated antivirus software.
In such a case, we have listed some of the best anti-malware software and the best antivirus software that you can use and easily resolve such issues and keep your PC protected.2. Clean the registry
Since this chúng tôi malicious file tweaks the registry and causes all sorts of damage to your computer, we would suggest you perform a registry cleanup.
For that purpose, you do not need to do anything manually. You can simply use some of the best registry cleaners that we have tested and get done with your job.
Using the registry cleaner, you will make sure that there are no traces of the chúng tôi file on your computer.
On the same note, you could use a standalone PC repair application that can fix Registry issues alongside corrupted registry files.3. Perform a system restore
To make that process easy, we have a guide that explains how you can reinstall Windows with just 2 easy steps. This guide explains everything in detail and will help you remove the chúng tôi file from your PC.
You can also download the Windows 11 ISO and install it using bootable USB media. In order to learn how to create bootable media, we would suggest you check out our guide.
But before you do that, we would suggest you back up the data on your PC, so that none of your important data is lost when reinstalling or upgrading the PC.
That is it from us in this guide. You can also check our guide that explains what is the chúng tôi file and if you should delete it from your PC or not. We have also detailed whether or not you should keep the chúng tôi file on your computer or not.
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The Snipping Tool is a screenshot tool that is built into Windows. It captures the contents of your screen and allows you to draw on it, you can then save or share your work. There have been reports of users being unable to use the Snipping Tool because it does not open when they try to open it. In this article, we will explain why Snipping Tool is not working, including the solution to it. This problem occurs with the following message when triggered:
The Snipping Tool is not working on your computer right now. Restart your computer, and then try again. If the problem persists, contact your system administrator.What is the use of the Snipping Tool in Windows?
Snipping Tool is a very handy program that every Windows user should know how to use. It’s free and simple to use and can be accessed instantly by pressing the Print Screen key on your keyboard. This tool is great for teachers, students, web designers, developers, engineers, or anyone who wants to capture screenshots of anything on their screen.
You can use the snipping tool in Windows to capture a screenshot of a particular part of your screen. The options you have with the snipping tool depend on what version of Windows you are using. In general, you will be able to get a rectangular or free-form shape from what is on your screen and then get it saved as a file type that you desire.The Snipping Tool is not working on your computer right now
If you find that Snipping Tool is not working on your computer, you can try the below suggestions to solve this issue:
Relaunch the Snipping Tool
Run System File Checker tool
Identify the conflicting software
Disable/Enable the Snipping Tool
Let’s now see them in detail:1] Relaunch the Snipping Tool
Alternatively, you can close Snipping Tool and then relaunch it. By doing so, you won’t need to reboot your computer. The following steps can guide you through the process.
Open the Task Manager first.
Open the Snipping Tool once again.
The program should now work properly.2] Run System File Checker tool
This problem can also occur due to the presence of corrupted system files and running the System File Checker tool will fix the issue. So, follow the below suggestions and see if it works:
Type cmd in the text box and press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to launch the command prompt as an administrator.
Inside the Command Prompt window, type the below command line press Enter to execute itsfc /scannow
The procedure may take some time, so be patient.
So, if you want to do anything else while your system scans the text code, then you can do it. Once it successfully scans your Windows device, restart your computer and see if you can now open the Snipping Tool on your computer.
Read: Fix Snipping Tool This app can’t open error3] Identify the conflicting software
A conflict between Snipping Tool and other software may lead to this issue. Therefore, you should check your computer for any problematic software, especially freshly installed programs, and disable them once you find them.
Select the search result to access System Configuration.
Switch to the Services once System Configuration has opened.
After that, mark the Hide all Microsoft services checkbox.
The next step is to select the suspected services, especially those associated with the newly installed software.
Once you restart your PC, see if Snipping Tool is working now in Clean Boot State, else you may need to manually identify and eliminate the offending software.
Related: A problem with Windows is preventing Screen Snipping from opening4] Disable/Enable the Snipping Tool
In the case where none of the above methods work, we recommend disabling the Snipping Tool and enable it again. The following steps will show you how to do this:
Open the Start menu.
Type chúng tôi and press Enter to open Local Group Policy.Why is Snipping Tool not working?
These are the main reasons why the snipping tool may not work on your Windows PC.
A change in the default save path has resulted in the Snipping Tool not being able to correctly save screenshots.
If some system files related to the Snipping tool are damaged, they may not function properly.
Snipping Tool may conflict with some third-party applications.
Related: Snipping Tool locked, freezes, or crashes in Windows.
Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling method where units are selected for inclusion in the sample because they are the easiest for the researcher to access.
This can be due to geographical proximity, availability at a given time, or willingness to participate in the research. Sometimes called accidental sampling, convenience sampling is a type of non-random sampling.
Example: Convenience samplingSuppose you are researching public perception towards the city of Seattle. You have determined that a sample of 100 people is sufficient to answer your research question.
To collect your data, you stand at a subway station and approach passersby, asking them whether they want to participate in your research. You continue to ask until the sample size is reached.
Note: Make sure not to confuse random selection with stopping passersby at random.
In probability (or random) sampling, random selection means that each unit has an equal chance of being selected.
In convenience sampling, stopping people at random means that not everyone has an equal chance of forming part of your sample. For instance, here you have excluded people who did not pass through that subway station on the day and time you were collecting your data.When to use convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is often used in qualitative and medical research studies.
In medical research, convenience sampling often involves selecting clinical cases or participants that are available around a particular location (such as a hospital) or a medical records database.
In qualitative research, convenience sampling is often used in social sciences and education where it’s convenient to use pre-existing groups, such as students.
Convenience sampling could be a good fit for your research if:
You want to get an idea of people’s attitudes and opinions
You want to run a test pilot for your survey
You want to generate hypotheses that can be tested in greater depth in future research
Be aware that convenience sampling can introduce several types of research bias, such as selection bias and sampling bias.Convenience sampling examples
There are several ways to draw a convenience sample. Here are a few examples:Example: Online convenience sampling
You are researching how parents use a popular online parenting forum. You want to find out if parents are likely to participate in discussions online or just “lurk,” as well as what kind of information they are seeking there.
Since it’s an online community, there is no membership list to use as a sampling frame. This is a good scenario for using convenience sampling. You decide to draw a convenience sample of 100 users.
You create a pop-up ad that invites users to complete your online survey, which the administrators agree to place on the chúng tôi entice users to participate, a prize draw is mentioned in the ad.Example: Convenience sampling based on location
Suppose you are researching why people visit Monroe Lake Recreation Area, a popular recreational destination in your county. To gather insights, you stand in a parking area and approach people at random, asking them if they would be interested in participating in a five-minute anonymous survey on their preferred recreational activities.
To maximize the number of responses, you also create flyers with a scannable QR code and a shortened URL link. You place them at the Welcome Center and other locations around the lake.Crowdsourced convenience sampling
You are conducting research into attitudes toward depression. You are interested in the difference between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. As an early-career researcher, you do not have an extensive international network. You decide to use a crowdsourcing platform, like Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk).
MTurk covers a wide range of demographic populations both in the United States and internationally. This enables you to access a more diverse pool of respondents in exchange for monetary compensation.
Here, you set up a short survey for screening purposes. You can then separate out people who qualify for your longer survey, rewarding them with bonus pay. Alternatively, you can email participants if they qualify for the longer survey, or set location-specific criteria, so as to meet the collectivist or individualist criterion.Example: Convenience sampling of a pre-existing group
You are doing a survey to investigate work satisfaction at a large camping gear company in your town. The manager has given you permission to conduct your research but cannot give you a list of all employees due to privacy regulations.
As you do not have a sampling frame, you cannot use probability sampling. Instead, you decide to use convenience sampling. You stand next to the coffee machine and approach random employees, asking them to fill in your quick survey.Here’s why students love Scribbr’s proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editingHow to reduce bias in convenience sampling
Convenience samples are quite prone to research bias.
Despite these limitations, there are steps that you can take as a researcher to reduce bias in research. Here are a few options:
Describe in detail how you recruited your participants in the methodology section of your research paper to make your research reproducible and replicable.
Diversify your data collection by recruiting as many participants or cases as possible and use a sample size calculator to determine the appropriate sample size.
Distribute your surveys at different days and times, and use different methods for recruiting participants
Use appropriate descriptive analysis methods, rather than statistical analyses designed for probability samples
Overall, avoid overstating your research findings. Remember that findings based on a convenience sample only apply to the selected cases or participant group. By definition, they cannot be generalized to the target population.
TipMany research studies, particularly in the behavioral sciences, rely heavily on samples from undergraduate students. These have the potential for limited external validity and run the risk of including a disproportionately large number of “WEIRD” participants: Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic.
In a research context, crowdsourcing can help you avoid overly WEIRD samples because it draws from a large and diverse population.
Advantages of convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is usually low-cost and easy, with subjects readily available.
In the absence of a sampling frame, convenience sampling allows researchers to gather data that would not have been possible otherwise.
If you’re conducting exploratory research, convenience sampling can help you gather data that can be used to generate a strong hypothesis or research question.
Since the sample is not chosen through random selection, it is impossible that your sample will be fully representative of the population being studied. This undermines your ability to make generalizations from your sample to the population of interest.
Getting responses only from the participants who are easiest to contact and recruit leaves out many respondents. This affects the accuracy of your data and runs the risk that important cases are not detected, leading to undercoverage bias.
TipFor any type of research, it’s important to be explicit about your sampling method, as well as its potential limitations and biases.Other interesting articles
If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.Frequently asked questions about convenience sampling Cite this Scribbr article
Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 17, 2023,
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Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations.
Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio).
Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc.
Quantitative research question examples
What is the demographic makeup of Singapore in 2023?
How has the average temperature changed globally over the last century?
Does environmental pollution affect the prevalence of honey bees?
Does working from home increase productivity for people with long commutes?Quantitative research methods
You can use quantitative research methods for descriptive, correlational or experimental research.
In descriptive research, you simply seek an overall summary of your study variables.
In correlational research, you investigate relationships between your study variables.
In experimental research, you systematically examine whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Correlational and experimental research can both be used to formally test hypotheses, or predictions, using statistics. The results may be generalized to broader populations based on the sampling method used.
To collect quantitative data, you will often need to use operational definitions that translate abstract concepts (e.g., mood) into observable and quantifiable measures (e.g., self-ratings of feelings and energy levels).
Quantitative research methods
Research method How to use Example
Experiment Control or manipulate an independent variable to measure its effect on a dependent variable. To test whether an intervention can reduce procrastination in college students, you give equal-sized groups either a procrastination intervention or a comparable task. You compare self-ratings of procrastination behaviors between the groups after the intervention.
Survey Ask questions of a group of people in-person, over-the-phone or online. You distribute questionnaires with rating scales to first-year international college students to investigate their experiences of culture shock.
(Systematic) observation Identify a behavior or occurrence of interest and monitor it in its natural setting. To study college classroom participation, you sit in on classes to observe them, counting and recording the prevalence of active and passive behaviors by students from different backgrounds.
Secondary research Collect data that has been gathered for other purposes e.g., national surveys or historical records. To assess whether attitudes towards climate change have changed since the 1980s, you collect relevant questionnaire data from widely available longitudinal studies.
Note that quantitative research is at risk for certain research biases, including information bias, omitted variable bias, sampling bias, or selection bias. Be sure that you’re aware of potential biases as you collect and analyze your data to prevent them from impacting your work too much.Quantitative data analysis
Once data is collected, you may need to process it before it can be analyzed. For example, survey and test data may need to be transformed from words to numbers. Then, you can use statistical analysis to answer your research questions.
Descriptive statistics will give you a summary of your data and include measures of averages and variability. You can also use graphs, scatter plots and frequency tables to visualize your data and check for any trends or outliers.
Using inferential statistics, you can make predictions or generalizations based on your data. You can test your hypothesis or use your sample data to estimate the population parameter.
Examples of descriptive and inferential statisticsYou hypothesize that first-year college students procrastinate more than fourth-year college students. You collect data on procrastination levels of the two groups using 7-point self-rating scales.
First, you use descriptive statistics to get a summary of the data. You find the mean (average) and the mode (most frequent rating) of procrastination of the two groups, and plot the data to see if there are any outliers.
Next, you perform inferential statistics to test your hypothesis. Using a t-test to compare the mean ratings of the two groups, you find a significant difference and support for your hypothesis.
You can also assess the reliability and validity of your data collection methods to indicate how consistently and accurately your methods actually measured what you wanted them to.Here’s why students love Scribbr’s proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editingAdvantages of quantitative research
Strengths of this approach include:
Repeating the study is possible because of standardized data collection protocols and tangible definitions of abstract concepts.
Direct comparisons of results
The study can be reproduced in other cultural settings, times or with different groups of participants. Results can be compared statistically.
Data from large samples can be processed and analyzed using reliable and consistent procedures through quantitative data analysis.
Using formalized and established hypothesis testing procedures means that you have to carefully consider and report your research variables, predictions, data collection and testing methods before coming to a conclusion.
Despite the benefits of quantitative research, it is sometimes inadequate in explaining complex research topics. Its limitations include:
Using precise and restrictive operational definitions may inadequately represent complex concepts. For example, the concept of mood may be represented with just a number in quantitative research, but explained with elaboration in qualitative research.
Predetermined variables and measurement procedures can mean that you ignore other relevant observations.
Despite standardized procedures, structural biases can still affect quantitative research. Missing data, imprecise measurements or inappropriate sampling methods are biases that can lead to the wrong conclusions.
Lack of context
Quantitative research often uses unnatural settings like laboratories or fails to consider historical and cultural contexts that may affect data collection and results.Other interesting articles
If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.Frequently asked questions about quantitative research Cite this Scribbr article
Bhandari, P. Retrieved July 17, 2023,
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