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Introduction to Java LinkedHashMap

In Java, LinkedHashMap is an implementation of linkedlist from the interface Map. It is similar to HashMap, where an extra feature is included that maintains the order of elements that are being inserted into it. Even though HashMap provides quick insertion, deletion, and search, element insertion order is not maintained.

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Features of Java LinkedHashMap

In addition to that, several other features are also included in LinkedHashMap.

It consists of unique elements only.

It can contain a single null key and several null values.

Insertion order is maintained.

Extends HashMap class.

Values present are based on the key.

Non synchronized.

16 is the initial default capacity

The load factor is 0.75.

Here, obj is the object of the created LinkedHashMap.

Once the LinkedHashMap object is created, it will be used for adding elements to the map, as shown below.

obj.put(11, "Victor"); obj.put(33, "Shyla"); obj.put(14, "Nancy"); obj.put(100, "Kuffi"); obj.put(23, "Princy"); obj.put(37, "Chamm"); Constructors

Given below are the constructors of a LinkedHashMap:

1. LinkedHashMap(): An empty LinkedHashMap instance will be created with the ordering based on insertion, load factor 0.75 and default initial capacity as 16.

2. LinkedHashMap(int initialCapacity): An empty LinkedHashMap instance will be created with the ordering based on insertion, load factor 0.75 and specified initial capacity.

3. LinkedHashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor): An empty LinkedHashMap instance will be created with the ordering based on insertion, specified load factor, and initial capacity.

4. LinkedHashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor, boolean accessOrder): An empty LinkedHashMap instance will be created with specified load factor, access order and initial capacity.


The following are the commonly used methods in LinkedHashMap.

1. clear(): Every mapping from the map will be removed.

2. boolean containsKey(Object key): If the map contains a mapping to one or more than one key of the value mentioned, true will be returned.

3. boolean containsValue(Object key): If the map contains a mapping to a minimum of one key, true will be returned.

4. Object get(Object key): The value of the mentioned key’s mapping will be returned.

5. isEmpty(): If there are no key-value pair mappings, true will be returned.

7. Object remove(Object key): The value of the mentioned key’s mapping will be removed.

Examples of Java LinkedHashMap

Given below are the examples of Java LinkedHashMap:

Example #1

Java program to create a simple LinkedHashMap.


import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.LinkedHashMap; import java.util.Map; import java.util.Set; public class LinkedHashMapExample { public static void main(String args[]) { obj.put(11, "Anna"); obj.put(33, "Adam"); obj.put(14, "Iza"); obj.put(23, "Norah"); obj.put(100, "Denan"); Iterator itr = s.iterator(); while(itr.hasNext()) { Map.Entry mp = (Map.Entry); System.out.print("Key in the LinkedHashMap is : "+ mp.getKey() + " and it's corresponding value is: "+mp.getValue()+" n"); } } }


Example #2

Java program to remove key-value pair from the map.

import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.LinkedHashMap; import java.util.Map; import java.util.Set; public class LinkedHashMapExample { public static void main(String args[]) { obj.put(11, "Victor"); obj.put(33, "Shyla"); obj.put(14, "Nancy"); obj.put(100, "Kuffi"); obj.put(23, "Princy"); obj.put(37, "Chamm"); System.out.print("Before removal, LinkedHashMap is: "+obj+"n"); obj.remove(100); obj.remove(37); System.out.print("After removal, LinkedHashMap is: "+obj); } }


In this program, also, a LinkedHashMap is created first. After that, elements are added to it with key-value pairs. Once it is completed, LinkedHashMap is printed. Then, two key-value pairs are removed from the map using the method remove(). After that, once again, the map is printed and displayed as shown in the sample output.

Example #3

Java program to print key-value pairs in the map on the basis of access order.


import java.util.Iterator; import java.util.LinkedHashMap; import java.util.Map; import java.util.Set; public class LinkedHashMapExample { public static void main(String args[]) { obj.put(11, "Victor"); obj.put(33, "Shyla"); obj.put(14, "Nancy"); obj.put(100, "Kuffi"); obj.put(23, "Princy"); obj.put(37, "Chamm"); obj.get(33); obj.get(11); System.out.print("LinkedHashMap with access order is: "+obj); } }


Here, in this program also, a LinkedHashMap is created first. After that, elements are added to it with key-value pairs. Once it is completed, the elements with keys 33 and 11 are accessed. Then, the map is printed and displayed as shown in the sample output. It can be seen that the elements that are accessed are at the end of the map.


Almost all details on Java LinkedHashMap, such as syntax, constructors, methods, and examples, are explored in this article in detail. Moreover, it also identifies the main difference between LinkedHashMap and HashMap.

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Constructors And Methods With Example In Jeditorpane

Introduction to JEditorPane

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In order to have this behavior, this component uses the implementations of the EditorKit. The beauty is that it automatically adjusts to the proper kind of text editor for whichever kind of content it is provided. The EditorKit which is currently installed is used to determine the content that the editor is bound to at any given time. For example, if the content of a component is set to a new URL, then its type is used to determine the EditorKit that should be preinstalled to load the content.


public class JEditorPane extends JTextComponent

By Default this class is preconfigured to the following three types of content:

text/plain: Plain Text, which is the default type when the content is not recognized. The kit used over here is an extension of DefaultEditorKit that will produce a wrapped plain text view.

text/HTML: HTML Text. The kit used over here is class javax.swing.text.html.HTMLEditorkit which will provide support till HTML (ver. 3.2).

text/RTF: RTF Text. The kit used over here is class javax.swing.text.rtf.RTFEditorkit which will provide limited support Rich Text Format.

Constructors of JEditorPane

Below are the constructors of JEditorPane:

JEditorPane( ): This type of constructor will simply create a new JEditorPane.

JEditorPane(String URL): This type of constructor will create a JEditorPane based on the string in the parameter containing the URL specifications.

JEditorPane(URL initial page): This constructor will create the JEditorPane based on the specified URL in the input parameter.

JEditorPane( String type, String text ): This constructor will create a JEditorPane that has been initialized to the text given within the parameter.

Some Useful Methods of JEditoPane Class

void setText(String text): This method will set the text of the component with the specified text given in the input, which is expected to be in the same content type as of the editor.

Void getText( ): This method will return the text of the component within the specified content type of the editor.

Void setPage(URL page): This method will trigger the JEditorPane to show the specified URL as the current page.

Void setContentType(String type): This method is used to set the type of content that the editor can handle.

Example of JEditorPane Class

Below are the examples of JEditorPane:

Here in this example, we will create a web page reader using JEditorPane in java. We can’t also consider it as a web browser since JEditorPane can only use to show HTML content and it cant show any CSS or any other styling content but still some webpages with there HTML content can be accessed via the example as well as we also open any HTML file which saved on the local PC.

Over here in order to build a web page viewer, we will first create an editor pane to show the HTML content then create a JTextfield which will be used to fill the URL and a JButton which is used to search the URL on the web. Add an action to the button and hyperlink listener which can be used for any hyperlink on the HTML page. In the end, add all the components to the panel and the panel to the frameset the size of the frame and also make the webpage as read-only so that no changes can be made using the setEditable method as False.

import java.awt.BorderLayout; import java.awt.event.ActionEvent; import java.awt.event.ActionListener; import; import javax.swing.JEditorPane; import javax.swing.JFrame; import javax.swing.JOptionPane; import javax.swing.JPanel; import javax.swing.JScrollPane; import javax.swing.JTextField; import; import javax.swing.JButton; import javax.swing.event.HyperlinkEvent;// Provides information on events triggered import javax.swing.event.HyperlinkListener;// Monitors user activity with links public class JEditorPaneExample extends JFrame implements HyperlinkListener, ActionListener { public static void main(String[] args) { } String defaultURL; JPanel panel = new JPanel(); JTextField theURL = new JTextField(25); JButton search = new JButton("Search"); JEditorPane htmlPage; public JEditorPaneExample(String defaultURL) { JFrame frame = new JFrame("Java Browser"); frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); this.defaultURL = defaultURL; search.addActionListener(this); theURL.setText(defaultURL); panel.add(theURL); panel.add(search); frame.add(panel, BorderLayout.NORTH); try { htmlPage = new JEditorPane(defaultURL); htmlPage.addHyperlinkListener(this); htmlPage.setEditable(false); JScrollPane scroller = new JScrollPane(htmlPage); frame.add(scroller, BorderLayout.CENTER); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } frame.setSize(1200, 800); frame.setVisible(true); } public void hyperlinkUpdate(HyperlinkEvent e) { if (e.getEventType() == HyperlinkEvent.EventType.ACTIVATED) { try { htmlPage.setPage(e.getURL()); theURL.setText(e.getURL().toExternalForm()); } catch (IOException e1) { e1.printStackTrace(); } } } public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { String pageURL = ""; if (e.getSource() == search) { pageURL = theURL.getText(); } else { pageURL = defaultURL; JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(JEditorPaneExample.this, "Please Enter a Web Address", "Error", JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE); } try { htmlPage.setPage(new URL(pageURL)); theURL.setText(pageURL); } catch (MalformedURLException e2) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(JEditorPaneExample.this, JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE); } catch (IOException e1) { e1.printStackTrace(); } } }



JEditorPane class can be used to display normal HTML, Rich Text Format Content or Plain text with a bit of styling. The JEditorPane class provides an edge over JTextPanes for providing text component as the JEditorPane class provides you constructors to initialize the editor pane form a URL whereas JTextPane doesn’t have such contractors.

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How Urlconnection Class Works In Java

Introduction to Java URLConnection

The URLConnection is a Java Programming Language class that usually represents one of the communication links or links between an URL and an application. This URLConnection class helps read and write the data to the specific/specified resource, which is actually referred to by an URL. It is one of the superclasses of all the classes. This URLConnection class’s instances are helpful to read from and to write, and it is to the resource referenced by the specific URL. Here connecting a connection to a specific URL is one type of multistep process.

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Syntax URLConnection openConnection() How does the URLConnection work in Java

URLConnection class works by providing many methods. In the process of multi-steps of connecting an URL involves openConnection() and connect() methods. The openConnection() helps in manipulating the parameters which can affect the remote resource connection. The connect() method helps interacting which is having with the resource, and it is helpful for query header contents and fields.

The connection object is actually created just by invoking the openConnection method or function on an URL. The setup parameters of the connection object and the general request for the properties are to be manipulated. The actual and usual connection which is to the remote object is made with the help of connecting method usage. The remote object of it becomes available, and the header fields along with its contents of one of the remote object could be accessed. The getInputStream() method or function will help return all the data of the specific or specified URL in the particular stream, which can be used to read and display.

The URLConnection class of the Java Programming Language actually works by providing as many methods as need just to display all the data of the webpage or blog just with the help of getting InputStream() method or methods, but the getInputStream() method/function helps a lot in returning all the website data with the help of the specific URL which is mentioned in the stream. This URL will be used to read and used to display the source code of the website or a blog; to get all the source code, one has to use Loops for multiple types of source code display.

There are only two subclasses that extend the URLConnection Class of Java. They are HttpURLConnection and JarURLConnection. HttpURLConnection helps us connect to any type of URL that actually used the “HTTP” as its protocol; then, the HttpURLConnection class will be used. The JarURLConnection will help us trying to establish one of the connections to a specific jar file on the world wide web; then, the JarURLConnection will be used.


Some of the important methods are helpful in using to read or write or to get some info after the connection is established. They are:

1. URLConnection openConnection(): This method helps in opening the connection to the specific or specified URL.

2. Object getContent(): It will retrieve some content of URLConnection.

4. getContentEncoding(): It will return some value of the content-encoding header’s field.

5. getContentLength(): It will return the content header field’s length.

7. getHeaderField (int-i): It will return the header’s i-th index value

8. getHeaderField (String-Field): It will return the field named value “field” in some header which is to get a list of all the header fields.

9. OutputStream getOutputStream(): It will return one of the connection’s output stream.

10. InputStream getInputStream(): It will return one input stream to the open connection.

11. setAllowUserInteraction(boolean): It will set the setting as a TRUE value which means users can interact with the page. By default, the value of it is TRUE.

12. setDefaultUseCaches(boolean): It will set useCache field’s default as the provided value.

14. setDoInput(boolean): It will set only if the user now allows writing on the specific page. By default, its value is FALSE since, most of all, the URL doesn’t even allow writing.

Examples to Implement Java URLConnection

below is the example of implementing java URLConnection:

Example #1

This illustrates the reading and writing of a blog/website URL using the URLConnection class. At first, different types of java libraries are imported. Then the public class is created along with the public main method for java code filling. Then the URL variable is created to add the specific website/blog URL with the help of the URL command. Then “URLConnection” is used to open a connection to the above-mentioned URL. Then Map is used to get all fields map of the specific HTTP header. Then to print all the fields of website URL and their values, FOR LOOP is used. Then BufferedReader is used to get the open connection’s inputstream. Then to print source code line by line, WHILE LOOP is used. While loop will print all the source code, the website/blog url mentioned in the code itself.


import*; import*; import java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.Date; import java.util.HashMap; import java.util.List; import java.util.Map; public class URLConnectionclass1 { public static void main(String[] args) { try { URLConnection urlcon1 = url1.openConnection(); { System.out.print(mp1.getKey() + " : "); System.out.println(mp1.getValue().toString()); } System.out.println(); System.out.println("The Complete source code of the provided URL is-"); BufferedReader br1 = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader (urlcon1.getInputStream())); String i1; while ((i1 = br1.readLine()) != null) { System.out.println(i1); } } catch (Exception e1) { System.out.println(e1); } } }



we hope you learned the definition of Java URLConnection and its syntax and explanation, How the URLConnection class works in Java Coding Language, and various examples to better understand the Java URLConnection concept and so easily.

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Transformer Coupled Class A Power Amplifier

Transformer Coupled Class A Power Amplifier

The construction of class A power amplifier can be understood with the help of below figure. This is similar to the normal amplifier circuit but connected with a transformer in the collector load.

Here R1 and R2 provide potential divider arrangement. The resistor Re provides stabilization, Ce is the bypass capacitor and Re to prevent a.c. voltage. The transformer used here is a step-down transformer.

The high impedance primary of the transformer is connected to the high impedance collector circuit. The low impedance secondary is connected to the load (generally loud speaker).

Transformer Action

The transformer used in the collector circuit is for impedance matching. RL is the load connected in the secondary of a transformer. RL’ is the reflected load in the primary of the transformer.

The number of turns in the primary are n1 and the secondary are n2. Let V1 and V2 be the primary and secondary voltages and I1 and I2 be the primary and secondary currents respectively. The below figure shows the transformer clearly.

We know that

$$frac{V_1}{V_2} = frac{n_1}{n_2}: and: frac{I_1}{I_2} = frac{n_1}{n_2}$$


$$V_1 = frac{n_1}{n_2}V_2 : and: I_1 = frac{n_1}{n_2}I_2$$


$$frac{V_1}{I_1} = left ( frac{n_1}{n_2} right )^2 frac{V_2}{I_2}$$

But V1/I1 = RL’ = effective input resistance

And V2/I2 = RL = effective output resistance


$$R_L’ = left ( frac{n_1}{n_2}right )^2 R_L = n^2 R_L$$


$$n = frac{number : of : turns : in : primary}{number: of: turns: in: secondary} = frac{n_1}{n_2}$$

A power amplifier may be matched by taking proper turn ratio in step down transformer.

Circuit Operation

If the peak value of the collector current due to signal is equal to zero signal collector current, then the maximum a.c. power output is obtained. So, in order to achieve complete amplification, the operating point should lie at the center of the load line.

The operating point obviously varies when the signal is applied. The collector voltage varies in opposite phase to the collector current. The variation of collector voltage appears across the primary of the transformer.

Circuit Analysis

The power loss in the primary is assumed to be negligible, as its resistance is very small.

The input power under dc condition will be

$$(P_{in})_{dc} = (P_{tr})_{dc} = V_{CC} times (I_C)_Q$$

Under maximum capacity of class A amplifier, voltage swings from (Vce)max to zero and current from (Ic)max to zero.


$$V_{rms} = frac{1}{sqrt{2}} left [frac{(V_{ce})_{max} – (V_{ce})_{min}}{2} right ] = frac{1}{sqrt{2}} left[ frac{(V_{ce})_{max}}{2}right ] = frac{2V_{CC}}{2sqrt{2}} = frac{V_{CC}}{sqrt{2}}$$

$$I_{rms} = frac{1}{sqrt{2}} left [frac{(I_C)_{max} – (I_C)_{min}}{2} right ] = frac{1}{sqrt{2}} left[ frac{(I_C)_{max}}{2}right ] = frac{2(I_C)_Q}{2sqrt{2}} = frac{(I_C)_Q}{sqrt{2}}$$


$$(P_O)_{ac} = V_{rms} times I_{rms} = frac{V_{CC}}{sqrt{2}} times frac{(I_C)_Q}{sqrt{2}} = frac{V_{CC} times (I_C)_Q}{2}$$


Collector Efficiency = $frac{(P_O)_{ac}}{(P_{tr})_{dc}}$


$$(eta)_{collector} = frac{V_{CC} times (I_C)_Q}{2 times V_{CC} times (I_C)_Q} = frac{1}{2}$$

$$= frac{1}{2} times 100 = 50%$$

The efficiency of a class A power amplifier is nearly than 30% whereas it has got improved to 50% by using the transformer coupled class A power amplifier.


No loss of signal power in the base or collector resistors.

Excellent impedance matching is achieved.

Gain is high.

DC isolation is provided.

Low frequency signals are less amplified comparatively.

Hum noise is introduced by transformers.

Transformers are bulky and costly.

Poor frequency response.


The applications of transformer coupled class A power amplifier are as follows.

This circuit is where impedance matching is the main criterion.

These are used as driver amplifiers and sometimes as output amplifiers.


Research Methods In Media Psychology

How did we find out that video games can promote violent outbreaks? Or that children should not view certain shows? Were these only intuitive? Or are they backed by researchers? These and many facts we know about how media influence us are derived from research.

Media Psychology Research

Media psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the psychological effects of media on individuals and society. Media psychology seeks to understand how media influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and how we engage with and make sense of media messages. Media psychology research encompasses a wide range of topics, including the effects of social media on mental health, the impact of violent media on aggressive behavior, and the influence of media on body image and self-esteem.

It also examines how individuals process and make meaning of media messages and how media can be used to promote positive social change. Media psychology draws on various psychological theories and methods, including social cognitive theory, cultivation theory, and agenda-setting theory, to better understand the psychological effects of media. It is interdisciplinary, incorporating communication, sociology, and media studies insights.

Many research methods are used in media psychology, including quantitative and qualitative approaches. Some common research methods in media psychology include −


Surveys are a commonly used research method in media psychology and involve collecting data from a sample of individuals through self-report questionnaires. Surveys can be administered online, by phone, or in person and are useful for collecting data on a wide range of topics, such as media consumption patterns, attitudes toward media, and the impact of media on behavior. Surveys can be administered in various formats, including online, over the phone, or in person. They can be used to gather both quantitative (numerical) and qualitative (non-numerical) data. There are several different types of surveys that researchers might use in media psychology, including −

Self-Report Surveys − Participants are asked to report their media consumption habits, attitudes, and behaviors through a series of questions or statements.

Experiential Surveys − Participants are asked to describe their experiences and feelings related to media consumption in their own words.

Attitude Surveys − Participants are asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement with a series of statements or questions about media attitudes or behaviors.

Demographic Surveys − Participants are asked about their age, gender, education level, and other personal characteristics relevant to media consumption.


Experiments are a research method in which researchers manipulate one or more variables and measure the effect on a dependent variable. Experiments are often used in media psychology to study the causal relationship between media exposure and attitudes, behaviors, or outcomes. There are several different types of experiments that researchers might use in media psychology, including−

Quasi-Experiments − Researchers cannot randomly assign participants to different experimental groups, but they can still manipulate the media exposure variable and measure the effect on the dependent variable.

Field Experiments − Researchers manipulate the media exposure variable in a naturalistic setting (e.g., a public park or a shopping mall) and measure the effect on the dependent variable.

Ethnography & Observations

Ethnography and observation are research methods that involve the study of cultures or social groups by immersing oneself in the context being studied and collecting data through direct observation and other methods. These methods can be particularly useful in media studies, as they allow researchers to understand the cultural and social contexts in which media is consumed and how it shapes attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. Ethnography involves systematically studying a culture or social group through in-depth observation and participation in the group’s daily activities. Ethnographic research in media studies might involve spending time with a particular community or group to observe how they consume media and how it fits into their everyday lives.

Observation is another common research method in media studies and can involve participant observation (in which the researcher actively participates in the activities being observed) and non-participant observation (in which the researcher observes from a distance). Observation can be conducted in naturalistic settings, such as people’s homes or public spaces, or more controlled settings, such as a laboratory.

Interviews & Qualitative Methods

Interviews involve collecting data through one-on-one conversations with individuals. Interviews can be useful in media psychology research for understanding how individuals interpret and make sense of media messages. There are several different types of interviews that researchers may use, including structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews.

Structured interviews involve the use of a predetermined set of questions that are asked of all participants. This allows for more consistent data collection and can be useful for comparing responses across different groups of people. However, structured interviews may allow less flexibility or depth of exploration than other interviews.

Semi-structured interviews involve using a predetermined set of questions as a starting point but allow for some flexibility and deviation from the script based on the needs and interests of the participant. This can provide a balance between standardization and flexibility.

Unstructured interviews involve little or no predetermined structure and allow the participant to guide the conversation. These interviews can be very open-ended and provide a rich data source, but they may need to be more reliable and easier to analyze.

Regardless of the type of interview used, researchers need to be trained in interviewing techniques and to use appropriate ethical guidelines when conducting interviews with human subjects. Qualitative research methods involve collecting and analyzing data in the form of words, images, or sounds rather than numbers. Qualitative research methods are often used in media psychology to understand how media is used and interpreted by individuals and communities. It is used in media psychology to provide valuable insights into how media shapes attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. It can also help researchers understand the meanings and symbols people attach to different media types and how they use them daily.


Various research methods are commonly used in media psychology to study how individuals interact with and are affected by media. These methods include qualitative techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, observational methods, and quantitative techniques such as surveys and experiments. Each method has its strengths and limitations, and researchers must carefully consider which is most appropriate for their research question and study design.

Use Live Class Time To Center Relationships

This isn’t surprising: Humans are social creatures, and learning is at its core a social experience. Yet in this era of remote instruction, these authentic moments of connection feel fewer and farther between. It’s hard for teachers and students to feel connected through a screen, and even harder when there’s pressure to get through content in a short amount of live instructional time each day. Teaching and learning become solitary chores rather than shared human experiences.

For both of us, that answer is simple: It was the human connections we made. Yes, we liked learning new things—but, more often than not, our enjoyment came from the support we received from caring teachers and the satisfaction of discovering new ideas with friends.

Think back to your own experiences as an elementary, middle, or high school student. What made going to school meaningful?

If we want to make learning meaningful for students—and teachers—during the pandemic, we need to reimagine much of the way it’s delivered. Live instructional time is too precious to be spent lecturing or giving directions. Instead, teachers must find ways to deliver their content asynchronously, so that they can focus class time on the interpersonal elements of learning: discussion, reflection, and community-building.

Students are at home alone, craving connection. If teachers can emphasize interaction and conversation during live online sessions, they’ll become the best parts of students’ days.

Deliver Content Asynchronously

The pressure that many teachers feel to lecture during live sessions often stems from a problematic one-size-fits-all approach to teaching, which presumes that most learning must happen in the presence of the teacher. This model assumes that students learn best when they are lectured to, and when the teacher can strictly monitor and control their attention.

Not only does this approach ignore what we know about students’ different learning needs, but also it’s mostly impossible during remote instruction. Students can tune out a Zoom lecture more easily than an in-person one, and students without reliable internet or with other responsibilities at home might not be able to tune in at all.

Instead, teachers must find ways to deliver content and assess understanding asynchronously. Teachers should record instructional videos that can be watched (and rewatched) whenever students are able. Rather than pressing ahead at a pace that students may not be able to sustain (or which may be too slow), teachers should design structures that let students learn at their own pace, so that each student learns as much as he or she can without feeling lost or unchallenged.

Finally, rather than focusing on class attendance or completion, teachers should emphasize mastery, checking in with individual students to ensure that each has acquired the skills necessary to progress.

In such a system, students are empowered to learn content on their own, and class time can be devoted to more important things. (If you want to see how to build a classroom like the one we have described, please explore the Modern Classrooms Project’s free course.)

Spend Live Class Time Interacting

Time with students is always precious, but it’s even scarcer in distance learning. In the time you and your students do have together, focus on what can’t be done asynchronously: discussion, collaboration, problem-solving, and community-building.

Ideally, your students will come to your live sessions having already prepared, and you can use class time to conduct the types of activities that make learning meaningful and fun.

For instance, in an English class, teach students the elements of poetry through videos, then spend live class time discussing the meaning of a particular poem. In a history class, teach students the Bill of Rights through videos, then spend live class time debating free speech on social media. In a math class, teach students how to graph simple exponential functions through videos, then spend class time analyzing the spread of Covid-19.

The possibilities are endless, but they share a common theme: When teachers use asynchronous tools to deliver foundational content, they can spend live time doing things that students are likely to remember and care about.

This, in turn, motivates students: They want to learn so they can be prepared for the interesting stuff in class. It’s a virtuous cycle that makes learning more meaningful for students and teachers alike.

Have Fun

Finally, and perhaps most important, find time during live class time to have fun and to show students that you care. A few minutes spent checking in on students, or discussing something nominally off-topic, may seem hard to spare when time is scarce. It’s much more important to motivate students—which building relationships inevitably does—than to spend five extra minutes explaining something that could just as easily be on video.

As you think about how to teach this coming year, think about this: How can you bring joy back into your (virtual) classroom? How can you streamline the grind—the daily lectures, the giving of directions, the constant grading—in such a way that your classes can cover as much as ever while you focus on what brings both you and your students joy?

It isn’t easy. But despite the challenges, we know that teachers can still make school count. Focus your class time on human connection, and it will.

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