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Introduction to PostgreSQL round

Whenever we deal with numeric values in the PostgreSQL database, the precision and format in which we retrieve those values are of immense importance. The accuracy of the numbers carries a lot of importance in real-life use cases like, for example, the precision of the measurements of certain aircraft or machine equipment or any other instrument, numeric values related to currency and transactions, etc. This article will learn how to round the numeric values into a particular integral value or up to the decimal points we need while retrieving or manipulating the numeric data in the PostgreSQL database.

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returned_value = ROUND (source_value [ , decimal_count ] )

Where the two parameters carry the following meaning –

source_value: You need to round the numeric value or numeric expression to an integer or a specific number of decimal points to maintain precision.

decimal_count: The optional parameter specifies the number of decimal points the source_value should be rounded up. The default value of this integer parameter is 0 when we do not mention it.

returned_value: If you do not specify the second parameter decimal_count, the round function returns a value that is most often of the same data type as the data_type of source_value.If the second parameter value is specified then the datatype of the returned value is numeric.

Examples to Implement PostgreSQL round

Let us learn how we can use the round() function to round the numeric values in PostgreSQL with the help of examples:

Converting the numeric value to integers




Let’s observe the integer value retrieved when the digit after the decimal point is 5 or greater than 5. For that, let’s take a number, say 98.536. Rounding this number in PostgreSQL using the following query statement




Now let us manipulate the field of a certain table and try to round the value. For this, let us create a table named educbademo with the numeric field as price and id integer using the following create a query.




And add a few rows in it using the following query statements –


INSERT INTO educbademo VALUES(1,23.565); INSERT INTO educbademo VALUES(2,98.148); INSERT INTO educbademo VALUES(3,94.4616); INSERT INTO educbademo VALUES(4,352.462); INSERT INTO educbademo VALUES(5,87.1547);


let us confirm the contents of the table by using the following SELECT query –


SELECT * FROM educbademo;



SELECT ROUND(price) FROM educbademo;


Rounding the Decimal Numbers

Instead of integer values, we will round the numbers to a particular decimal number with certain decimal points that we specify in the second parameter to the round() function. Let us see how we can do this with the help of an example. Consider a decimal numeric number say 985.561. For rounded to two-digits, the query statement should contain the integer parameter decimal_count in the round() function as 2, and the statement should be as follows –


SELECT ROUND(985.561,2);

That will result in the following output because as the decimal digit after two points, 1 is less than 5, so the number will be rounded as 985.56.

Now, if our number is 985.566, then while rounding to two digits, the numeric value that will result is as follows using the below query statement –


SELECT ROUND(985.566,2);

That gives the following output with a value of 985.57 as the digit after two decimals 6 is greater than or equal to 5; hence the second digit value is increased by one, and the output is 985.57 instead of 985.56.


Now, let us round the values of the certain column to decimal values using the round function. Let’s consider the table educbademo and round its price column to two decimal points. For this, the query statement will be as follows –

SELECT ROUND(price,2) FROM educbademo;


When rounding a number to two digits, increase the decimal value at the second place by one for numbers that are greater than or equal to 5, and keep it the same for all other numbers. If we round the column values to 3 digits, then the query statement will be as follows –


SELECT ROUND(price,3) FROM educbademo;


If we round the column values to 4 digits, then the query statement will be as follows –


SELECT ROUND(price,4) FROM educbademo;


We can see that 0 is appended at the end of the numeric value if the decimal value doesn’t contain any value in that decimal place.


The Round() function is used in the PostgreSQL database while dealing with numeric values. It helps in rounding the number to the integer value or up to any decimal place, as mentioned in the function’s optional second parameter. If the second parameter is not specified, it is considered zero, and the number is converted to an integer value.

You can use this function directly on numbers or on the numeric values stored in the columns of a database table. The rounded value depends on the value of the digit immediately following the digit to be rounded. If the digit being rounded is greater than or equal to 5, increase the value of the digit by one.

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Complete Guide To Javascript Indexof() (Examples)

Introduction to JavaScript indexOf()

The JavaScript indexOf() method finds an item’s occurrence in an array. Method name indicates index means sequence values position. So, the indexOf() method is always used with an array. indexOf() position always starts with 0 and ends with N-1. N is an array length.

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How does the indexOf() method work in JavaScript?

JavaScript indexOf() method always works for the search operation. If the item is not found, it returns a -1 value. The search will begin at the given position through the indexOf() method. Suppose we did not mention any start position; then, the search starts from the 0th index. Like indexOf(“any value or string”,1(position)). While searching the specified item in the indexOf() method, if an item is present more than once, then the indexOf() method returns the first occurred item from the list.


Array_Name.indexOf (item,starting position);


Item: Pass the required item from an array.

Starting position: Pass the number to where to start the search operation.

Examples of JavaScript indexOf()

Examples of the following are given below:

Example #1

Searching the index of a book from an array (without mentioning a position): Below example, we do not specify any position within the indexOf() method, so the search starts at the 0th.


function searchIndex(name) { var book=[“Maths”,”Physics”,”Biology”,”Chemistry”,”English”,”Polity”,”Economics”]; return book.indexOf(name); } var book1=”English”; var book2=”Zoology”; var indexOfBook=searchIndex(book1); var indexOfBookNotExisted=searchIndex(book2); document.write(book2+” position is :”+indexOfBookNotExisted);



As we can observe from the output, we can see if we pass existed items from an array given to the indexOf() method. It will return the actual index position. Whereas if we pass not existed value to the indexOf() method, it will return -1.

Note: Index position always starts from 0.

Example #2

Searching the index of an animal from an array (mentioning a position): Below example, we specify any position within the indexOf() method, so the search starts at the specified index.


function searchIndexOfAnimal(animal,postion) { var animal=[“Dog”,”Cat”,”Monkey”,”Rabbit”,”Tiger”,”Lion”,”Cow”]; return animal.indexOf(animal,postion); } var animal1=”Cow”; var animal2=”Dog”; var indexOfAnimal=searchIndexOfAnimal(animal1,1); var indexOfAnimalNotExisted=searchIndexOfAnimal(animal2,1); document.write(animal2+” position is : “+indexOfAnimalNotExisted);


In the above example, we can see while we are accessing Cow from the array, then prints 6 as the index position. While trying to access the Dog from the array, then prints -1. It may surprise the output. The animal array has a Dog value but prints -1 because we are starting the search operation at the 1st index position. So, the indexOf() method neglects the 0th index and starts searching from the 1st.

Example #3

Searching the index of a character from an array (mentioning a position): In a String, every character considers as the particular index. Example: “How” is a string with the H=0th, o=1st, and w=2nd index positions, respectively.


function searchStringIndex(character,postion) { var string=”Hi, I am Amardeep. I am Paramesh.”; return string.indexOf(character,postion); } var c1=”a”; var c2=”am”; var c3=”Paramesh”; var indexOfStr1=searchStringIndex(c1); var indexOfStr2=searchStringIndex(c2,9); var indexOfStr3=searchStringIndex(c3); document.write(c3+” position is : “+indexOfStr3);



If we pass multiple characters at a time to the indexOf() method, first, it will check whether that sequence of characters existed or not. If it existed, it returns the first index position in that sequence of characters. So, the searchStringIndex(“Paramesh”) gives 24 as output. Here P’s index position is 24, so it printed 24 as output. We can conclude when multiple characters are in sequence, if those are present in a string, it will print the first character index.

Example #4

Access exceeding index from an array:


function getIndex(name,postion) { var array=[“1″,”Apple”,”@12″,”Paramesh”]; return array.indexOf(name,postion); } var name=”Paramesh”; var indexOfArray=getIndex(name,6); document.write(name+” position is : “+indexOfArray);



Above, we are trying to access out of the bounded index of 6. First, the indexOf() method checks whether the given position is within the actual position limit or not. An actual position limit is only 3, but we are trying to access the 6th index value. So, it gives -1 as output.


indexOf() method has the only item; it will start searching from the 0th index. indexOf() method has item and position, then it will begin by specifying the position index value. No search item results in a -1 value.

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How To Call Functions In Python: A Complete Guide (Examples)

To call a function in Python, add parenthesis after the function name.

For example, if you have a function called greet, you can call it by:


And if the function takes arguments, specify them inside the parenthesis:


Let’s take a deeper dive into functions and how to call them in Python. More specifically, we are going to take a look at how to call functions:

With no arguments.

With arguments.

With keyword arguments.

With any number of arguments.

With any number of keyword arguments.

From another file.

1. How to call a function without arguments in Python

This is a basic example of how to call a function in Python.

A function that takes no arguments can be called by adding parenthesis after the name of the function.

For example, let’s create a function greet.

def greet(): print("Hello world!")

And now you can call the function by:


This results in the following output to the console:

Hello world! 2. How to call a function with arguments in Python

It is common for a function to accept an argument or arguments to work with.

To call a function that takes arguments, specify the arguments inside the parenthesis when calling the function.

For example, let’s create a function that accepts one argument:

def greet(name): print("Hello,", name)

And let’s call this function:


This results in the following output to the console:

Hello, Nick

Let’s also demonstrate functions that take more than one argument:

def greet(firstname, lastname): print("Hello,", firstname, lastname)

Now you can call the function by:

greet("Nick", "Jones")

This produces the following output:

Hello, Nick Jones 3. How to call a function with keyword arguments in Python

Python functions can accept two types of arguments:

Positional arguments

Keyword arguments

When it comes to positional arguments, order matters.

For example, in the previous example, the function took two positional arguments:

def greet(firstname, lastname): print("Hello,", firstname, lastname)

The function expects these arguments to be in the right order. The first argument should be the first name and the last argument should be the last name.

However, if you pass the arguments as keyword arguments, you may swap their order freely.

A keyword argument is an argument where you name the argument you pass into a function.

Let’s call the greet function from the previous example by providing it with the arguments as keyword arguments:

greet(lastname="Jones", firstname="Nick")


Hello, Nick Jones

As you can see, using keywords allowed you to swap the order of the arguments.

4. How to call a function with any number of arguments in Python

Sometimes you don’t know how many arguments you want to pass into a function. Thus, it is possible to call a function with an arbitrary number of arguments.

To demonstrate, let’s create a function that accepts any number of arguments. To make this possible, the function argument needs to be preceded by an asterisk *:

def greet(*args): for name in args: print("Hello,", name)

Now you can call the function with any number of arguments

greet("Nick") greet("Matt", "Sophie", "Jon")


Hello, Nick Hello, Matt Hello, Sophie Hello, Jon

You can also pass the arguments as an array. But if you do this, add the asterisk before the array to unpack the arguments for the function:

greet(*["Matt", "Sophie", "Jon"]) Hello, Matt Hello, Sophie Hello, Jon 5. How to call a function with any number of keyword arguments in Python

You may not know how many keyword arguments to pass into a function. But this is no problem. Python lets you design functions in such a way that you can pass any number of keyword arguments into it.

To demonstrate, let’s create a function that accepts any number of keyword arguments. To make this possible, the argument needs to be preceded by a double asterisk **:

def greet(**kwargs): for literal, name in kwargs.items(): print("Hello,", name)

Now you can call the function with any number of keyword arguments, and name the arguments however you like:

greet(name="Marie") greet(name="Jane", otherName="Ann")


Hello, Marie Hello, Jane Hello, Ann

You can also call this function by passing a dictionary as an argument. If you do this, remember to unpack the dictionary with the double-asterisk **:

greet(**{"name": "Jane", "otherName": "Ann"})


Hello, Jane Hello, Ann 6. How to call a function from another file in Python

To call a function from another Python file, you need to import the file and call the functions from it.

Here is an illustration where a function is called from another file:

Here, the sayHi function is imported from the chúng tôi file to the chúng tôi and called from there.

If you want to import a specific function from another file, you can specify the name of the function in the import statement as seen above.

But if you want to import all the functions from another file, use * in the import statement.

For example:

from somefile import * Conclusion

Today you learned how to call a function in Python.

To recap, functions allow for grouping useful code and logic into a reusable block of code. When you call a function in Python, you’re running the code inside the function.

In Python, you can call functions with:

No arguments.


Keyword arguments.

Any number of arguments.

Any number of keyword arguments.

Another file.

Thanks for reading. I hope you enjoy it.

Happy coding.

Further Reading

Complete Guide To Jdbc Getconnection

Introduction to JDBC getConnection

The following article provides an outline for JDBC getConnection. Java database connectivity gets connection method is used for establishing the connection between the java application program where you are working and the database that will be used for storing and manipulating the data of your application. There are certain basic steps that you should follow to establish the connection. There are also multiple approaches using which you can establish the connection.

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Connection Establishment in JDBC

Import all the necessary packages: All the java programming packages that will be required in you program should be included and imported right at the beginning of the file by using the import statement.

Registration of JDBC driver: The loading of the required driver inside the memory of the system is done by the Java Virtual Machine for the handling and fulfilling of all the further requests that will be made.

Formation of the uniform resource locator un database: The URL plays an important role and is necessary to build while establishing a connection. This helps in recognizing the appropriate address and the target database which needs to be connected.

Object creation for connection: getConnection() method is given the call in this step which is an object of the driver manager that will, in turn, create an object of the connection establishing the actual connection to the database from our application.

Syntax of JDBC getConnection

Given below is the syntax in detail about each of the steps seen above:

1. Import Package

The syntax of importing is basically writing the import statement followed by the name of the package that you wish to import. This helps the java compiler to identify the classes that should be called and referred. This import statements are always written in the beginning part of the code covering the first few lines. For most of the manipulations related to SQL database operations, we will import the following two packages.

Import java.math. *; Import java.sql.*;

The first package helps in support of big integers and big decimals while the second package is used in the standard programs of JDBC.

2. Driver Registration

The class files of the driver get loaded inside the memory which can be further used further by interfaces of JDBC. The registration of the driver can be done by using either of the two approaches mentioned below.

a. Using Class.forName()

The following example demonstrates the syntax of the same.

try { Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"); } catch(ClassNotFoundException sampleException) { System.out.println("Sorry! We cannot load the class for the driver"); System.exit(1); }

b. Using DriverManager.registerDriver()

When we are making the use of the Java Virtual Machine which is non- JDK compliant like Microsoft then we can make the use of this static method called DriverManager.registerDriver() that will help you to register your driver.

try { Driver sampleExampleDriver = new com.mysql.jdbc.Driver(); DriverManager.registerDriver( sampleExampleDriver ); } catch(ClassNotFoundException sampleException) { System.out.println("Sorry! We could not establish the driver registration"); System.exit(1); } Formulation of URL for Database

We can create the connection by using the DriverManager.getConnection() method that is overloaded in three ways.

geConnection(String UniformResourceLocator, String username, String associatedPassword)

geConnection(String UniformResourceLocator)

geConnection(String UniformResourceLocator, Properties associatedProps)

Format of Uniform Resource Locator Name of the JDBC Driver Relational Database Management System

jdbc:oracle:thin:@name of host:number of port:name of database oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver Oracle

jdbc:sybase:Tds:name of host: port Number/name of database com.sybase.jdbc.SybDriver Sybase

jdbc:mysql://name of host/ name of database com.mysql.jdbc.Driver


jdbc:db2:name of host:port Number/name of database DB2

We can specify the information of the connection URL of the user name, associated password and the port address information of the host along with IP address and the TCP/ IP protocol for transportation of the data containing request and response.

The below extract shows the sample of the info that will show this method.

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(URL_TO_CONNECT, USERNAME, ASSOCIATED_PASSWORD);

Alternatively, you can also specify just a single url for connection establishment but in this case, the url should contain the information of username and the password in it as shown in the below sample.

Connection sampleConnection = DriverManager.getConnection(educba_URL);

One more method includes the specification of properties username and password same as above.

Closing the Connection

For sample statement consider shown below:

sampleConnectionObject.close(); Example of JDBC getConnection

Given below is the example mentioned:

Let us consider one sample program for setting up the connection by using the getConnection() method.


import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.DriverManager; public class sampleEducbaPayalConnectionEstablishment{ public static void main(String args[]) throws ClassNotFoundException { String sampleURL; Connection sampleConnection = null; try { Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"); sampleURL="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/educba"; username="root"; associatedpassword=""; sampleConnection = DriverManager.getConnection(sampleURL,username,associatedpassword); System.out.println("Successfully Established the connection!"); sampleConnection.close(); System.out.println("The established connection has been closed!"); } catch (Exception sampleException) { System.out.println(sampleException.toString()); } } }



The creation of the connection to the database from the java application can be done by using the method getConnection by using the methodologies. Note that creating the connection consumes memory. Hence, after you are done with performing all your operations related to the database, you should close the created connection to clear up the resources.

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Complete Guide To Db2 Row_Number

Introduction to DB2 row_number

DB2 ROW_NUMBER is a function provided by IBM for generating a sequential number that can begin from 1 and continuously show an iterating value in the column name specified. Analytical Processing (OLAP) and is itself a window function. It is only possible because of this function that we don’t need to reiterate the data of the table again and again to induce a functionality of getting incremental values. It can be used in many real-time applications. One of the most frequent and popular usages of this function is pagination. In this article, we will see how we can use the ROW_NUMBER function, its syntax, and examples.

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The ROW_NUMBER() function will generate a column that will contain the integer values beginning from the value assigned to the first row. One of the most useful but optional features in this syntax is the usage of partitions which can help us to assign the sequential number based on the groups or partitions of the data.

In the above syntax, the clause for partition is optional in nature. If we use this function, the result set rows are firstly divided into multiple groups based on the partition key and then the ROW_NUMBER function is implemented on each of the grouped data. By default, if we don’t specify the clause for partitions in our query statement then all the rows of the result set are considered as a single partition or group and then the function is implemented for it. The clause for the partition of syntax has the following syntax for specifying the partition key –

PARTITION BY [key1, key2, ….keyn]

Where key1, key2, ….keyn can be the names of the columns or any expression value on the basis of which we want to segregate the result.

The clause for ordering is used to order the data that is generated in the result set based on one or more order keys that are specified. The ORDER BY clause works individually for each partition. We can either specify the ordering to be done in ascending or descending manner depending on our requirement by using ASC or DESC at the end of the ORDER BY clause. By default, if we don’t specify either of them the ordering is done in ascending mode. We can also specify whether we have to display all the NULL values first or last in the result set by using the NULLS FIRST and NULLS LAST statements in the syntax of the clause for the order. The syntax of the order clause is shown below –

ORDER BY sort_exp1 [,sort_exp2, ..., sort_expn]

In the above syntax, the sort_exp1 [,sort_exp2, …, sort_expn] is the list of expressions like columns or collective use it number which is different with respect to each row in the result set. The specification of ASC or DEC is optional in nature to specify the order of the column values and result in ascending or descending order explicitly. By default, it’s done in ascending order. Many times, there is a requirement to display the data in the format where all the NULL values are displayed in the top at first in the result or all the result set is ordered in a way where all the rows with NULL values in it are displayed at the end. This is done by using the NULLS FIRST or NULLS LAST respectively.

Examples of DB2 row_number

Let us take one table named Sales_Customers which is created by using the following query statement –

) ;

The content of the table can be seen by using the following query statement –

SELECT * FROM Sales_Customers;

Which gives the following output –

As it can be seen the table has 14 rows in it and all are sorted based on the primary key customer_id when they are retrieved. We can assign the row number value as a pseudo column to see which row is on which number and how many rows are there by using the window function named ROW_NUMBER and using the following query statement for the same –


The output of the above query statement is as shown below –

If we want to order the data based on the amount of purchase done by that customer. We can do that by using the following query statement and mentioning the column name in the order by clause of the ROW_NUMBER() function –


The output of the above query is as shown below –

row_number <= 15

In big_customers the order by clause made sure that the customers are ordered and sorted based on the amount of bill of customers. Further, the ROW_NUMBER got applicable to all the resulted data having bill amounts arranged in ascending order, hence unique sequential numbers got assigned to each row, and by using the where clause we filtered out all the customers whose row numbers were in the range of 7 to 15 exclusive.

Suppose that we want the top 3 customers from the sales_customers table then we can do that by applying the partition on customer_id and setting the result set in the descending order of the bill amounts of the customer by using the following query statement –


which gives the following output –


We can make use of the ROW_NUMBER function to generate a pseudo column in the result set which is sequential in nature and can be used to assign the unique incremental values to rows.

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Complete Guide To Archicad Shortcuts

Introduction to ArchiCAD Shortcuts

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Short cut commands of option of File Menu

The very first thing which we do before starting any project or work we create a New file or document and this option you can find in the File menu and for a shortcut of it you can press the Ctrl + N button on the keyboard.

By pressing Ctrl + Alt + N keys of the keyboard you can go for the New and Reset option of this menu.

Ctrl + O keys refer to shortcut key for opening any work, image, or any supported file format of this software.

You can close any window or tab of this software very quickly by pressing the Ctrl + W buttons of the keyboard.

The very important thing you do is to save your document and this option is also available in the File menu but you can press Ctrl + S for saving your work.

Ctrl + Shift + S is for Save as the option of this menu that means if you already saved your document and want to save it in another format or with another name then you can go with this option and its shortcut.

You Plot your work by pressing the Ctrl + P button of the keyboard and for its setup dialog box press the Ctrl + Shift + P button. You can also use Ctrl + P for printing any work.

Ctrl + Q are used for quitting this application program that means when you want to close the whole software then you can go with it.

File Modules and XREF commands’ short cut:

For placing the module in this software you can press Ctrl + ’ keys of the keyboard.

By pressing Ctrl + Shift + ’ you can go for Hotlink Manager.

Shortcut commands of File GDL Objects:

Press Ctrl + Shift + N for a new object in your work.

Ctrl + Shift + O will help for opening any object.

Ctrl + Shift + N can use for the ‘Save Project As’ option.

Edit menu Commands:

We need to undo our steps much time so this shortcut is very helpful during our working and it is Ctrl + Z not only this you can redo any steps you it undo by mistake and press Ctrl + Shift + Z for this.

There may be a lot of elements in our work and many times we need to select them all so press Ctrl + A for selecting them by one shortcut key.

Ctrl + B allows you to repeat your last used command.

For dragging any element of your designed component you can press Ctrl + D keys.

Press Ctrl + E for rotating an object or element.

Ctrl + F can be used for the Split command.

Stretch can do by pressing the Ctrl + H keys of the keyboard.

Ctrl + M keys will work for the mirror command.

Resize can do by pressing Ctrl + K keys.

For Adjust command press Ctrl + – buttons of the keyboard.

Press Ctrl + 0 for the ‘Trim to roof’ command during your designing work.

You can set tools as per your requirement and press Ctrl + T for the tool settings box.

For ‘Editing selection set’ you can go with Ctrl + Shift + T.

With Ctrl + Shift + D you can drag a copy of an object or element and same as for rotating it, you can press Ctrl + Shift + E, and for mirroring a copy of the object go with Ctrl + Shift + M keys of the keyboard.

There is also a shortcut key for editing text. So let us discuss them too.

Edit Commands for Text:

For finding and replace any particular text in your designing we use the Find and Replace command and the shortcut of it is Ctrl + H. You can press Ctrl + F to simply find any text in your design.

Tools’ shortcut keys:

Ctrl + G can be used for grouping a number of elements or objects and you can go with Ctrl + Shift + G for ungrouping them if there is no need for their grouping.

Alt + G will suspend a group and Alt + Shift + G can use for the Auto Group option.

The patch can be created by pressing Ctrl +; keys of the keyboard.

Ctrl + = will work for Explode command.

Press Shift + F6 functional key of a keyboard for ‘Bring to Front’ option and by pressing on by F6 you can use the ‘Bring Forward’ option. F5 can use for the ‘Send backward’ option and Shift + F5 is used for Send to back option.


There is so many short cut in this software which makes our work easy and you need not to worry about remembering them just start working with this software and use short cut keys for any command instead of using traditional ways for that and with a pass of time it will become your habit.

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