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In English, a capital letter is used for the first word of a sentence and for all proper nouns (words that name a specific person, place, organization, or thing).

In some cases, capitalization is also required for the first word in a quotation and the first word after a colon.

Capitalization rules

Capitalize

Don’t capitalize

People Names (and words derived from them); nationalities; titles when used as part of a name

the works of Aristotle

a Freudian psychoanalyst

the Brazilian actor

the campaign of Senator Sanders

Occupations; titles when not used as part of a name

the magazine’s managing editor

an elderly professor

the left-wing senator

Places Names of specific continents, countries, states, cities, regions, monuments and landmarks

South America

the West Coast of the US

the Eiffel Tower

the River Thames

Directions and general areas

head north

the west of the city

the longest river in the world

Times Days of the week and months of the year; historical eras and named events; holidays

a Monday in July

the Middle Ages

the Napoleonic Wars

Christmas Day

Centuries, decades, seasons

an eighteenth-century painting

the fashion of the fifties

a summer vacation

Other

Organizations, companies and brand names

Religions and deities

Planets

Languages

Animal and plant species

Elements

Minerals

Theories and models

Medical conditions

Recognizing proper nouns

A proper noun is the specific name of a person, place, organization, or thing. All proper nouns (as well as adjectives derived from them) should be capitalized.

Michelle Obama, the former first lady, was raised in Chicago and is a graduate of Harvard Law School.

A common noun, on the other hand, refers to a general, non-specific category or entity. Common nouns are not normally capitalized (unless they are the first word of a sentence or part of a title).

Monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy are forms of government classified according to which people have the authority to rule.

There are no proper nouns in the example above. Words like democracy, government and authority refer to general concepts and categories rather than specific names.

Common nouns often become proper nouns when used to name a specific entity:

Common noun Proper noun

The nations of the world The United Nations

The local church The Catholic Church

A conservative viewpoint The Conservative Party

A vast canyon The Grand Canyon

An application for business school Columbia Business School

Times and events

Specific periods and named events in history are proper nouns and thus capitalized. Centuries, however, stay in lowercase.

The Middle Ages were dismissed as backward by Renaissance thinkers.

The Paleozoic Era began 541 million years ago.

The Great Depression affected virtually every country in the world.

Impressionism was a pivotal artistic development in the nineteenth century.

Days of the week (e.g., Wednesday), months of the year (e.g., August), and holidays and festivals (e.g., Christmas, Ramadan) are capitalized. However, the four seasons are common nouns and therefore not capitalized unless they appear as part of a proper noun.

I plan on visiting New York in the summer.

I plan on attending the Summer Olympics next year.

Directions and regions

I live five miles north of London.

Warm, westerly winds passed through the city.

The fire affected only the northern region of the forest.

However, capitalization is required for these words when they are part of a proper name or when they refer to a distinct region.

The North Pole has a wider variety of animal life than the South Pole.

The scope of the book is limited to the history of Western civilization.

Cameroon’s East Region borders the Central African Republic.

Whether a geographical area is named as a distinct region can vary between countries.

They took a road trip down the West Coast of the United States.

We took a road trip up the west coast of Scotland.

If you’re unsure whether to capitalize the name of an area or region, check a dictionary or consult academic sources for common usage.

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Theories, models and disciplines

In academic writing, some types of nouns are often incorrectly capitalized. The table below shows academic terms that should not be capitalized. Note, though, that proper nouns within these terms are still capitalized as usual.

Type Examples

Theories string theory, psychoanalytic theory, Einstein’s theory of relativity

Models five-factor model of personality, Bohr atomic model

Disciplines and subjects sociology, economics, French, Japanese

Schools of thought rationalism, German idealism

However, note that the names of existing tests, inventories and questionnaires should be capitalized.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist

Capitalization within quotations

When the quote forms a complete sentence, capitalize the first word.

John asked, “Are these library books overdue?”

When the quote is a fragment incorporated into your own sentence, the first word is not capitalized.

She referred to him as “a plague sore.”

Capitalization after a colon

When a colon introduces a list or any phrase that is not a complete sentence, do not capitalize the first word (unless it is a proper noun).

She filled the picnic basket with a variety of snacks: cookies, bread, dips, and fruits.

When a colon introduces a complete sentence, capitalization rules vary between style guides. According to APA style, the first word after the colon should be capitalized.

She had been up all night studying: She was determined to get the top grade in the class.

But according to Chicago style, the first word following the colon should be capitalized only if there is more than one complete explanatory sentence following the colon.

She had been up all night studying: she was determined to get the top grade in the class.

She had been up all night studying: She was determined to get the top grade in the class. It would guarantee her the prestigious scholarship.

Capitalizing titles

The capitalization rules for the titles of books, articles, movies, art, and other works vary slightly between style guides. But in general, the following rules apply across major style guides, including APA, MLA, and Chicago.

Capitalize the first word of the title and (if applicable) the subtitle

Capitalize the last word

Use lowercase for articles (the, a, an), prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions

I prefer The Taming of the Shrew over Romeo and Juliet.

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King is the last in a trilogy.

Capitalizing headings in papers

When writing a paper or thesis, you have two options for capitalizing the headings of chapters and sections. You can use title case for all headings, as in the examples above.

3.1 Emerging Coffee Markets in North America

Alternatively, you can choose to use sentence case, which means you only capitalize the first word and proper nouns, as in a normal sentence.

3.1 Emerging coffee markets in North America

Some style guides have specific requirements for capitalizing headings (see, for example, how to format APA headings and subheadings). Whichever approach you choose, make sure to be consistent: all headings at the same level should take the same capitalization style.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Luo, A. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

Cite this article

Sources

Butterfield, J. (Ed.). (2024). Fowler’s dictionary of modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Garner, B. A. (2024). Garner’s modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

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Largest Iot Rules In 2023

IOT Big rules for 2023

But as soon as a year has only started, it’s a fantastic time to contemplate over the changes it attracted and in a significant pagan convention to foretell what another year will probably be like.

This past year we wrote much about the Internet of Things, which for us it seems natural to start the year with all our anticipations of those IoT improvements in 2023.

Considering that the IoT is not just a technical but also a societal phenomenon, shifting our understanding of apparatus around us and the environment we live in the very best trends we chosen also signify the system and the individual worlds.

Top Technologies

1. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence

The research company Gartner forecasts that in 2023 we’ll see 14.2 billion related things in usage that could lead to an immense quantity of information. Information is the fuel of this IoT and, most importantly, the secret to firms to produce great decisions about goods, services, workers, strategy, etc.. At precisely the exact same time, it’s not data per se that ensures success, but also the ability to generate sense of it using meaningful analytics. With the huge number of information made from smart devices, companies want to employ technologies which may help them make sense of the info.

Also read:

10 Best Chrome Extensions For 2023

2. Connected Clouds

3. Edge Computing and Beyond

But, this isn’t the end stage as the pair of layers connected with border architecture will gradually evolve into a more hierarchical architecture comprising a vast assortment of devices and solutions linked in a dynamic net. The net architectures will allow more flexible, responsive and intelligent IoT systems.

4. Digital Twins

5. 5G as a New Wireless Networking

5G, the coming creation of low earth orbit satellites and backscatter networks will be very likely to get focus at the IoT market maximizing power consumption, bandwidth, latency, link ratio, operating cost, quality of service and scope. In case 2023 was the year of mended 5G software, 2023 will see the growth of 5G in cellular devices altering the landscape of their IoT.

6. Sensor Innovation

The detector market will also evolve constantly with fresh special-purpose detectors covering more events and situations and decreasing power consumption necessary to operate profound neural networks that inside turn will empower new border architectures and usage of DNN works in low-power IoT endpoint devices. In response, present sensors are very likely to become cheaper or be packed to encourage new programs, and new calculations will emerge to deduce more info from current sensor technology.

Top Societal Changes

1. Social IoT

The IoT is a really broad-based technology, changing all spheres from customer devices to large-scale production. However, it is not obvious if the people is totally ready for the IoT’s influence. Therefore, since the IoT evolves, a vast selection of social, ethical and legal issues will increase in importance. To be prosperous, an IoT solution will be not just technically powerful but also socially acceptable, as points Nick Jones, research vice president at Gartner. These include possession of information as well as the deductions made against it, algorithmic prejudice, privacy, and compliance with regulations like the General Data Protection Legislation (GDPR).

2. IoT Governance

Speaking of this GDPR, we must state the IoT expands, the demand for a governance framework that ensures proper behavior in the information production, storage, use and deletion is growing more and more important. Governance of those IoT-related jobs will vary from easy apparatus audits and firmware updates to complicated problems like the management of apparatus and the tactical use of the information that they create.

3: Infonomics

4. User Experiences

The IoT is altering the rules of human/device interactions typically without displays and keyboards. In long run, the IoT user experience (UX) will likely be driven by four variables: new detectors, new algorithms, new encounter architectures and circumstance, and socially conscious encounters. In any case, UX designers might need to embrace new viewpoints using displays and keyboards and relying upon voice-controlled digital assistants.

Rules Of Downcasting Objects In Java

In Java, downcasting is the process of converting an object of parent class to object of child class. We need to perform the conversion explicitly. It is quite similar to what we do in primitive typecasting.

In this article, we will learn about downcasting and what are the rules that we must follow to downcast an object in Java.

Object Downcasting in Java

Earlier we discussed that downcasting is somewhat similar to typecasting. However, there exist a few differences too. The first is that we can type cast only primitive datatypes and the second is that it is irreversible action i.e. in typecasting we work directly with values and if we change the value once, we cannot restore it. On the other hand in the downcasting process, the original object does not get changed, only its type changed.

Need for Downcasting

For an instance, assume that there are two classes, one is the super class and the other one is its sub class. Here, the sub class contains a few features that its super class wants to use. In this case, downcasting comes into the picture, it allows us to access the member variables and methods of sub class to super class.

Syntax nameOfSubclass nameOfSubclassObject = (nameOfSubclass) nameOfSuperclassObject;

Although this syntax seems so easy, many of us can do mistakes while writing this syntax. Also, we can’t directly downcast objects like we are going to do in the next example. If we do so the compiler will throw ‘ClassCastException’.

Example 1

The following example illustrates what could be the result of providing the wrong syntax of downcasting. For this, we will define two classes and try to downcast the object of super class with wrong syntax.

class Info1 { void mesg1() { System.out.println("Tutorials Point"); } } class Info2 extends Info1 { void mesg2() { System.out.println("Simply Easy Learning"); } } public class Down { public static void main(String[] args) { Info2 info2 = (Info2) new Info1(); info2.mesg1(); info2.mesg2(); } } Output Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ClassCastException: class Info1 cannot be cast to class Info2 (Info1 and Info2 are in unnamed module of loader 'app') at Down.main(Down.java:13) Example 2

The following example demonstrates how we can perform object downcasting properly. For this, we will create two classes and then, we define an object of the super class that refers to sub class. In the end, we use the correct syntax of downcasting.

class Info1 { void mesg1() { System.out.println("Tutorials Point"); } } class Info2 extends Info1 { void mesg2() { System.out.println("Simply Easy Learning"); } } public class Down { public static void main(String[] args) { Info1 info1 = new Info2(); Info2 info2 = (Info2) info1; info2.mesg1(); info2.mesg2(); } } Output Tutorials Point Simply Easy Learning Conclusion

There is one more concept for modifying objects named Upcasting. In this process, the object of sub class gets converted to super class object. It can be done implicitly. Both the concepts, upcasting and downcasting together called object casting. In this article, we have discussed object downcasting with the help of examples.

3 Activities To Try With Your English Language Learners

Back-to-school is upon many of us, I say many of us because in Canada we don’t start school until September. However, many of my US colleagues are preparing to be back next week or are already back in the classroom!

The first week of school is often so crucial in developing the connection and the relationship that we constantly talk about, that is teacher-student relationship. On the first day, I like to get to know my students, their likes, interests, and hobbies as I know many teachers do. So as we introduce ourselves to each other, I ask them to share either a fun fact about themselves, something interesting they did over the break, or to share their favourite tv/movie.

Throughout icebreakers and introductions, I notice that my ELL students start to feel more comfortable, with more smiles, laughter, and side chatter when someone says something funny. This indicates to me that English Language Learners need that extra personal interaction with the teacher and class as a whole to feel comfortable to communicate.

Find Someone Who

This is probably the most popular activity for the start of the school year, and always fun to try out in your classroom. They are basically customized worksheets with your own questions that you find fitting for your age group. You create questions based on the tagline: find someone who – is a vegetarian, for example. Students will need to walk around the classroom and ask their classmates if they are a vegetarian. When this activity is happening the classroom often explodes with excitement that they often bring back with them once you reconvene together as a group.

Ask Me About

This activity gets a bit more on the personal level in that the conversation that comes out of the discussion amongst students is often deeper. In this activity, the teacher gives out cue cards to everyone. On the cards the students write 2-3 topics that they’re okay with discussing with their classmates. For example, ask me about: blogging, watching movies, and cooking Thai food. 

The conversations that come out of this activity are basic enough for ELL to understand and take part in, but they’re also deep enough to start forming their own relationships with other classmates. Working to build positive student-student relationships is also very important to foster in the classroom with ELLs, as these relationships impact their oral communication and social and interpersonal skills.

Ingredients of Me

This one is my favourite one, and I recently learned about it and shared it here. My friend and fellow educator Maha wrote about the procedure here.

This activity, while more on the individualistic side, really helped students see and figure out their interests, hobbies, and other things that consume their time throughout the day. It also allowed students to see commonalities between each other. This is of course beneficial to all students, but when ELLs see that they have many things in common with other classmates, especially classmates from different background than them, then it becomes especially important for them. One of the biggest challenges of being an ELL is feeling like an outsider. This activity allows students to reflect on their own interests, share it with others, and also to see how similar we all are.

How about you, what activities do you do with your ELLs at the start of the year?

How about you, what activities do you do with your ELLs at the start of the year?

7 Best Discord Server Rules Templates

7 Best Discord Server Rules Templates [2023 List] Here are the best rules for your Discord server to use

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Discord rules help create order within your channels by allowing everyone to behave accordingly. 

The rules can involve anything from how people write their names, to general rules, and even personal information rules.  

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Using a Discord rules template is a great way to set up your server with an easy-to-follow ruleset quickly. Once you set up the rules, you just need to download the client or Discord web browser, and you’re good to go.

If you’re looking to set up a server quickly, here are the best Discord server rules templates to use. 

How do I make a set of rules in Discord? What are the best Discord Server rules templates?

No spamming is allowed. This includes but is not limited to spam messages and unsolicited and unsafe links. 

Do not @mention members unnecessarily. 

Do not use @everyone unless you have express permission from the moderators. 

Moderators reserve the right to delete any written content from the server.

Sending multiple texts here one well-organized one is prohibited. 

Avoid typing out walls of text. Break down your texts into paragraphs for easy reading. 

Do not ask to be made a moderator. 

No loud noises or shrieks during vice chats.

Always use the mute button when not speaking. 

Reduce the amount of distracting background noise when speaking. 

Do not use unnecessary or offending noises when speaking.

Arguing and holding unnecessary debates on the channel is prohibited. 

Moderators reserve the right to disconnect or mute you if your und quality is poor. 

While it is okay to use cuss moderately, these words should not be directed to other sever members. 

Do not use voice changers r soundboards. 

Movies and other copyrighted materials are prohibited from this channel. 

Offensive nicknames are not allowed.

Offensive profile pictures such as those showing NSFW content are not allowed. 

Blank profile images are not allowed. 

Blank nicknames are not allowed. 

Profiles impersonating public figures will be removed. 

Catfishing and/or using a fake identity is prohibited from this channel. 

Third-party bots are prohibited from this server.

Use bot commands responsibly Command spamming is prohibited. 

Don’t change add, or remove bot commands. 

Do not ask for personal information from channel members. 

Sharing of other people’s personal information within or outside the channel is prohibited.

Do not assume other people’s identities using their personal information. 

Anyone who breaks this rule will be banned from the channel. 

Stealing content or claiming other peoples’ content or art is prohibited. 

Do not distribute unlicensed material

Flashing images or GIFs that could cause epileptic seizures are prohibited from the channel.

Online meeting links are prohibited on this server. 

Do not send any sexually explicit content. This includes pornographic, gory, gross, and disturbing content. 

Content that sexualizes minors will be immediately removed and the User will be permanently banned from the server. 

Always remember that while rules are important for your Discord channels, they shouldn’t be too long because no one will read them.

And if you get banned from Discord, we also have an easy-to-follow guide on how to get unbanned from Discord.

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Rule Of Thirds: The Composition Rules

When it comes to presenting the story, we need to start with the layout. This is where the rule of thirds comes into play. What is the rule of thirds? The rule of thirds is a data storytelling method of arranging the elements within a composition.

If we divide the frame with two vertical lines and two horizontal lines, we end up with nine boxes.

The idea is to align the points of interest along the vertical lines or where the lines intersect to come up with a more pleasing, and balanced composition.

This rule of composition is highly used in photography, video, and cinema.

In fact, during the Renaissance, they started to use this when new styles of painting emerge. The objective is to tell richer, and more complex stories.

Contrary to what they used before, the main character or main point of interest was placed in the center. When you have the subject in the center of the frame, there is an equal distance in all directions, which tends to make the size static with no movements and no interaction.

They discovered that they can showcase more of the background and create more conversation by taking the subject out of the center and moving it along to one of these intersecting lines in the frame.

There are nine equal blocks that we can divide with four intersecting points. Placing your subjects within these four intersecting points creates more dynamic communication.

When you take the point of interest and move it to one of these intersection lines, it creates more of a dynamic image. It allows the eyes to come into the frame, look at the object, look at the background, have a more natural flow, and connect to what they see.

One of the concepts or theories behind framing allows us to create more dynamic images.

This painting by Valentin de Boulogne shows how the main character is all placed at the upper defining line, creating a dynamic arrangement of figures.

The ‘Eye Flow‘ is another great use of the rule of thirds in this painting by Rubens. The main focal point of the board is placed at an intersection, and the secondary point of interest follows intersections as well.

Without a doubt, the rule of thirds can be very useful when creating reports as well.

Let’s take a look at this report that I created inside Power BI. We see how the use of the rule of thirds points to the helmet of Hamilton.

One of the main ideas of the rule of thirds is creating a connection with a viewer and telling the story by anticipating or controlling how the eyes will move from one part of the screen to another.

According to the rule of thirds, we know how the eyes are scanning a particular image or painting, which is why we divide our report.

In addition, the box’s position is hugely important in the order and the way the user will interact. We generally give more focus to the top left corner of any visuals or design.

First, we look at the top left spot and gradually move to the right corner, then we continue by performing a sort of ‘Z.’ We give the least attention to the bottom right spot.

This is the visual distribution for our eyes.

This is the primary reason we usually place the KPIs or filters on the top part or left part of the screen, and the title on the top left.

In summary, the designer can highly influence the way the user looks at the report by using color, shapes, size, space, and orientation of elements.

Grid placement should be evident in report design because it’s the way the report is consumed by the viewer. Lastly, consider how you place your visuals and pay attention to the size of the visual spaces, and the alignment.

All the best,

Alex

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