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Introduction to Unix Commands

The following article provides an outline for Unix Commands. An operating system offering both Graphical User Interface (GUI) and Command Line Interface (CLI) based interaction developed by Dennis Ritchie, Ken Thompson, Brian Kernighan, Joe Ossanna, and Douglas Mcllroy at Bell laboratory in the year 1970 known as a multi-tasking operating system allowing multiple users to work on the operating system simultaneously and provides commands for the users to interact with the application through Command Line Interface (CLI) like ls command, clear command, mkdir command, rmdir command, cat command, vi commands, rm command, mv command, su command, chmod command, sudo command, etc. which can be used to perform complex tasks.

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What is Unix?

Professionals working with servers and individuals learning about command-line-based operating systems prefer it. Several complex and large applications use Unix to run due to its feature to manage the processes easily. Compared with the Windows OS, it is a bit fast and offers a good user experience.

1. Ls Command

This Unix command shows all the files and folders at your current location. The blue text just before the dollar sign indicates the current location or directory in the command-line interface. Here the current location is the Desktop.

2. Clear Command

The command used to clear the screen is “clear”. It doesn’t delete anything written on the screen but makes the current line look like the first line.

The below picture shows the before and after images while using the clear command.

3. Mkdir Command

This Unix command makes a new directory at your current location. In the below image, we are at the Desktop and using the mkdir command to create a directory named “newdir” there. The directory is typically displayed in blue color.

4. Rmdir Command

The command used to remove a directory is “rmdir”. In the below image, you can see that in the second line, the newdir is present, but after we executed the rmdir command, it deleted the newdir folder.

5. Cat Command

Cat command is used to read the data written on any file. You can use the command to append data to a file and overwrite its contents as well. We have seen that we have a file names chúng tôi in the desktop location. Let’s use the cat command to display the contents of the file.

6. Vi Command

Vi command is the most useful command used to fetch the data written on any file on the terminal and let us make the changes simultaneously. Regardless of the size and type of the file, we can edit those using the Vi command if they have text written on it. Here we will add extra data in the chúng tôi file.

7. Rm Command

The rm command is used to delete the files at your current location. In our case, we are at the Desktop with the chúng tôi file; Now, we will try to delete that file using the rm command. The second line shows chúng tôi present there, but after running the rm command, that file has been removed.

8. Mv Command

The mv command can be used for two purposes, for renaming and for moving files or folders. Here we will rename the chúng tôi file to newpage.html. Please note that if you try to move the file to the same folder, it will rename it; if you try to move it to another directory, it will get moved there.

9. Su Command

Su command is used when we need to switch the user. In the picture below, we can observe that the current user is Vishal. Once the “su” command is used to log in as the root user, the username will indeed change. The red text on the left side of the dollar sign displays the username.

10. Chmod Command

We use the chmod command to change the permissions of a file. Here we have the chúng tôi file. The file has read and run permission to the owner, the group, and others. We will use the chmod command to give all permission to everyone.

11. Sudo Command

Only the root user has the authorization to execute certain commands. Here we will be executing a command that could lead to making some changes in the system, and hence it couldn’t be executed with other users. We have to use the Sudo command to make it work.

Tips and Tricks to Use Unix Commands

Despite the limited number of commands, they can be utilized with multiple arguments to accomplish complex tasks. For instance, you can use the ls command to check the available files and directories at your current location. Additionally, using the -an argument with ls can reveal all the hidden files at the same location.

Every command has some arguments allocated to it that could be used with those particular commands. To check which arguments are for any specific command, you can use –help the argument. In the below image, we will see all the arguments that could be used with the chmod command. The keywords or arguments must be followed by — while writing in the command line.

Conclusion – Unix Commands

Unix is an operating system popular for its command-line interface. It comprises numerous commands that facilitate users’ interaction with the hardware. The command in Unix is the mean of communication while working through the terminal. In addition to CLI, it also offers a graphical user interface that adds more beauty to the pre-existing features of Unix.

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Guide To Mysql Date_Add() With Example

Introduction to MySQL DATE_ADD()

DATE_ADD() function, as the name clearly states, it is a function that helps to alter the date and time in MySQL. This function updates and returns the date_time value per the arguments explicitly provided within the brackets. You can use most of the intervals available in MySQL to define the DATE_ADD() function. The function lets us add not just positive values but also negative values. The result can be a date_time value or a string per the provided arguments. You can use a dynamic function to update the date.

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To use the DATE_ADD function, you need to provide both the date that will be modified and the interval argument. So the syntax will be like:

DATE_ADD (date_time, INTERVAL value AddUnit);


The ‘date_time’ represents the value or date and time that needs to be updated. You can define the interval within single quotes (“) or use a dynamic value like NOW().

The ‘value’ represents the quantity of minutes, days, hours, or years that you will add to the ‘date_time’. It means the time you want to add to the specified date and time.

The type of unit to be added is ‘AddUnit’. This specifies whether to add hours, minutes, seconds, days, or years. We can define a combination of units as well. Some examples of this are as follows:

















Note that the value returned will either be a date and time or a string based on the above three arguments.

We can look into some examples to understand the working of the DATE_ADD() function.

How does DATE_ADD() function work in MySQL?

The working function is straightforward.

DATE_ADD (date_time, INTERVAL value AddUnit);

From this syntax, the function adds an interval of ‘value’ ‘AddUnits’ to ‘date_time’ and returns the updated date_time. Just keep in mind the date_time field is to follow the 24-hour clock. The keyword INTERVAL is mandatory in every statement.

Code #1

Let’s first see a dynamic value in the date_time field.


The function NOW() will return the current date and time in YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM: SS format. The output of this query will add 10 days to the current date_time.


Code #2

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL 10 SECOND) as date_time;

So, We will update the date to 10 AM on 10th January 2023. We will add 10 seconds.


The output has come as 10 AM 10 seconds, of 10th January 2023.

Code #3

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL 10 HOUR) as date_time;

So, the date to be updated here is 10 AM on 10th January 2023. We will add 10 hours.


The query says to add 10 hours to the date_time provided. So from 10 AM, 10 hours is added, making it the 8 PM same date.

We saw adding time frames to the date_time value. Let’s add a number of days to the same and check.

Code #4

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10', INTERVAL 10 DAY) as date_time;

So, the date to be updated here is 10 AM on 10th January 2023. We will add an interval of 10 days.


Adding ten days to the date_time will result at 10 AM on 20th January 2023—Cross-check with the calendar to confirm.

Code #5

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL 10 WEEK) as date_time;

So, the date to be updated here is 10 AM on 10th January 2023. The interval to be added is ten weeks.

Here, the interval added is ten weeks. So the date will be shifted 10 weeks before 10th Jan 2023. Thus the expected output will be 20th March 2023—Cross-check with the calendar to confirm.

Code #6

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL 10 YEAR) as date_time;

So, We will update the date to 10 AM on 10th January 2023. We will add an interval of 10 years.


When ten years are added to the 10th of January 2023, the expected result is 10 AM on the 10th of January 2030. We have added time and day units to the date_time field. Now let’s try adding a combination of these values.

Code #7

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL '10:10' YEAR_MONTH) as date_time;

So, the date to be updated here is 10 AM on 10th January 2023. The interval to be added is a combination of years and months. Ten years and ten months are to be added to the date_time value.


Adding ten years and ten months to 10th January 2023 will return 10th November 2030. The time will remain untouched in this query.

Code #8

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL '1:10' HOUR_MINUTE) as date_time;

So, We will update the date to 10 AM on 10th January 2023. You must add 1 hour and 10 minutes to the date_time value.


Let’s try adding negative values to this function.

Code #9

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL -10 HOUR) as date_time;

The query is to subtract 10 hours from the date_time provided. In this date_time value, the date will remain unchanged, and the expected output will be 12 AM on the same date.


Code #10

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL -10 DAY) as date_time;

So, 10 days are to be subtracted from 10th January 2023. And the time field is to remain untouched.


Moving 10 days backward in the calendar from 10th January 2023 will return 31st December 2023, and the time is to remain untouched.

Code #11

SELECT DATE_ADD('2023-01-10 10:00:00', INTERVAL '-60:-60' MINUTE_SECOND) as date_time;

The query directs us to subtract 60 minutes and 60 seconds from 10 AM on 10th January 2023.


By moving 60 minutes and 60 seconds backward to 10 AM, the expected result is 8:59 AM of the same day.

Advantage Conclusion

We are now familiar with the DATE_ADD function. The function will add a specified unit of time or days to the date and time value provided in the statement. You can add both positive and negative values to the date_time field. This function supports most of the units in MySQL. The query is straightforward to amend any date and time field and return the result.

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Working Of Timeit() Method With Example

Introduction to Python Timeit

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Working of timeit() Method with Example

This basic function is provided by the timeit library of Python for calculating the execution time of small Python code snippets. To calculate the accurate time of execution of the program by running the timeit method one million of time which is the default value.

The timeit module provides many different functions and the most important functions are timeit() which is for calculating the time of execution of program, repeat() function can be used with timeit() to call this timeit() function the number of times in the repeat is specified, and default_timer() this function is used to return the default time of the execution of the program.

Let us demonstrate these functions in the below examples along with syntax:

Timeit(): This is a very important and useful function provided by the timeitmodule to calculate the execution of a given python code. This timeit() function can be executed even in the command-line interface.

Let us see the syntax and example in the below section:


timeit.timeit(stmt, setup, timer, number)


stmt: This parameter is to measure the statement which you want and the default value is “pass”.

setup: This parameter is used to set the code that must be run before the stmt parameter and this also has a default value as “pass” and this parameter is mostly used for importing other code modules that are required for this code.

timer: This parameter is timeit object and it has its default value.

number: This parameter is used to specify the number which is used to mention how many executions you wish to run the stmt parameter. The default value of this parameter is 1 million (1000000).

The return value of this function timeit.timit() is in seconds which returns the value it took to execute the code snippets in seconds value.

Now we will see a simple example that uses timeit() function. The timeit() function uses parameter stmt which is used to specify the code snippets which we want to calculate the time of execution of the given code snippets in stmt. In this article, we can have stmt in a single line using single quotes or multiple lines using semicolon or triple quotes.

Example of Python Timeit

Below is an example of Python Timeit:


import timeit setup_arg = "import math" print("Program to demonstrate the timeit() function for single and multiline code") print("n") print("The single line code in stmt parameter is ") stmt1 = 'result = 9 * 6' print(stmt1) print("n") print("The multiple code statement using semicolons is given as follows:") stmt2 = 'p = 9;q = 6; product = p*q' print(stmt2) print("n") print("The multiple code statement using triple quotes is given as follows:") stmt3 = ''' def area_circle(): r = 3 res = chúng tôi * r * r ''' print(stmt3) print("n") print("The time taken to execute the above code statement 1 which uses semicolon is:") print(timeit.timeit(stmt1, number = 1000000), 'seconds') print("n") print("The time taken to execute the above code statement 2 which uses semicolon is:") print(timeit.timeit(stmt2, number = 1000000), 'seconds') print("n") print("The time taken to execute the above code statement 3 which uses trile quotes is:") print(timeit.timeit(setup= setup_arg, stmt = stmt3, number = 1000000), 'seconds') print("n")

In the above program, we saw how we used setup, stmt, and number arguments along with the statements which have one or more than one line of code in it. To write more than one line of code we have used a semicolon in stmt2 and we can also use triple quotes for writing multiple lines and we have written it in stmt3. Therefore the import statement required for stmt3 is assigned to the setup parameter of the timeit() function as this is used to execute the stmt value of the function and then it returns the time of the execution of statements after running number = 1000000 times.

In Python, timeitmodule provides timeit() function for calculating the execution time. Before using this function we should note some points we cannot use this function everywhere that means this is used only for small code snippets. It is better to use some other functions instead because timeit() function calculates the execution of code in seconds but what if the code is taking a few minutes to execute then this function will not be recommended. As we discussed above the time module used for calculating the execution of the program is not recommendable because it will also take some background time which may not give accurate time. This timeit() function has both command line interface as well as callable function.


In this article, we conclude that timeit module in Python provides timeit() function. This function is used for calculating the execution time of the given code statements. In this article, we saw a basic example and also we saw how the statements can be written using semicolons or triple quotes for single line statements and multiple lines of the program statements. We also saw examples for writing examples with timeit() function arguments such as setup, stmt, and number. This timeit() function is very useful than the time module as this will help to calculate the performance of the code easily and quickly. This timeit() function must be used only for the small code snippets as this is not much recommendable for lengthy code snippets as it returns the time in seconds.

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Constructors And Methods With Example In Jeditorpane

Introduction to JEditorPane

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In order to have this behavior, this component uses the implementations of the EditorKit. The beauty is that it automatically adjusts to the proper kind of text editor for whichever kind of content it is provided. The EditorKit which is currently installed is used to determine the content that the editor is bound to at any given time. For example, if the content of a component is set to a new URL, then its type is used to determine the EditorKit that should be preinstalled to load the content.


public class JEditorPane extends JTextComponent

By Default this class is preconfigured to the following three types of content:

text/plain: Plain Text, which is the default type when the content is not recognized. The kit used over here is an extension of DefaultEditorKit that will produce a wrapped plain text view.

text/HTML: HTML Text. The kit used over here is class javax.swing.text.html.HTMLEditorkit which will provide support till HTML (ver. 3.2).

text/RTF: RTF Text. The kit used over here is class javax.swing.text.rtf.RTFEditorkit which will provide limited support Rich Text Format.

Constructors of JEditorPane

Below are the constructors of JEditorPane:

JEditorPane( ): This type of constructor will simply create a new JEditorPane.

JEditorPane(String URL): This type of constructor will create a JEditorPane based on the string in the parameter containing the URL specifications.

JEditorPane(URL initial page): This constructor will create the JEditorPane based on the specified URL in the input parameter.

JEditorPane( String type, String text ): This constructor will create a JEditorPane that has been initialized to the text given within the parameter.

Some Useful Methods of JEditoPane Class

void setText(String text): This method will set the text of the component with the specified text given in the input, which is expected to be in the same content type as of the editor.

Void getText( ): This method will return the text of the component within the specified content type of the editor.

Void setPage(URL page): This method will trigger the JEditorPane to show the specified URL as the current page.

Void setContentType(String type): This method is used to set the type of content that the editor can handle.

Example of JEditorPane Class

Below are the examples of JEditorPane:

Here in this example, we will create a web page reader using JEditorPane in java. We can’t also consider it as a web browser since JEditorPane can only use to show HTML content and it cant show any CSS or any other styling content but still some webpages with there HTML content can be accessed via the example as well as we also open any HTML file which saved on the local PC.

Over here in order to build a web page viewer, we will first create an editor pane to show the HTML content then create a JTextfield which will be used to fill the URL and a JButton which is used to search the URL on the web. Add an action to the button and hyperlink listener which can be used for any hyperlink on the HTML page. In the end, add all the components to the panel and the panel to the frameset the size of the frame and also make the webpage as read-only so that no changes can be made using the setEditable method as False.

import java.awt.BorderLayout; import java.awt.event.ActionEvent; import java.awt.event.ActionListener; import; import javax.swing.JEditorPane; import javax.swing.JFrame; import javax.swing.JOptionPane; import javax.swing.JPanel; import javax.swing.JScrollPane; import javax.swing.JTextField; import; import javax.swing.JButton; import javax.swing.event.HyperlinkEvent;// Provides information on events triggered import javax.swing.event.HyperlinkListener;// Monitors user activity with links public class JEditorPaneExample extends JFrame implements HyperlinkListener, ActionListener { public static void main(String[] args) { } String defaultURL; JPanel panel = new JPanel(); JTextField theURL = new JTextField(25); JButton search = new JButton("Search"); JEditorPane htmlPage; public JEditorPaneExample(String defaultURL) { JFrame frame = new JFrame("Java Browser"); frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); this.defaultURL = defaultURL; search.addActionListener(this); theURL.setText(defaultURL); panel.add(theURL); panel.add(search); frame.add(panel, BorderLayout.NORTH); try { htmlPage = new JEditorPane(defaultURL); htmlPage.addHyperlinkListener(this); htmlPage.setEditable(false); JScrollPane scroller = new JScrollPane(htmlPage); frame.add(scroller, BorderLayout.CENTER); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } frame.setSize(1200, 800); frame.setVisible(true); } public void hyperlinkUpdate(HyperlinkEvent e) { if (e.getEventType() == HyperlinkEvent.EventType.ACTIVATED) { try { htmlPage.setPage(e.getURL()); theURL.setText(e.getURL().toExternalForm()); } catch (IOException e1) { e1.printStackTrace(); } } } public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { String pageURL = ""; if (e.getSource() == search) { pageURL = theURL.getText(); } else { pageURL = defaultURL; JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(JEditorPaneExample.this, "Please Enter a Web Address", "Error", JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE); } try { htmlPage.setPage(new URL(pageURL)); theURL.setText(pageURL); } catch (MalformedURLException e2) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(JEditorPaneExample.this, JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE); } catch (IOException e1) { e1.printStackTrace(); } } }



JEditorPane class can be used to display normal HTML, Rich Text Format Content or Plain text with a bit of styling. The JEditorPane class provides an edge over JTextPanes for providing text component as the JEditorPane class provides you constructors to initialize the editor pane form a URL whereas JTextPane doesn’t have such contractors.

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Basic Understanding Of Time Series Modelling With Auto Arimax

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


Data Science associates with a huge variety of problems in our daily life. One major problem we see every day include examining a situation over time. Time series forecast is extensively used in various scenarios like sales, weather, prices, etc…, where the underlying values of concern are a range of data points estimated over a period of time. This article strives to provide the essential structure of some of the algorithms for solving these classes of problems. We will explore various methods for time series forecasts. We all would have heard about ARIMA models used in modern time series forecasts. In this article, we will thoroughly go through an understanding of ARIMA and how the Auto ARIMAX model can be used on a stock market dataset to forecast results.

Understanding ARIMA and Auto ARIMAX

Traditionally, everyone uses ARIMA when it comes to time series prediction. It stands for ‘Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average’, a set of models that defines a given time series based on its initial values, lags, and lagged forecast errors, so that equation is used to forecast forecasted values.

We have ‘non-seasonal time series that manifests patterns and is not a stochastic white noise that can be molded with ARIMA models.

An ARIMA model is delineated by three terms: p, d, q where,

p is a particular order of the AR term

q is a specific order of the MA term

d is the number of differences wanted to make the time series stationary

If a time series has seasonal patterns, then you require to add seasonal terms, and it converts to SARIMA, which stands for ‘Seasonal ARIMA’.

The ‘Auto Regressive’ in ARIMA indicates a linear regression model that employs its lags as predictors. Linear regression models work best if the predictors are not correlated and remain independent of each other. We want to make them stationary, and the standard approach is to differentiate them. This means subtracting the initial value from the current value. Concerning how complex the series gets, more than one difference may be required.

Hence, the value of d is the merest number of differences necessitated to address the series stationary. In case we already have a stationary time series, we proceed with d as zero.

”Auto Regressive” (AR) term is indicated by ”p”. This relates to the number of lags of Y to be adopted as predictors. ”Moving Average” (MA) term is associated with “q”. This relates to the number of lagged prediction errors that should conform to the ARIMA Model.

An Auto-Regressive (AR only) model has Yt that depends exclusively on its lags. Such, Yt is a function of the ‘lags of Yt’.

Furthermore, a Moving Average (MA only) model has Yt that depends particularly on the lagged forecast errors.

The time series differencing in an ARIMA model is differenced at least once to make sure it is stationary and we combine the AR and MA terms. Hence, The equation becomes:

We have continued operating through the method of manually fitting various models and determining which one is best. Therefore, we transpire to automate this process. It uses the data and fits several models in a different order before associating the characteristics. Nevertheless, the processing rate increases considerably when we seek to fit the complicated models. This is how we move for Auto-ARIMA models.

Implementation of Auto ARIMAX:

We will now look at a model called ‘auto-arima’, which is an auto_arima module from the pmdarima package. We can use pip install to install our module.

!pip install pmdarima

The dataset applied is stock market data of the Nifty-50 index of NSE (National Stock Exchange) India across the last twenty years. The well-known VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) is the target variable to foretell. VWAP is a trading benchmark used by tradesmen that supply the average price the stock has traded during the day, based on volume and price.

df.set_index(“Date”, drop=False, inplace=True) df.head()

df.VWAP.plot(figsize=(14, 7))

Almost all time series problems will ought external characteristics or internal feature engineering to improve the model.

We add some essential features like lag values of available numeric features widely accepted for time series problems. Considering we need to foretell the stock price for a day, we cannot use the feature values of the same day since they will be unavailable at actual inference time. We require to use statistics like the mean, the standard deviation of their lagged values. The three sets of lagged values are used, one previous day, one looking back seven days and another looking back 30 days as a proxy for last week and last month metrics.

During boosting models, it is very beneficial to attach DateTime features like an hour, day, month, as appropriate to implement the model knowledge about the time element in the data. For time sequence models, it is not explicitly expected to pass this information, but we could do so, and we will discuss in this article so that all models are analysed on the exact identical set of features.

The data is split in both train and test along with its features.

train: We have  26th May 2008 to 31st December 2023 data.

valid: We have  1st January 2023 to 31st December 2023 data.

The most suitable ARIMA model is ARIMA(2, 0, 1) which holds the lowest AIC.


In this article, we explored details regarding ARIMA and understood how auto ARIMAX was applied to a time series dataset. We implemented the model and got a score of about 147.086 as RMSE and 104.019 as MAE as the final result.


About Me: I am a Research Student interested in the field of Deep Learning and Natural Language Processing and currently pursuing post-graduation in Artificial Intelligence.

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Show Your Social Savvy With These Advanced Snapchat Tricks

1. Upload any photo

When Snapchat first appeared in 2011, it only let you share images that you captured through the app. Today, it’s added the option to send any picture stored on your phone. This lets you dig up and share older memories.

To post a saved photo or video, open the camera screen and tap the small circle under the main shutter button. This will open the app’s Memories section. Swipe to reach the Camera Roll tab, then select a photo or video and tap Edit & Send. You can add the usual Snapchat edits before sending the finished product straight to your friends or posting it to your Story.

And that’s not all that the Memories feature can do. It also lets you save all of the Snaps you’ve sent (but not those you’ve received) for future browsing and reposting. From the camera screen, tap the ghost icon on the top left and then hit the cog icon on the top right. Choose Memories to configure how it will save your Snaps to your phone in the future.

2. Combine Bitmoji with augmented reality

One of the best Snapchat add-ons, also available as a separate app, is Bitmoji (free for Android and iOS). It gives you a customizable cartoon avatar within the world of Snapchat and unlocks a whole new set of stickers to put on top of your Snaps. For example, you can share your little Bitmoji stand-in waking up, heading to bed, giving your friend a birthday cake, and so on.

To create and customize a Bitmoji, open the camera screen and tap the ghost icon on the top left, then choose the Create Bitmoji option. If you haven’t already installed the app, Snapchat will prompt you to download it. Once you do, you can set the appearance of your Bitmoji character, from hair color and style to the type of footwear (you can also change this later).

3. Map your friends

The recently introduced Snap Map lets you see where your friends are on—as the name would suggest—a map. It even indicates whether they’re on the move, based on the GPS signal reported by their phone. When you access this feature, you’ll see your friends represented by a blob or their Bitmoji. A car appears around this symbol if Snapchat detects that they’re moving fast, and an airplane does the same if they’re currently at an airport.

To find the Map, open the camera window screen and pinch in with two fingers on the spot where you normally take your Snaps. Then app will take you through a quick setup process. If you’d prefer not to share your location, you can opt out: Tap the cog icon on the top right, and you can enable Ghost Mode, where you get to see your friends’ locations but they can’t see yours. From the same screen, you can share your location with just a few friends rather than all of them.

Snapchat will only make your location accessible to people with whom you’ve already connected. However, if you’re still uncomfortable with the Map feature, you can avoid using it entirely: Just don’t complete the setup process in the first place.

4. Apply multiple filters

Snapchat isn’t the most intuitive app out there, so it may take some time to recognize and learn to use some of its features. The option to add multiple filters to a photo is a good example. Adding a single filter to a Snapchat photo is easy enough—you just capture an image and then swipe to the left or right on the screen. Here’s how you one-up yourself by adding another filter on top of it.

Once you’ve applied your first filter, tap and hold on the screen with one finger, then keep swiping with another. (Only certain kinds of filters can work together: You can apply one color cast and one text overlay, for example, but not two text overlays.) After that, you can drop on extra text, scribbles, and stickers as usual.

Speaking of filters, Snapchat now lets you make your own geofilters for $6 and up: You get to create a custom design to celebrate an event at a set location, such as a wedding or a party. From the camera screen, tap the ghost on the top left and then the cog on the top right. Next, pick On-Demand Geofilters to start designing. You can choose from a number of templates and review the final image before pushing it live.

5. Chat like you would on a messenger app

Snapchat has grown way beyond its original boundaries to include much more than disappearing photos and videos. You can send instant messages, make audio and video calls, and even send pre-recorded clips to your contacts. In fact, Snapchat includes as many features as a lot of the other messaging apps on your phone.

The video and audio call buttons appear on the same screen as the text messaging options. Tap either icon to start a live call, or tap and hold either icon to record and send a message. Again, these pre-recorded messages will disappear as soon as they’re heard, unless you tap and hold on them.

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