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Android 4.4 KitKat and Nexus 5 appear in photos in Italy

This week someone all the way over in Italy appears to have gotten their hands on a Nexus 5 running no less than Android 4.4 KitKat. This build seems to be final or certainly near-final with a collection of features we’ve either only heard rumors of or have never seen before. Working with build KRS92B and Kernel 3.4.0, this Nexus 5 appears to be nearly ready for showtime – and not all that unlike the Moto X.

Here we’re finding the likes of white icons in the notifications bar, first of all – this is distinctly different from the blue or cyan look of Android 4.3 Jelly Bean. NFC appears to be playing a much larger part in this equation as “Pay with just a tap” appears in the main settings collection. As shown by Tutto Android, this will likely tie in with Google Wallet, allowing the feature to come out as a much more prominent element in the LG-made Nexus 5 than in past Android devices.

Location mode appears to be separated into three categories – Device sensors, Battery saving, and High accuracy. With High accuracy, the user will have GPS, Wi-fi, and mobile networks working to grab location data. With Battery saving, just Wi-fi and mobile networks will be used. With Device sensors, just the GPS sensor will be used – much easier to understand than the series of checkmarks in previous iterations of Android.

The color scheme appears to be the biggest change in this iteration of the Android operating system. You’ll find slightly flatter icons, a new “modern” set of wallpaper images, and a slightly different configuration for the lockscreen. With the lock in the same location as previous iterations of Android, you’ll also find the Google Now circle is slightly more apparent, and that slight black-to-transparent gradients exist at the top and bottom of the display.

This iteration of Android nearly does away with the top black bar generally apparent in previous versions of Android – the same is true about the on-screen buttons black bar which now fades into the background. Once you’re at a general homescreen you’ll also see that – at first launch – the Nexus 5 may very well only be showing a camera, apps drawer, and phone icon (the phone icon notably updated from Jelly Bean 4.3).

The Boot animation appears to be the same as shown in the Google Play editions of the HTC One and Samsung Galaxy S 4 with swirling, interlacing circles of color. You’ll also find an updated collection of access points for Google Now. Pulling in from the left at your left-most homescreen brings Google Now up the same as you’d have gotten to “quick access settings” in a Motorola RAZR HD device last year. You can also apparently say “OK Google” from the homescreen with an “always listening” mode just like Moto X.

Have a peek at the archive of other recent revelations in the Android 4.4 KitKat universe over the past few weeks and expect a full launch sooner than later! The Nexus 5 and Android 4.4 KitKat environment are just around the corner!

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Android 4.4 Kitkat Official – Here’s What You Need To Know

Project Svelte

First and foremost, Android 4.4 KitKat will offer something that its predecessors did not bring to the table, and that’s support for older devices that were left running dated Android versions.

In other words, Project Svelte is joining Project Butter:



Besides improving the overall Android experience available in Jelly Bean, Google has added some interesting new features to KitKat, which users may certainly appreciate.

Always-on Google Now and Google Search

Smarter calling

In KitKat, the phone app will automatically prioritize contacts based on the people you talk to the most and will let you search for “nearby places and businesses, your contacts, or people in your Google Apps domain.”

The caller ID is also smarter, as it will try to match a call from a phone number that’s not saved in your contacts with business and add a Google Maps listing for them.

Hangouts and the default SMS app

You already know by now that Hangouts has received SMS integration, but users won’t be forced to use Hangouts as their default SMS application.

The concept of default SMS application comes with Android 4.4 KitKat, something Google revealed not so long ago.

A new NFC

NFC has also been tweaked in KitKat, as Google is not yet ready to give up on its NFC vision. Even though it encountered some stiff resistance and/or competition from carriers, Google is ready to move past their needs by letting developers offer NFC features to interested buyers without requiring access to the secure element on SIM cards, which is controlled by mobile operators.

KitKat uses Host Card Emulation (HCE) to offer NFC “payments, loyalty programs, card access, transit passes and other custom transactions,” without actually requiring a secure element present.


KitKat and the TV

KitKat brings a variety of tools that should help with entertainment-related chores:

Resolution switching through adaptive playback will let apps seamlessly change resolution during video playback

Support for Common Encryption (CENC) – “a standard, multiplatform DRM scheme for managing protective content.”

Audio Tunneling to DSP – audio decoding and output is moved to a digital signal processor (DSP) in order to conserve battery power in such cases when the screen is not turned on but music is playing.

Audio monitoring – apps get new tools that let them “monitor any currently playing audio on the device”

Loudness enhancer – media apps can increase the loudness of spoken content

Wi-Fi Certified Miracast

System-wide settings for closed captioning

Music and movie seeking from lock screen – by long pressing the play button, you’ll be able to move to a certain part of a song or video directly from the lock screen

More Bluetooth profiles

After finally rolling out Bluetooth 4.0 LE support with Android 4.3 Jelly Bean, Google seems determined to take Bluetooth support one step further by letting Android apps interact with more Bluetooth-enabled devices.

KitKat will offer support for more Bluetooth profiles including Bluetooth HID over GATT (“gives apps a low-latency with low-power peripheral devices such as mice, joysticks and keyboards”), Bluetooth MAP (“exchange messages with a nearby device”) and an extension to Bluetooth AVRCP 1.3 (which will let users “set absolute volume on the system from their Bluetooth devices”).

Screen recorder

A new screen recorder app will let users record videos of the apps they’re using in order to create “walkthroughs, tutorial, marketing videos and more.”

Step Detector and Step Counter

Security features

Security has also been enhanced in Android 4.4, as app sandboxes “have been hardened with Security-Enhanced Linux,” and support has been added for two more cryptographic algorithms.

Wrap up

Get Android 4.4 Kitkat Update On At&T Optimus G With Slimkat Rom

Forget LG, forget AT&T and forget their update releases, if any; here is your Android 4.4 KitKat update for your precious AT&T Optimus G, model no. E970 — all ready for download and manual installation.

It looks like LG has already stopped its update program for AT&T Optimus G now, with Android 4.1.2 being the last OTA, which itself arrived darn late in early April when Android 4.3 was already released by Google.

This Android 4.4 update has been made possible by some cool work of developers who used Google’s Android 4.4 source code to build the ROM for AT&T Optimus G. So, this looks and runs exactly like what Android 4.4 is on Nexus 5, as made by Google, but trimmed down for even faster performances by the SlimKat team.

So, get the original Android 4.4 KitKat OS update now, stock Android if you may, void of LG’s ugly customization and stinky features that slow the device down in vain.

This will definitely run smoother than anything you installed before as Android 4.4 is known for running better on even low-end devices, and LG Optimus G is one very good spec’ed device.

So, let’s go on and install the Android 4.4 on LG Optimus G right away.


ext storage isn’t supported, yet.

Let’s see how to install the custom Android 4.4 KitKat update on your AT&T Optimus G.


Warranty may be void of your device if you follow the procedures given on this page.

You only are responsible for your device. We won’t be liable if any damage occurs to your device and/or its components.


Do not use the procedures discussed here on any other Optimus G variant or any other device of LG or any other company. You have been warned!


You must do this pre-installation stuff before attempting to install the ROM on your AT&T Optimus G E970 in order to avoid any complications later, and have a smooth and successful process.


Back up important data and stuff before you start playing around here as there are chances you might lose your apps and app-data (app settings, game progress, etc.), and in rare case, files on the internal memory, too.

For help on Backup and Restore, check out our exclusive page on that linked right below.



If your android device powers off due to lack of battery while the process is in progress, it could damage the device.

So, make sure your device is adequately charged — at least 50% battery of the device.


If you haven’t used a custom recovery, either CWM or TWRP, before, to install a .zip file of a ROM on anything else, then we suggest you first watch a video of that, given right below, to get familiar with the process.



Download the files given below and transfer them to a separate folder on your phone and remember the location.

File name: (160.44 MB)

File name: 


83.9 MB)


File name: chúng tôi (8.8 MB)

Reminder: Before you proceed, make sure you’ve transferred the files you downloaded above to a separate folder on your Optimus G phone.


Make sure you have backed up your phone adequately (including important data stored on internal memory).


You have to be on Android 4.1.2 official update for this. If you don’t have that, use LGNPST to install Android 4.1.2 first.

And, you need to have a CWM recovery or TWRP recovery, so that you can flash this TWRP recovery, file name: Download link is above. Flash this from recovery to install it.

Now reboot your phone after installing the TWRP recovery from step 2.

Boot into recovery mode. For this: Hold Volume Up & Power until fastboot screen appears, then press Volume Down twice, then press Power to boot recovery.

Power off your device and wait for 5-10 seconds until the device is fully switched off.

Press and hold  Volume Up + Power buttons together until you see FASTBOOT screen.

└ In Recovery mode, use Volume buttons to navigate Up and Down between options and use Power button to select an option.

Perform a wipe data/factory reset (this will delete all apps and their settings and game progress). Tap on Wipe » then at the bottom of the screen do a Swipe on the ‘Swipe to factory reset’ option (screenshot)

(You can also select System check box but that’s optional. (Maybe you can try wiping System next time if it doesn’t work out this time. Or just do this time so no doubts remain. Your choice!))

First Install the ROM file (

└ Make sure to first flash the ROM file and then the Gapps file.

Wipe Cache and Dalvik cache, again. Tap on Wipe » Advanced Wipe » then select these check boxes: Wipe, and Dalvik. Now, swipe left to right at the bottom to do wipe cache and dalvik cache.

Now, reboot your device. For this:

Go back to the main menu of recovery and tap on Reboot » then, tap on System to reboot your phone.

That’s all. You have successfully flashed SlimKat ROM on your AT&T Optimus G E970. Enjoy!

Feedback Us!

It was easy to install Android 4.4 KitKat, right? Let us know how it tastes to you.

Your suggestions and queries, if any, are most welcomed!

Via XDA (pcexpress)

Students Involved In Alleged Hazing Appear In Court

Students Involved in Alleged Hazing Appear in Court Variety of dispositions for Alpha Epsilon Pi brothers

One brother of Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity pleaded not guilty to assault and battery, hazing, and failure to report hazing yesterday in Brighton District Court in connection with an alleged incident at the unrecognized fraternity in April. A half dozen other BU brothers had various charges continued or resolved.

Judge Patricia Bernstein set an August 20 pretrial hearing for Jesse Kay (SMG’14). Assault and battery is punishable by up to two-and-half years in prison, while hazing carries up to a year in jail and a $3,000 fine. Kay’s lawyer said the 20-year-old “has no prior involvement in anything involving criminal activity,” and he would seek to have the charges dismissed. Kay was released on his own recognizance.

The incident began after a complaint about a rowdy party at 24 Ashford St., Allston, brought Boston police to the address, where they found five AEPi pledges in the basement, stripped to their underwear, bound together with duct tape, and covered in food condiments.

Kay and another man facing the same charges, Spencer Davidson (CGS’10, SHA’12), who was arraigned June 20, are charged with ordering the five pledges to strip, allegedly tightening their bonds, pouring hot chili sauce on them that left welts on their skin, and ordering them to drink fish oil.

Three others—Jonathan Toobi (SHA’12), Lawrence Rosenblum (CGS’12), and Alexander Nisenzon (SMG’12)—face charges of failure to report hazing, and Rosenblum also is charged with keeping a disorderly home. Bernstein set arraignment dates for the three: Toobi on September 12, Rosenblum on September 20, and Nisenzon on August 27. Suffolk County Assistant District Attorney Luke Goldworm said those students had a “more limited role” in the alleged hazing, having been found upstairs rather than in the basement with the pledges.

The charges against two more men were decriminalized to civil infractions. Justin Michael Katz (CAS’12), who had been charged with failure to report hazing, proved that he was out at a convenience store during the alleged hazing, Goldworm said. The judge fined him $200 in court costs. Robert Rappa (SMG’12) told the pledges to come to the house for the alleged hazing, but was not involved in it, according to Goldworm. He was ordered to pay $400 in court costs and do 40 hours of community service.

A seventh person, facing failure-to-report charges, Kyle Shevrin (COM’12), is to be arraigned August 27. Another, Michael Sanieoff (CGS’12), was arraigned last month on a charge of keeping a disorderly house and is due back in court July 5.

The University does not recognize AEPi, whose national organization yanked membership from the chapter April 10 following the alleged incident.

Earlier this year, Dean of Students Kenneth Elmore (SED’87) suspended until 2013 Sigma Delta Tau sorority for a drunken hazing that sent two female students to the hospital. AEPi brothers participated in that incident as well.

The AEPi and SDT cases were the first reported hazings at BU in more than a decade and followed a winter meeting with Greek life leaders where Elmore stressed the imperative of avoiding hazing.

Unification Of Italy And Europe


In the 1800s, people in Europe were motivated to strive for more democratic forms of government by nationalism and Enlightenment ideas. In Latin America and the Caribbean, it inspired a rebellion against European control and the drive for independence. When Germany and Italy allied, this was accurate. At the start of the 1800s, neither country was present. They were split up into various smaller states that fought for independence on occasion but also occasionally cooperated. However, the majority of people in these states were united by a common language, culture, history, and religion, all of which fuelled nationalist emotions.

Background of the Unification of Italy

The Italian Peninsula was split up into various city-states after the Western Roman Empire fell in 476 AD. Despite having been momentarily united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the Eastern Roman Empire fell back into disarray after the invasion in the 500s.

Beginning in the eighth century, the Holy Roman Empire ruled the northern half of Italy, while the middle and southern halves of the country were alternately ruled by the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily, and the Papal States.

Italy under Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte started a series of wars toward the end of the French Revolution that would alter the political climate of Europe for years to come. The Italian city-states were subjugated by Napoleon, who unified their administration.

The Italian people would absorb many revolutionary principles, like liberty, equality, and fraternity, while they were a part of the French Empire. Above all, encouraging citizens’ active participation in governance was a novelty in the Italian states for centuries. Napoleon’s empire, which he built even encouraging nationalism, had fuelled revolutionary ambitions.

After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, Italy would be partitioned once more, this time between the major European powers, with the Empire of Austria holding the most sway over the city-states. But by this point, the Italian people had grown weary of foreign occupation and would launch several uprisings to force the foreigners out and unify their nation.

The Unification of Italy Begins

The drive for unification grew during the 1820s and 1830s, eventually reaching its zenith in 1848 when uprisings broke out in numerous Italian states. The revolutions would be put down, but little was done to stop the wave of revolutionary activity. During this time, Giuseppe Garibaldi would come to represent Italian unification.

Revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi was forced into exile after the 1848 uprising, in which he had taken part, failed. He would return to Italy in 1860 and help King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, bringing with him a volunteer army from Sicily and Naples.

Victor Emanuel joined forces with France in 1858 with other northern Italian governments to put a stop to Austrian influence in the area. The 1860 uprising was successful because Garibaldi and his redshirt army took control of Sicily and Naples.

In the meantime, Piedmont-Sardinia had united with the northern nations, and they had crowned Victor Emmanuel II as their King. Garibaldi gave him Sicily and Naples, and by 1861, Italy had been proclaimed a kingdom. Only Venice and Rome would continue to be governed by foreigners, they were annexed by Italy. Thus, Italy’s unification was complete.

The aftermath of the Unification

Even though the reunification took place, the Kingdom of Piedmont ended up under complete dominance. During the early years of the government, the Piedmont ruling class predominated despite pledges that regional authorities would participate equally.

The Italian people desired a unified Italy with strong states and a meagre central authority. They received a powerful central government instead, with the states having little to no influence.

The old Piedmont constitution was the new one. The document was viewed favourably by liberal groups because it was typically liberal. However, pro-clergy groups in Venice, Rome, Naples, and Sicily took exception to this.

Civil conflicts that were violently suppressed were waged in Sicily and Naples during the first ten years of the Kingdom of Italy. Long-term consequences included a system that was heavily politicised and dependent on a violent regional conflict between mutual enemies. They still exist in the twenty-first century.


A political and socioeconomic movement known as Italian Unification brought the many states of the Italian peninsula together in the 19th century to form the Kingdom of Italy. The Congress of Vienna served as the detonator for the process, which started in 1815 and was finished in 1871 when Rome became the capital. The presence of other foreign countries, who were to blame for the state of affairs in Italy, encouraged Italians to work toward unification. The greatest way to sum up the situation in Italy following unification is Professor Serge Hughes’ remark that “Now that we have made Italy, we must make Italians.”


Q1. What was the unification of Italy called?

Ans. The sociopolitical movement of the 19th century that brought the many states of the Italian Peninsula together to form the Kingdom of Italy was known as the unification of Italy. The Risorgimento and Resurgence are other names for it.

Q2. How long did it take Italy to unite?

Ans. Italian unification took eleven years, the most significant of which was the 1859–1860 annexation of the majority of Italy by Piedmont–Sardinia. Trento and Trieste, two minor Italian-speaking regions, weren’t united with Italy until 1919.

Q3. Who was chronologically the first to begin Italian unification?

Ans. The Napoleonic Wars in the 1820s led to the emergence of organisations working to unite Italy. The Giuseppe Mazzini-founded Young Italy movement was the most significant. Due to the efforts of Piedmontese leaders, particularly Prime Minister Cavour and King Victor Emmanuel II, assisted by French Emperor Napoleon III, Italian unification was finally successfully achieved in 1860.

The Pixel 5 Is Google’s Smartest Phone Since The Nexus 5

When Google unveiled the Pixel 5 alongside the Pixel 4a 5G at its Launch Night In event on September 30, I was perplexed. On paper and in pictures, the $699 Pixel 5 made little sense compared to the $499 Pixel 4a 5G, not to mention the Pixel 4 XL.  I struggled to understand why Google made a smaller phone with very similar specs for more money.

Michael Simon/IDG

A hole-punch camera helps Google keep the bezels nice and uniform on the Pixel 5.

I also get what Google is trying to do. Google is calling it “the ultimate 5G Google phone,” but its focus isn’t on gimmicky features like Motion Sense or Active Edge, or even niche camera tricks that show off Google’s AI prowess. Rather, the Pixel 5 is about taking the high-end Pixel experience and distilling it in a smart and stylish package that challenges the very definition of a flagship.

A design without compromises

Much like the Galaxy S20 and S20 FE, the Pixel 5 and 4a are extremely similar phones. Both have a small hole-punch camera in the upper left corner that looks a lot better than the Pixel 4’s giant forehead or the 3 XL’s notch.

The Pixel 5 has subtle enhancements that give it an almost luxurious feel. The aluminum back, Simply Sage color, and chrome power button all add a touch of luxury compared to the plastic 4a. It doesn’t quite feel as metallic as the original Pixel duo to the paint over the wireless-charging-friendly plastic, but it has a very nice texture. It’s downright Apple-like, a comparison I never thought I’d make for a Pixel phone. It’s like the iPhone 11 versus the Pro, or the XR versus the XS. 

Michael Simon/IDG

The camera bump is a lot less bumpy on the Pixel 5.

The Pixel 5 is also the first Android phone I’ve used that actually has uniform bezels around the screen. Google is using a flexible OLED to bend the display under itself and reduce the chin, a surprising and impressive bit of engineering for a phone that doesn’t cost a thousand bucks. While it seems like a small thing, once you turn it on for the first time, you won’t look at another Android phone the same way. Even the Galaxy Note 20 Ultra doesn’t have quite the same visual appeal after switching over from the Pixel 5.

Altogether, the $699 Pixel 5 is the first phone Google has made that actually feels like a premium device. At just $200 more than the Pixel 4a 5G, it’s a smart addition to the lineup.

The same but different

The Pixel 5 has the same Snapdragon 765G processor as the Pixel 4a 5G, but overall, the Pixel 5 feels like the faster phone. That’s because it has a bit more RAM (8GB vs 6GB) and a faster display (90Hz vs 60Hz), more seemingly small changes that make a big difference.

Michael Simon/IDG

The chrome power button brings a touch of class to the Pixel 5.

But what really gives the Pixel 5 its edge over other phones in its class (and higher, to be honest), as always, is its camera. The Pixel 5 has the same general dual-camera array as the Pixel 4 XL, though the secondary telephoto lens has been swapped out for an ultra-wide one. It’s something of a matter of preference, though I’d personally like both of them in the Pixel 6. But even with a different lens, the results aren’t categorically different from those of the Pixel 5 versus the 4XL. Photos take a touch longer to process due to the slower CPU, but for the most part, the experience is very similar to that of the previous Pixels.

Michael Simon/IDG

The back of the Pixel 5 isn’t quite metallic, but it has a nice texture.

The feature is Android

As expected, the Pixel 5 ships with Android 11 on board, and it feels very much like Google designed it strictly for the new Pixels. The gesture navigation feels better than ever with less bottom bezel, and the optimizations make the Pixel 5 feel like a phone with a much faster chip and much bigger battery. A new Extreme Battery Saver mode will help your Pixel last for up to two days by disabling features, throttling the processor, and limiting notifcations by prioritizing apps.

Michael Simon/IDG

The Pixel 5 dispenses of the ugly chin that previous Pixel phones had.

With the Pixel 5, Android is the premium feature. It reminds me of the last great Nexus phone, the Nexus 5. At the time it was the launch device for Android 4.4 KitKat, and it showcased the new design, improved performance, and Google now Launcher. It wasn’t flashy or over-the-top, but it got the job done. 

And so it is with the Pixel 5. I’ll get into the camera and performance in my full review, but on a high level, Google dispensed with the gimmicks and focused on the things that matter. We finally have a true alternative to the Galaxy S20 and iPhone 12 that leans on the things Google does best. It could lead to some truly impressive phones to come.

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