Trending December 2023 # 2023 Soc Showdown: Snapdragon 888 Vs Exynos 2100 Vs Kirin 9000 Vs Apple A14 # Suggested January 2024 # Top 18 Popular

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Apple A14 Bionic

HUAWEI Kirin 9000

Qualcomm Snapdragon 888

Samsung Exynos 2100

Exynos 2100 vs Snapdragon 888 vs Apple A14 Bionic vs Kirin 9000 specs

5nm chipsets: Snapdragon 888 vs Apple A14 vs Kirin 9000

Qualcomm is touting a 35% graphics performance improvement moving from the Snapdragon 865 to 888. In theory, this should keep the chipset’s gaming performance out ahead of the Exynos 2100 and Kirin 9000 this generation. However, as Samsung has closed the general performance this year, we won’t see another heated debate over its Exynos and Snapdragon Galaxy handsets variants.

Apple’s A14 Bionic offers the smallest generational graphics improvement, estimated to be in the region of 8% over last year’s A13 chip. However, Apple had a healthy lead anyway, so will remain competitive this generation. Regardless of which chipset powers your next phone, Android gaming performance is set for a major boost compared to 2023 smartphones.

Benchmark results

Robert Triggs / Android Authority

So how do these theoretical improvements shake out in the real world? To check the claims, we’ve grabbed a selection of smartphones powered by these new chips and run a selection of popular benchmarks.

We’ve tested Apple’s A14 and A13, Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 888 and 865 Plus, the Exynos 2100 and 990, as well as the Kirin 9000 and 900. So we can also track the generation to generation performance gains from each chipset vendor.

Traditional benchmarks confirm the broad rankings based on paper specifications. Apple’s A14 Bionic keeps its head out in front for single-core CPU performance, followed by the Cortex-X1 powered Snapdragon 888 and Exynos 2100. AnTuTu’s system performance score sees the Kirin 9000 climb the rankings, while 3DMark shows that HUAWEI’s chipset ends up further down the list for graphics performance. What’s particularly interesting is that fast Snapdragon 865 Plus smartphones from the previous generation, such as the ASUS Rog 3, remain very competitive with 2023 flagship smartphones.

For a closer look at system performance, we’ve broken out our in-house Speed Test GX benchmark. The results pretty much confirm the trend from the legacy benchmarks. There’s a marginal lead for Apple’s chip, followed by Qualcomm’s latest flagship, then Samsung, then HUAWEI.

In summary, the Snapdragon 888 hasn’t quite matched the lofty performance expectations touted by Qualcomm, but it’s not far off. It appears that the graphics performance improvements are somewhat muted over the previous generation Snapdragon 865 Plus, unless the title benefits from variable-rate shading. Even so, the Snapdragon 888 is the fastest chipset in the Android ecosystem and is just a smidgen behind the Apple A14 in our in-house benchmark.

Overall there’s a notable CPU performance boost to be had this generation, whether you’re picking a Snapdragon, Exynos, or Kirin powered smartphone. The battle hasn’t been this close in years.

Breaking down the other major trends

Performance is a small part of the mobile SoC landscape these days. High-end chipset features also power AI, photography, multimedia, networking, and other essential aspects of our smartphones.

Without a much deeper look at each system architecture, we can’t say a whole lot about AI performance based on the trillion operations per second (TOPS) metric that’s so often banded about. After all, what does each of those operations actually do? Even so, we can use the numbers provided to get a rough look at the landscape and how performance is improving this generation.

What to expect from 2023 mobile processors

Robert Triggs / Android Authority

5nm and 5G are the headline talking points for 2023 processors. Smaller more efficient 5nm processors lend themselves to some of the more notable performance gains we’ve seen in recent generations. Although gaming looks to be a big winner on paper, it appears that Android smartphones actually stand to benefit more from single-core CPU uplift. At the same time, denser chips pack in more AI, image processing, and networking features than ever before. All four of these SoCs will have you well covered for general performance and demanding apps.

If you’re buying a phone for the long term with an eye for 5G networking, all four chipsets have you covered for the eventual transition to Standalone 5G networks down the line. However, it’s worth mentioning that the Snapdragon X60 modem inside the Snapdragon 888 introduces 5G Voice-over-NR (VoNR) capabilities. It also has enhanced carrier aggregation across sub-6GHz and mmWave. So does the Exynos 2100, but you won’t find this tech with the Apple A14 Bionic’s Snapdragon X55 modem. Although again, many 5G capabilities will come down to individual handsets and not just the chipset.

Great phones can be built from all four chips. It comes down to in-house versus third-party handset development.

What matters most is the final smartphones. Apple and HUAWEI both benefit from the close relationship between their handset and chipset design teams. They can make the most of what their respective chipsets have to offer. So does Samsung to some extent, although it tends to aim for parity when mixing and matching chips within its Galaxy smartphone range. Qualcomm assists its partners, but can’t make them embrace every little trick the Snapdragon 888 has to offer. Smartphone implementations, therefore, remain wide open.

Thanks to these premium-tier chipsets, 2023 is poised to be another good year for smartphones. Especially for gamers and multi-media enthusiasts. The bigger unknown is whether these new SoCs and features will result in yet higher smartphone prices, or if the move to integrated components will lessen the overall bill. Analysis of the iPhone 12 points to a big cost hike moving from 7nm to 5nm, although Samsung has launched its most affordable Galaxy S21 series in years.

We’ll have to wait for a few more launches before we have a full overview of how 2023’s premium smartphone market will shape up.

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Bionic Battle: Huawei Kirin 990 Vs Apple A13 Bionic Chip

Bionic Battle: Huawei Kirin 990 Vs Apple A13 Bionic Chip Huawei’s Kirin 990

CPU & GPU: Kirin 990 is the first high-end mobile application processor powered with an efficient 5G modem in a chip style design that is going to power Huawei Mate 30 Pro series. Kirin 990 comes with a tri-cluster octa-core CPU. Huawei Kirin 990 is a second-generation 7nm EUV lithography powered with Mali-G76 MP16 (16 cores) GPU. Kirin Processor cores can support 2xCortex-A76 at 2.86GHz, 2xCortex-A76 at 2.34GHz, 4xCortex-A55 at 1.9GHz with 10.3 billion transistors.

AI Interface: Kirin 990 has got the most power-efficient AI with a wonderful image processing and video encoding power of up to 8K HDR at 30fps. Kirin 990 has got the first BM3D DSLR-level imaging and Dual Domain video noise reduction support. The Quad-core NPU made it all possible.

Benchmark Scores: As per the Antutu & Geekbench Benchmark Scores, Huawei Kirin 990 scored 3842 for single-core, and 11644 for multi-core. This is an early cut without hands-on experience on both the chipsets.

Apple A13 Bionic

A13 5G Support: Unlike Huawei Kirin 990, A13 Bionic is yet to introduce 5G support on their devices. Apple has plans to launch 5G network support from 2023. Huawei Mate 30 series is going to introduce 5G connectivity with Kirin 990.

AI Interface: Apple’s A13 Bionic is going to add two machine learning accelerators to its six CPU cores (2 performance cores and 4 efficiency cores). The chipset will now be able to perform six times faster matrix multiplication. A13 Bionic is equipped with octa-core Neural Engine to handle all the AI tasks.

Benchmark Scores: As per the Antutu & Geekbench Benchmark Scores, Apple’s A13 Bionic was able to manage 5,415 points in single-core and 11294 points in multi-core results on Geekbench. This gives A13 power to show a 12.5% improvement in the single-core results over the A12 and a 49.5% improvement over the SD855+.


Design Supplier Apple Hisillicon

Release Date 9/12/2023 9/10/2023 8/31/2023 9/6/2023

64-Bit Yes

Manufacturing Process 7nm TSMC 7nm TSMC 7nm TSMC 7nm TSMC EUV

Transistors 6.9 Billion 8.5 Billion 6.9 Billion 10.3 Billion

CPU CPU Cores 2+4 2+4 2+2+4 2+2+4

Performance CPU 2 Vortex CPUs (2.49 GHz) 2 Performance CPUs with 20% Faster and 30% Lower Power Cortex-A76 (2.6GHz) x 2 + Cortex-A76 (1.92GHz) x 2 Cortex-A76 (2.86GHz) x 2 + Cortex-A76 (2.36GHz) x 2

Efficiency CPU 4 Tempest CPUs 4 Efficiency CPUs With 20% Faster and 40% Low Power Cortex-A55 x 4 Cortex-A55 (1.96GHz) x 4

Max Clock (GHz) 2.49 N/A 2.6 2.86

GPU GPU Internally-Designed GPU Fastest GPU Ever For Smartphones Mali-G76 Mali-G76

GPU Cores 4 4 10 16

AI Accelerator AI Processor 8-Core Neural Engine 8-Core Neural Engine Dual NPU Triple NPU

5G 5G Modem No No No Balong 5000 Modem


RAM Frequency 2490 N/A 2133 2133

Max Bandwidth N/A N/A 34.1 34.1

Connection Antutu 3,63,580 Points (V7) N/A 4,97,179 point (v8) 4,62,098 points (v7)

ISP Apple-designed ISP Spectra 380 dual-core ISP ISP 5.0

Which One Is The Best?

As per the technical specifications, Kiri 990 wins the comparison though a regular user will not even recognize any difference while using both the chipsets. Maybe the one big caution for Apple is the lack of a 5G option which they are already working on.

No doubt, A13 is superior to A12 as it has improved a lot to work with iPhone 11, however in terms of technical specifications, it couldn’t beat Huawei Kirin 990.

Summing Up

Here we have reviewed and shared an unbiased comparison between two of the most powerful chipsets. Huawei Kirin 990 and Apple iPhone’s A13, both had improved massively from their previous version and got a tight competition to each other.

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About the author

Raj Soni

Agile Vs Scrum Vs Waterfall

Difference Between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall

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It allows complex software and product development to work on an iterative approach. Fixed iterations that exist for one or two weeks are carried out, and they are named sprints, allowing for shipping software on a regular accent. The following steps are decided at the end of each sprint. Waterfall methodology follows a chronological, linear procedure and is the most popular version of the SDLC in engineering and IT projects. Once each stage is completed, the development progresses toward the next step. In this process, it is not possible to achieve the movement of the previous stage, and the entire process must be restarted from the beginning. We will review and approve the requirements at every stage of the process.

Principles of Agile Manifesto

Customer satisfaction through continuous valuable software delivery

Fit-in requirement changes in the phase of development

Shooter delivery scale

Collaborations within business teams and developers daily

Deliver Greater support, trust, and higher autonomy to the team members.

Face-to-face communication significantly facilitates the transmission of information within a development team.

working software measures the progress of the project

Maintaining a constant pace provides sustainable development

The main focus is Technical excellence.

The teams should reproduce to be effectively regularly

Major Principles of the scrum manifesto

Empirical Process Control:  The three key concepts that form the foundation of Scrum are transparency, inspection, and adaptation.

Self-organization: This principle focuses on delivering significantly superior value when self-organized, providing better buy-in and an inventive and imaginative environment that contributes more to growth.

Collaboration: It expects articulation, awareness, and appropriation. Project management is a value-creation process, delivering more excellent value through teamwork and interactions.

Value-based Prioritization: This principle focuses on how Scrum helps to deliver maximum business value from the early stages of the project and continues all through.

Time-boxing: This describes the role of time in a scrum and manages time elements effectively. Time-boxed elements in Scrum include Daily Standup Meetings, Sprints, Sprint Review Meetings, and Sprint Planning Meetings.

Iterative Development: This principle defines iterative development as how changes can be managed better, and customer needs are satisfied with built products.

Advantages of the waterfall model

Easily manageable process

Every phase in the Waterfall has a start and endpoint, and it’s easy to share progress with stakeholders and customers.

It always expects a documented procedure

Head To Head Comparison Between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall(Infographics) Key Differences Between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall

Both Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the significant Difference Between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall

The Waterfall provides more confidence in what is going to be delivered very priorly itself. Agile works on the best practices of a development environment. Constant review of output in the project enables the handling of several risks effectively.

When using the waterfall methodology, the team members and project do not require being in the exact physical location. At the same time, agile and Scrum expect the co-location of workers.

Agile settles with a lesser rework of projects; also, changes should be picked up much earlier. Scrum also allows earlier identification of changes, whereas Waterfall doesn’t react similarly.

Agile and Scrum provide a smaller blueprint for the end product. This makes a pain point regarding the stated commitments to the customer. At the same time, the waterfall picture is a better image of the end product to the customers and developers.

All these methodologies have their tools for managing and modeling their development tasks.

Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall Comparison Table

Below is the topmost comparison between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall



The sequential and planned approach High possibility of changing the requirement An adaptive and iterative approach

Less responsive to change Continually responsive to change It involves a lot of change

Launch date and iterate never Set a launch date and iterate as necessary. Launch date and iterate often

A task is fixed, and time is variable A task is variable, and time is variable The time remains constant, even though tasks may vary.

Failure avoidance Fails small Fails small

Conclusion- Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall

Agile and Waterfall are very different end products. Almost all types of IT projects can apply the Waterfall methodology, while Agile and Scrum methodologies have restrictions based on the type of project they involve.

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This has been a guide to the top difference between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall. Here we also discuss the key differences between Agile vs Scrum vs Waterfall with infographics and a comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more.

Qled Vs. Oled Vs. Mini

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So many choices when it comes to television. It starts with the size and resolution, but there are competing backlight technologies to consider as well. So before you plunk down serious cash, make sure you’re getting the lighting style you want by understanding the differences in QLED vs. OLED vs. Mini-LED.

What is LED?

LED is an acronym for “light-emitting diode.” You likely interact with LED tech in some form multiple times per day, including the screen in your phone, light bulbs, and many other sources of illumination. LEDs are the small elements of a television screen that light up in order to produce an entire image on the screen. 

Basically, when an electrical signal runs through these cells, they emit light, and the television controls the electrical impulses in order to produce the image it wants to show. QLED, OLED, and Mini-LED are all variations of this basic technology, which was used in electronic devices as early as the 1960s and became popular in TV technology thanks to refinement and eventual adoption by Samsung in 2007. 

LED replaced CCFL (cold-cathode fluorescent lighting), which typically illuminated the screen from the edges. Some LED TVs use this edge-lit formation, others have moved on to more sophisticated setups. LED arrays with many points of light behind the screen now offer manufacturers more meticulous control over how each segment of the screen is lit. In some cases, like with OLED, the black areas of the screen can go completely dark to give the picture more contrast and dynamic range.

What is QLED TV?

QLED is a Samsung technology that builds on the typical LCD (liquid crystal display) television with LED backlighting. This is the same tech, many iterations over, which Samsung introduced in 2023. The Q in QLED stands for “Quantum Dot.” They are embedded directly into the stack of materials that make up the LCD display, such as in the flagship Samsung QN90A NEO QLED. When light hits them from the LED backlight, these dots emit their own light to enhance the image on-screen. The goal is to lessen one of the main weaknesses of LED technology, which is the “blooming” effect of brighter parts of an image slightly lighting the areas around the image, and color bleeding. 

While QLED offers some improvement over traditional LED, it doesn’t always mitigate this blooming and the contrasts between light and dark are not as stark as with some other technologies.

What about color?

When it comes to color, QLED is excellent. There is a tremendous amount of color variety available in QLED screens, with good color contrasts. QLED also tends to be cheaper at larger sizes than other backlighting techs, meaning that QLED is the best budget-conscious choice when it comes to a new higher-end TV. QLED also tends to result in screens that can reach a higher level of overall brightness, which may be desirable depending on your screen needs.

If you want to experience this type of screen, a strong budget 4K UHD option is Samsung’s 43-inch TU-8000 series from 2023. This Samsung QLED TV is a very cost-conscious choice that delivers 4K and is great for a dorm room, a child’s room, or as a second/third display. At only $379.99 MSRP, it’s about as cheap as you want to go. But if you’re looking to build a home theater set-up, or care about getting the best picture quality and options, this is not the television for you. QLED TVs can climb into the higher-end, and you can check out our recommendations for some of the best QLED TVs, but they face stiff competition from OLED and now Mini-LED.

What is OLED TV?

OLED is “organic” LED. An OLED consists of organic materials that produce similar effects when current runs through them. But OLED displays work fundamentally differently than typical LED-lit LCDs. 

LCD TVs rely on a backlight to shine through a stack of display materials to create an image. This puts them in a category called transmissive screens. OLEDs, however, are different. OLED screens consist of many tiny diodes that emit their own light, which lands them in a category called emissive displays. When an OLED display wants an area of the screen to show black, it simply turns off the pixels in that area, which creates much darker tones without concern for light bleeding through from brighter surrounding areas.

When it comes to color, OLED can have some lifespan issues. While red and green OLED pixels have a pretty long lifespan (over 45,000 hours), blue OLED pixels tend to have one-third of that lifespan. This means that long-term, an OLED display may have issues with color accuracy as the blues start to die off. Displays inside businesses experience this even more often than sets in homes. Of course, for the average home user, the 15,000-hour lifespan of a blue OLED pixel may never become an issue.

QLED vs. OLED: Other drawbacks

Sony’s flagship OLED TVs cost thousands of dollars for top-end features. Stan Horaczek

OLEDs are more expensive than QLEDs and are much more difficult to scale at size. The larger an OLED screen gets, the more you end up paying for the tech. OLED qualifies as a more “premium” technology and is featured in high-end products, such as the iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max. 

If you’re going to spring for an OLED TV, you might as well get one of the best OLED TVs available. The king of the current crop of OLEDs is Sony’s Bravia XR A90J Master Series, available in 55-inch, 65-inch, and 83-inch models and one of the best gaming TVs on the market. If you have a PS5 or Xbox Series S/X and can afford to throw down several thousand dollars on a new television, the Sony A90J will get the most out of those high-end consoles. The 55-inch has an MSRP of $2,799.99, 10 inches more will cost you $1,000 more, and the big boy, the 83-inch, runs $7,999.99 MSRP.

Another top-tier option among the best TVs for PS5, etc., is the LG C1, assuming your budget still starts in the multi-thousands. If that price tag turns you off, consider VIZIO’s OLED H1 televisions, available in 55-inch and 65-inch models, which are about almost half the price but don’t offer quite the level of picture. It’s an acceptable compromise for a picture quality that can still be considered stunning.

What is Mini-LED TV?

Mini-LED is similar to QLED, but the backlights get even smaller. These LEDs are so small they can be almost as small as a single pixel. QLEDs are significantly larger than one pixel, while OLEDs are the size of a single pixel. 

Mini-LED represents the halfway point between QLED and OLED, taking the older tech and trying to approximate what the newer tech can do. Mini-LED offers noticeably better than QLED or typical LCD and it may be hard to discern a difference between the contrast on Mini-LED and OLED, as the Mini-LED diodes can get almost to the pixel level. The deep blacks that OLED promises are essentially available with Mini-LED.

You won’t be able to get the same pixel-level control over black levels as you would with OLED, but some Mini-LED TVs promise up to 3,000 backlight zones. It’s likely this difference is barely noticeable to the average consumer. Mini-LED scales to cost at a more expensive clip than QLED, and is essentially the “premium” version of that same base technology, at least for now until it becomes more widespread.

Still accessible

Being the newest technology of the three, you’d think Mini-LED would have the highest price tag, but there’s actually an option that is a “best of both worlds” solution between price and quality. TCL’s 6-series Mini-LED televisions (available in 55-inch, 65-inch, 75-inch, and, at some point, 85-inch variants) offer image quality that far surpasses the expectations for their price. The 55-inch 4K R635 slides in at just under $1,000 MSRP but has all the features even high-end users would look for. While it’s not the best television on the market overall, it may be the best television on the market dollar-for-dollar.

Expect to see some large variations in Mini-LED prices here at the beginning of its run in the TV world as companies try to nail down the sweet spot between price and performance when it comes to determining the number and type of backlight zones.

What does this mean for streaming, movies, and gaming?

Backlight tech is just one of several things to consider when buying a TV. On the whole, OLED and Mini-LED TVs will produce attractive pictures, but there are some variables within the segments. 

Contrast is important for deep black and low levels of light bleed, giving images a much more sharp and film-like image. When it comes to movies, where light is very important to set moods, contrast is extremely important. When looking for the best TVs for gaming, certain genres (like horror games and games inspired by the “Dark Souls” series) really improve with great contrast, as you can get light and show without the “foggy” greys that you’d need to settle for on worse displays.

Brightness will matter depending on how much light pollution you have in your room. Mini-LED can produce a brighter picture than OLED, which comes into play if you get a lot of ambient light on your screen during the day. OLEDs really shine when you can control the environmental illumination. Anyone who buys a high-end screen wants rich colors in everything they watch, but to truly get rich colors you need media with rich colors. OLED excels in this arena, but Mini-LED has made the contest surprisingly close already. 

QLED vs. OLED: What kind of TV technology should I buy?

For now, OLED and Mini-LED are premium technologies that will deliver the kind of images you want with a high-end system. OLED promises slightly better contrast, with the drawback of a possibly shorter lifespan. Mini-LED sits just below in terms of performance, but the technology itself is a little more reliable. In effect, they are both good choices. If you’re looking to get value, I’d recommend the TCL 6-series. If money is no object, go with the A90J Sony OLED.

But before you simply take those recommendations, it’s really going to come down to see for yourself. Even if you plan to buy online, you should visit some stores and look at OLED and Mini-LED displays to determine which one looks better to your eye. Don’t be afraid to ask at the store to fire up some different demos on the screen, so you can get a sense of what different media looks like. While I stand by the suggestions above, a price drop or sale could make the difference, as could an aesthetic that you enjoy more in your room when the television is turned off. Don’t be afraid to sleep on a decision like this, especially if you’re going to shell out a grand or more for the higher-end models.

Keep in mind that TV prices tend to fluctuate a bit more widely than a lot of other electronics, with the best deals coming around Black Friday in late November. Another great time to pick up a television is late January and early February, when the upcoming Super Bowl, combined with stores starting to try to open up shelf space for new models that get released in June.

The future is soon

A new iteration of Mini-LED, called Micro LED, is available on some ultra-high-end models. Micro LED miniaturizes LED technology even further. Micro LED is considered by many to be even better than OLED, but it comes with a price tag that reflects that assessment, with televisions whose MSRPs start to match those of low-end cars.

Ms. Vs. Mrs. Vs. Miss

The words Ms., Mrs., and Miss are all titles used to address women formally (e.g., at the start of an email). Which one you should use depends on the age and marital status of the woman, as well as on her own preference about how she should be addressed.

Ms. (pronounced [miz]) is a neutral option that doesn’t indicate any particular marital status. It’s most commonly used for older unmarried women and for women whose marital status you don’t know, but you can use it for any adult woman.

Mrs. (pronounced [miss-iz]) is used to address a married woman of any age.

Miss (pronounced [miss]) is used to address a young unmarried woman or girl.

Examples: Ms. in a sentence Examples: Mrs. in a sentence Examples: Miss in a sentence

Ms. Nielsen is a talented pianist. I hope she’ll play for us at the party. I’ve known Mr. and Mrs. Jayna for a few years. Excuse me, miss. Is this your backpack?

Have you met Ms. Sofi before? Mrs. Thompson is an entrepreneur; she started her own business last year. I always get too much homework from Miss Jonas.

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Miss vs. Ms.

People sometimes mistake Ms. for an abbreviation of Miss, since other titles are conventionally abbreviated in writing (e.g., Mrs., Mr., Dr.). In fact, they’re two different terms with different pronunciations, and Miss has no abbreviation but is always written in full.

Since both titles can refer to unmarried women, it can be difficult to decide which is the right choice. Always follow the preference of the woman being addressed, but if you’re not sure of her preference, the following general guidelines may help:

Miss is the form always used for girls—Ms. is only used for adult women (18 or older).

Miss is a common title for unmarried women up to roughly the age of 30.

Ms. is generally used for unmarried women past the age of 30. It’s also a safe option for women of any age whom you are unsure how to address.

Ms. can also be used (instead of Mrs.) for a married woman. Miss cannot be used in this way.

How to use Ms.

Ms. is a title invented in the 20th century to refer to a woman whose marital status is unknown to the speaker. It was embraced by the feminist movement as a way of referring to a woman without defining her by her marital status (equivalent to the masculine “Mr.”). As such, it’s often used even when the woman is known to be married.

Ms. is written with a period because it’s based on Mrs., but unlike that word, it’s not actually an abbreviation of anything. When you say it out loud, pronounce it [miz] (not [miss]); but you should never write it as “Miz.” Ms. is always capitalized. The plural is Mss. (pronounced [miz-iz]).

Examples: Ms.She’s married, but she prefers to be addressed as Ms. Laurie in a professional context.

I’d like to introduce you to Mss. Andrej and Elenora.

Dear Ms. Adeline, …

NoteMs. is neutral in terms of marital status: it doesn’t specify whether the woman is married or not. But it is not gender-neutral: it can only refer to women. If you’re looking for a gender-neutral title, Mx. can be used instead.

How to use Mrs.

Mrs. is a title used for a married woman. The more neutral title Ms. can be used instead for a woman whose marital status is unknown or irrelevant or who expresses a preference for this mode of address.

Mrs. is written with a period because it originated as an abbreviation of “mistress.” However, it’s now pronounced [miss-iz] and only written in this abbreviated form. It’s always capitalized. The plural is Mmes., short for the French “Mesdames.”

Examples: Mrs.Mrs. Hull says I would make a good mathematician.

I’d like to thank Mrs. Pavel for all her support during the renovations.

Dear Mmes. Smith and Amit, …

How to use Miss

Miss is a title used for an unmarried woman. It’s used mainly for young women and girls (roughly up to the age of 30); it can also be used for older unmarried women, but Ms. is more common in that context. Many young women also prefer Ms., so it can be safest to simply refer to any adult woman with Ms. instead.

Unlike other titles, Miss is written in full and cannot be abbreviated. It’s pronounced as it’s spelled: [miss]. It’s capitalized when it’s followed by a name, but it’s also used without a specific name, in which case it’s lowercase. The plural is Misses.

Examples: MissMiss Justina will show you to your office and explain the basics.

May I ask you a question, miss?

Misses Claudia and Jayendra arrived together.

Dear Miss Marijke, …

What does Mx. mean?

Mx. is a gender-neutral title invented more recently as a way of referring to someone without specifying their gender. Like the singular “they,” it’s used to refer to someone who doesn’t identify as either male or female, or to someone who simply doesn’t want to be identified by their gender.

Mx. is primarily used in writing; when said aloud, it can be pronounced [mux] or [mix]. It’s always capitalized. Like Ms., it’s not an abbreviation of anything in particular; it’s just formed to look like other titles of the same kind.

Examples: Mx.Mx. Lochan would like to speak next.

Dear Mx. Johnson, …

Punctuation with Ms., Mrs., Miss, and Mx.

Most common titles used before people’s names are written in abbreviated form. The way to write these abbreviations varies between US and UK English.


US English

, abbreviation is indicated with a period at the end: Mrs., Ms., Mx.


UK English

, no period is used with such abbreviations (e.g., “Dr Philips,” “Ms Jamison”). If you’re writing in UK English, write Mrs, Ms, and Mx with no period after them.

Miss is not an abbreviation; it’s always written out in full. Because of this, it has no period in either version of English.

Example: Titles in US and UK EnglishFrom left to right, you can see




McLachlan, Miss Becka,




Catrine, and





Other interesting language articles

If you want to know more about commonly confused words, definitions, and differences between US and UK spellings, make sure to check out some of our other language articles with explanations, examples, and quizzes.

Frequently asked questions Cite this Scribbr article

Caulfield, J. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

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Fifa 19 Vs Pes 2023

FIFA has grown into a well-oiled money-making franchise where PES has become second fiddle – at least in terms of sales. But are the two soccer sims really that different?

FIFA 19 review. 

FIFA 19 vs PES 2023: Platforms, price and availability

FIFA 19 is available for PS4, Xbox One and PC and costs £49.99 in the UK and $59.99 in the US.

There’s also a Nintendo Switch version, but it’s not the full-fat one due to the Switch’s hardware constraints.

PES 2023 has an RRP of £54.99/$59.99 but it’s available for less on  Amazon UK. You can get it for PS4 or Xbox One. Amazon US also stocks it here.


FIFA 19 vs PES 2023: Licensing

While they are similarly priced, FIFA 19 and PES 2023 are very different when it comes to licensing. Basically, FIFA wins this comparison.

EA Sports and FIFA have rights to practically every league in world football – this means team names, kits, stadia and player likenesses are all on FIFA 19. It’s branded well, just like the football you see on TV and at the matches.

Konami has less luck. It means that, for example you can’t play as Manchester United. On PES 2023, it’s Man Red. And you won’t have the official kits.

PES has Barcelona, Liverpool, Inter Milan and a few other teams licensed, but mostly it has to settle for unofficial kits and team names. Want to play an El Clasico? That’ll be Barcelona vs MD White. Yuck.

While you might not care, there’s no doubt that is more fun to have the real names, kits and players represented on FIFA 19.

This year PES has even lost its exclusive Champions League and Europa League branding rights. That’s a FIFA 19 exclusive now.

PES 2023 looks great (when it has the license to use real stadia like the Camp Nou)

FIFA 19 vs PES 2023: Gameplay

Licensing aside, there’s a fiercer debate to be had about which game has the better gameplay. This is of course subjective, and different people will go for different things. But this is what we think.

FIFA 19 is the more streamlined, accessible football game. It’s not easier per se, but it’s easier to get into and feel like you are improving, with a gentler learning curve.

There are intricate controls in there, but you don’t need to master them all in order to win difficult matches. FIFA 19 rewards silky stepovers and tactical flourishes, but it doesn’t demand you know them all during the first match.

By comparison PES 2023’s gameplay is truer to life – i.e., it’s a bit harder to master. The attention to detail is greater too, with passes in particular very polished. A player will play a different style of pass depending on the set up of the surrounding players and adds a surprising feeling of variety and lifelike feel to gameplay.

This isn’t to say FIFA 19 is unrealistic, it’s just a bit more box office. Players will often try to score overhead kicks from corners even when it’s not the best move. PES 2023 is a bit more grounded in realism.

FIFA 19 has improved passing too, though. Ground passes in particular are zippier, making the game feel faster than before. It’s a bit easier to dribble and make passes on FIFA, and with a bit of practice all players are actually quite good, no matter their player ratings.


On PES the gap between player ability is a bit greater and there’s also a more realistic feel to the ball. It doesn’t always do what you want depending on the player ability and weather, and adds a bit of realistic variety to the game.

The Master League in PES 2023 is decent, but it’s a bit too easy sometimes to get world class players for quite little money. It goes against PES’s usual default of being harder than FIFA.

And while PES 2023’s online modes are as good as ever, FIFA 19’s online community is larger and has broader appeal. FIFA’s live player updates mean you can play online with the real-life current first team of any team in the world. For many fans of the modern game, it’s a no brainer against the unlicensed realm of PES 2023 – even if the gameplay is less realistic.

FIFA 19 has added some great multiplayer options for offline play too. Modes like survival (lose a player every time you score) and house rules (no fouls, no offsides) inject a fresh feel into multiplayer where often it’s more boring than going online.

PES 2023

FIFA Ultimate Team is also not for everyone, but those who want to invest time (and money) into building a fantasy team and taking on the best in the world online have the option.

Finally, it might not be everyone’s cup of tea but FIFA 19 has The Journey for the third year in a row, it’s single player story mode. You flit between Alex Hunter, Kim Hunter and Danny Williams as you progress through careers, training sessions and important matches, complete with cut scenes. No such mode exits on PES 2023.


Unfortunately, PES 2023 can’t hide behind the few teams it has licensed and put on the box and throughout its menus – FIFA 19 is simply a more rounded experience.

PES 2023 offers more intricate and in some way more rewarding gameplay but FIFA 19 gives you a better representation of the modern game with all the glitz, glamour, kits and team names. This is often the main reason people buy FIFA, and it now even has Champions League rights.

FIFA 19 also has a bigger online community and better one player options, plus some excellent new offline multiplayer modes. PES 2023 is fun, and a great game, but if you have £50/$50 to spend on a football game, we recommend FIFA 19.

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