Trending December 2023 # 15 Best Free Php Frameworks # Suggested January 2024 # Top 17 Popular

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PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is one of the most popular web programming languages used by millions of websites. According to the W3Techs survey, PHP is used by 82% of the web servers. The reason why PHP is so popular is the highly interactive features, great HTML, and seamless database integration. Moreover, it also doesn’t warrant a steep learning curve which is a big deal for newbies. And just like other popular web languages, PHP also has some great features to make your development crazy fast, more productive and protects you from low-level error. Not just that, it also ensures your website has the much-needed safeguard against attacks like SQL injection and XSS attacks. So, if you are on the lookout for the top PHP framework to develop versatile web apps, these are the best free PHP frameworks in 2023.

Best Free PHP Frameworks

Recently, we lined up the best front-end frameworks for Bootstrap alternatives. Do check them out, if you need one. Keeping in mind the requirements of both the pros and newbies, we’ve picked out a variety of PHP frameworks designed to develop all kinds of web applications. They have been developed by well-known communities around the world and deliver a fast and intuitive experience. What’s more, these PHP frameworks also offer plenty of customization so that you can get the work done at your own pace. With that said, let’s get down to business!

1. Laravel

Simply put, Laravel is one of the most popular PHP frameworks used by developers today. Despite being comparatively new than many other rivals, (introduced in 2012), it has caught the attention of well-known developers. The latest version of Laravel comes with individual composer packages. It features good routing, easy authentication, migrations support, and Blade templating engine. Not to mention the intuitive syntax that makes Laravel a pretty helpful web application framework.

2. Symfony

Symfony is a flexible, scalable yet powerful PHP framework for MVC application. There are plenty of reusable PHP components that can be used such as security, templating, translation, validator, form config and more. Like Laravel, it’s also modularized with a composer. Its goal is to make your web application creation and maintenance faster with less repetitive coding. Overall, if flexibility and easy-to-use tools are what you are looking for, keep Symfony in mind.

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3. CodeIgniter

CodeIgniter is a free PHP framework by EllisLab. It has excellent documentation with a large user community. There are many features that will make you taste CodeIgniter for your projects such as no PHP version conflict, almost zero installation, easy error handling, reliable security, and straightforward encryption steps. Moreover, CodeIgniter also comes with feature-rich libraries and helpers that allow you to go about your task with the desired customization.

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4. CakePHP

For the folks who are on the lookout for a pretty simple PHP framework, CakePHP appears to be a fairly good choice. It supports version 4 and above and is quite easy to learn with fast and flexible templating. The integrated CRUD (create, read, update and delete) is a handy feature in CakePHP for your database interaction. Furthermore,  CakePHP also has various built-in features for security, email, session, cookie and request handling.

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5. Laminas Project

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6. Phalcon

Inspired by the fastest living bird Falcon, the Phalcon framework runs with great flair. And it’s undoubtedly the fastest PHP framework that I have come across. Not surprisingly, when benchmarked with other popular frameworks, it has the fastest time request and lowest memory usage according to Systems Architect and Phalcon crew tests. This happens because it was purely written with C/C++ for performance optimization purposes.

7. Slim

Slim is a lightweight micro-framework for PHP inspired by Sinatra, a Ruby framework. It has a tiny size without the overkill learning curve. It’s built with a strong routing system and focuses on RESTful API with all HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE). Thanks to the support for any PSR-7 HTTP message implementation, you can inspect and fine-tune the HTTP message method, status, URI, headers, cookies, and body without any hassle.

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8. Yii

YiiFramework is a modern PHP framework with a host of powerful features. Despite being so powerful, it’s pretty easy to handle and warrants less learning curve. Besides, it’s also highly extensible, allowing you to fully customize all the essential features in line with your needs. What’s more, Yii also has built-in integration with a great PHP testing framework, CodeCeption, to test your application easier and faster.

9. Fat-Free

Just YiiFramework, Fat-Free is also a robust yet easy-to-use PHP framework. Developed by Bong Cosca in 2009, it’s rated very highly by developers. Being just 50KB, it runs pretty smoothly. It was developed almost entirely in PHP with the multilingual application support and cache engine. That’s not all, it also has plentiful plugins for a large number of database backends like MySQL, MSSQL, SQLite, Sybase, DB2, MongoDB, CouchDB, PostgreSQL, and Flat File.

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10. Kohana

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11. FuelPHP

FuelPHP is a PHP framework that was written in PHP 5.3. So, ensure that you are running the PHP 5.3 or later. It uses a Cascading File System inspired by Kohana. Some of my favorite features of this PHP frame are the URL routing system, RESTful implementation, HMVC implementation, template parsing, form and data validation, ORM (Object Relational Mapper), vulnerability protection and caching system. Being community-driven, FuelPHP is also flexible, modular and extensible framework.

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12. Flight

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13. PHP-Mini

Just like its name, PHP Mini is a lightweight restful PHP framework suitable for the mini-projects and quick prototypes. It has a simple but clean code which is easy to understand. Besides, the inclusion of CRUD demo action makes database entries hassle-free. As the code is all written natively in PHP, so you don’t need to learn the additional framework.

14. Simple PHP Framework

This framework is a personal project (or project library collection) of Tyler Hall that he started since 2006. He has been dealing with hundreds of different projects and uses this library for the base of his projects. The framework can bootstrap your project with user authentication, database calls, RSS feeds, etc available on the code. Head over to GitHub to grab the source.

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15. Zikula

Zikula is a free open source PHP framework based on Symfony and Doctrine. It can be used for small, enterprise or even personal projects. Moreover, it is fully integrated with the popular Bootstrap 3 framework and Font Awesome 4 which offers the needed flexibility. Not just that, it has also got some really handy features including flexible theme system, WYSIWYG editors, ModuleStudio, document creator, galleries, and chat that allow you to get your work done with precision.

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15 Best Anime Cats (Ranked)

Cats are heart-stealers in real life and hold a special place in the hearts of anime fans as well. Even if you are not really a pet lover, chances are high that these feline creatures can instantly make you fall in love with their kawaii character, unique abilities, and personalities. There have been a lot of cat characters in many popular animes like Dragon Ball, One Piece, etc. These characters come in the form of supporting characters or even the main character, captivating anime fans worldwide. So today, we have compiled a list of the best anime cats and what makes them memorable.

Most Popular Anime Cats (2023)

Just kidding! All cats are good and unique in their own way, and there is no way to rank them. So, read on and learn about the 15 best feline characters in the anime world.

1. Korin – Dragon Ball

A fun fact about this anime cat is that the author Akira Toriyama used his own cat for Korin’s character design. He drew him when his cat was sleeping, and that’s the reason Korin’s eyes are always closed. It is such a cute little fact that brings soul to Korin’s character. He also served as a vital supporting character, training our warrior Goku from the beginning.

2. Luna and Artemis – Sailor Moon

3. Kyo Sohma – Fruits Basket

Kyo Sohma isn’t actually a cat, but he is a human cursed by the cat spirit in the Fruits Basket anime. This anime deals with fantasy themes and is based on Chinese zodiac signs. In the story, when a human of the opposite sex hugs the cursed human, they transform into their spirit animal. That is how Kyo gets transformed into an orange cat numerous times in the anime. In his human form, Kyo sure has some distinct characteristics (mainly his orange hair color) and the attributes of a cat.

Fruits Basket is a wonderful wholesome anime overflowing with beautiful emotions, but fair warning, it can break your heart instantly too. Don’t worry, though, as they patch the broken heart with wholesome moments back again. Kyo is a highly popular character in the fandom, and we can’t miss out on him in our list of best anime cats.

4. Doraemon – Doraemon

The only cat who has his name as the title of the anime show and has been ruling the hearts of millions of fans for years is Doraemon. Even though Doraemon is a kid’s anime, it gained massive popularity from the start. But even adults nowadays tend to rewatch this anime to feel the nostalgia. Furthermore, its popularity skyrocketed when it was dubbed and released in global regions like India, Bangladesh, etc. Thus, Doraemon is an irreplaceable legendary figure in the history of anime.

5. Nekomamushi – One Piece

Nekomamushi is running riots all over the raid on Onigashima in the recent episodes of One Piece. He is a feline-type character from the Minks race, much like Carrot, who is one of the best female characters in One Piece. Master Nekomamushi is widely known as the “Ruler of Night,” as he ruled over the Mokomo Dukedom at night. He is one of the Nine Red Scabbards, who are the retainers of the Kozuki family.

Nekomamushi is a giant yellow feline who mainly resembles a wild cat with the characteristics of a lion, especially in his face. He has sharp claws and teeth and laughs in a special tone. He’s one of the popular characters in One Piece right now, as he can be seen helping the Straw Hat Pirates in the important raid against Kaido and Big Mom. Nekomamushi is not a normal cat like some others on this list. He can talk and fight on a great level, making him the perfect example of a main supporting character.

6. Kuro – Blue Exorcist

The Ao no Exorcist anime series, popularly known as Blue Exorcist, deals with concepts like demons and exorcisms like Jujutsu Kaisen, so you can pretty much guess the type of cat we have here. In this anime, the cat named Kuro is a Cat Sídhe (cats possessed by demons). He is a black cat with a little bit of white on his chest and chocolate-esque brown accents on his face. Kuro also has two tails, unlike any other cat on our list, and that two tails design is considered sacred by the Japanese.

Kuro is a vibrant cat who is always seen with the lead Rin Okumura and likes to sleep on his back. As he is a Cat Sídhe, he can transform into a nekomata (giant Demon cat), which immensely boosts his strength and the powers he possesses. He is one of the most unique cat characters on our list.

7. Arthur – Code Geass

Arthur is a black stray cat who was adopted by the Third Princess Euphemia. Later, she was seen on the school grounds as she moved here. She is more of a comic relief character, as she can be seen carrying Lelouch’s mask, biting Suzaku randomly, and so on. Unlike many of the other cats on this list, he doesn’t have any power or magical abilities, he is just a cute Neko.

8. Kuroneko – Trigun

Trigun is one of the OG classic animes, which will forever live in the hearts of anime fans. Recently, it has received a massive overhaul in the form of a remake called Trigun Stampede. Now, coming to the topic at hand, Kuroneko is a black cat that randomly appears in almost every episode of the anime. She is called Kuroneko-sama, which literally means Mr. Black Cat, by the characters in the show.

Kuroneko is similar to Sakamoto in our list (read about them below), but he has a mouth. Although most of the time, he merely appears in the background, he played a major role in the plot at times, such as when he stopped Wolfwood from cheating in a game of chess.

9. Jiji, Lily, Baron, and Nekobasu – Ghibli Cats

Ghibli Studios’ projects have always been special when it comes to the art style, characters, and story. So, who would not love to learn about the best anime cats from one of the genius studios in Japan? Here are four cats from the Ghibli movies:

Jiji and Lily from Kiki’s Delivery Service: Jiji is the protagonist Kiki’s cat. He helps Kiki in her hard training to become a witch. He has a girlfriend as well, named Lily, who he meets in the anime. It was revealed later in the credits that they both had lots of kittens together.

Baron from Whisper of the Heart and The Cat Returns: Baron Humbert von Gikkingen, better known as “The Baron,” is the main character in both of these Ghibli movies. He is a cat but possesses the characteristics and attributes of a human, making him an anthropomorphic cat. He is a statue by day and comes to life at night.

Nekobasu from My Neighbour Totoro: Neko means Cat, and basu means Bus in Japanese slang. Thus, nekobasu together means “Cat Bus.” This gigantic cat was seen in the form of a bus helping Mei and Satsuki. The Cheshire Cat from Alice in Wonderland is said to be remarkably similar to this character.

10. Meowth – Pokémon

In fact, he is considered the only talking Pokemon who can speak to his owners in their own language. That’s what makes his character so unique. Further, if you didn’t already know, Meowth resembles the maneki-neko (a famous cat figurine in Japan). He’s the brain behind Team Rocket and has captivated fans all over the world.

11. Sakamoto – Nichijou

Nichijou (My Ordinary Life) is one of the most highly-rated slice-of-life anime and is celebrated by fans worldwide. And a black cat named Sakamoto appears in this anime. Due to his previous owner’s bad behavior, Sakamoto escaped and was found on the streets by Hakase (one of the main characters). Soon, he was adopted by Nano and Hakase and got his deserving home.

Sakamoto is said to be older than both of his current owners. Hakase made him a red scarf and tied it around his neck, which somehow gave him a superpower that enabled him to talk. He is another one of the best-talking anime cats on our list.

Sakamoto may look like an innocent and quiet kitty, but he is more than that. Since he can talk, he considers himself superior and acts like one around Hakase and Nano. He likes to be called “Sakamoto-san,” which further proves his superiority over others. But he can also be seen playing with toys like a normal cat, which he hides from his owners.

12. Chachamaru – Demon Slayer

Chachamru is well-trained to carry out his medical duties. It is a tricolored cat, and thus, it belongs to the calico cat family. We have seen Chachamru helping Tamayo and Tanjiro collect demon blood to help Nezuko turn into a human. There is not much information available about its family, past, or gender. But most calico cats are considered to be females, so there is a high chance that Chachamaru is a female cat.

13. Nyanko-sensei – Natsume’s Book of Friends

We all remember the terrifying Madara from the Uchiha clan in Naruto, but here is a cute cat named Madara (aka Nyanko-sensei) from the anime Natsume’s Book of Friends. As calm and peaceful as he looks, he is a strong white wolf youkai who can fly as well. He regularly takes the form of a maneki-neko. This youkai form can’t be seen by people who don’t have any spiritual energy. So in the eyes of many, he is a simple round cat.

Madara is a chonky kawaii anime cat that resembles the design of maneki-neko, and he is considered to bring good fortune. He is also scarily powerful in his original youkai form, having many powers such as flying, superhuman strength, and more. Currently, he is working as Natsume’s bodyguard in the hope of getting the Book of Friends back.

14. Chi Yamada – Chi’s Sweet Home

While the other anime on this list had cats as more of a supporting character, Chi’s Sweet Home breaks all the rules by keeping the cat as the lead protagonist. Chi Yamada is our beloved lead here, a stray kitten who lost her mom. But luckily, she got a new family as she was taken in by the Yamada family. The apartment where they lived had a strict “no pets allowed” rule, but the Yamada family still took her in, which shows how much they loved her.

15. Sorata – Sekaiichi Hatsukoi

Sekaiichi Hatsukoi (aka World’s Greatest First Love) is one of the best BL anime to release in the last decade. In the anime, there is a cute little double-colored cat known as Sorata. Sorata was abandoned by his family and left in an alley inside a small box. On a rainy day, our protagonist Masamune Takano rescued this poor little Nekowhile he was in high school and started raising him. Finally, this cute cat got the love he deserved and was full-grown in the next 10 years. He was also raised by Takafumi Yokozawa, Takano’s ex-lover.

Yokozowa offered Sorata to Hiyori Kirishima because she had long desired a cat, but as his workload increased, he had to do so. Sorata is currently having his finest life and has always been in good hands. In an anniversary interview, it was discovered that Sorata can read – just like the rest of us – and that non-fiction is his preferred genre.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is anime obsessed with cats?

Cats are often regarded as a lucky sign and known to bring good fortune in Japanese folklore. They are also thought to have some powers. Because of this, cats are highly valued in Japan and thus appear in many anime.

There are many animes in which the cat has the ability to fly, but the most popular cat among them is Happy from the famous anime Fairy Tail.

Who is the best cat in anime?

Every cat character we have seen in anime is lovely and distinctive in its own style, so it’s difficult to choose the best cat in anime. So, in the end, everything boils down to personal choice. But we can’t forget Doraemon, Kuro (Blue Exorcist), and Kyo (Fruits Basket), to name a few.

Greatest Cats in Anime Shows

15 Best Android Wear Games

The concept of smart wearables isn’t something entirely new. For a long time, fitness trackers and smartwatches like the old Sony Ericsson LiveView have existed, and have enjoyed a niche market share with gadget aficionados who just have to have the latest and greatest, no matter how weird (at least in looks) the product is. With Android Wear, for the first time, smartwatches became a proper product category of their own, with standardization in features and interface and appearances that made the devices look more watch and less science fiction gadgetry. The platform is consistently gaining more traction with Android users, and with that, the Google Play Store also keeps piling up with newer apps that will run on your Android Wear smartwatch.

1. 2048

2048 took the world by storm as soon as it was released, and the game enjoyed massive success across every platform that it was released. The premise is pretty straightforward – you get a set of numbered tiles that you keep merging to get consistently higher numbers, and the objective is to merge similar tiles to achieve the (almost unattainable) 2048 tile. While the concept is simple, this puzzler can keep you occupied for hours on end, and with the Android Wear variant of the game, you can waste those hours away on your wrist in a neat 4×4 grid with swipe gestures. No more boredom at work or school!

Compatibility: Android 4.1 and up

Availability: 2048 (Free) – Google Play Store

2. Rubik’s Cube for Android Wear

Rubik’s cube has been widely acclaimed as one of the most challenging mathematical/logical puzzles out there, and there are a number of games that emulate the experience across iPhone and Android alike. With this app, you get a Rubik’s cube to play with on your Android Wear smart watch. Naturally, the small screen here poses a challenge, which Rubik’s cube for Android Wear addresses by providing pinch to zoom and swiping gestures. On the plus side, this app installs the same version of the game on your connected Android smartphone as well, providing the best of both worlds if you’re into puzzles like this.

Compatibility: Android 2.3.3 and up

Availability: Rubik’s Cube for Android Wear (Free) – Google Play Store

3. Math it!

It makes sense that most of the games playable on a wrist-wearable should be of the puzzle genre, and that is why you’ll find most of the titles in Google Play Store of that nature. Math it! is a title that will come in handy if you want to pump your brain for action with some quick fire mathematical questions. The game displays a number of mathematical equations on your wrist along side a possible answer, and you need to indicate whether it’s correct or not. As you progress, not only does your score keep accumulating but the equations get harder, too. This app, too, installs a full game on your phone as well.

Compatibility: Android 4.1 and up

Availability: Math it! (Free) – Google Play Store

4. GALAXIA (Android Wear)

This arcade title is like a marriage between Space Invaders and Galaxian, right on your Android Wear smart watch. Galaxia offers wrist control for a space ship that will fight against hordes of aliens and asteroids alike. Graphics are neat, and there is even a retro mode for those who enjoy this sort of thing. The title costs merely a dollar, so it’s worth the investment if retro games are your thing for your Android Wear smart watch.

Compatibility: Android 4.3 and up

Availability: GALAXIA (Paid) – Google Play Store

5. Sookie Says for Wear

Sookie says is a memory game that you’ll play on your smart watch. The concept of the game is really simple, with challenging game play. You have four colored boxes on the screen that will blink in a pattern, and you have to remember and replicate that sequence by tapping on the same boxes. As you progress, the sequences become longer and longer, and the challenge harder. Good fun if you want to sharpen your memory.

Compatibility: Android 4.2 and up

Availability: Sookie Says for Wear (Free) – Google Play Store

6. Space War (Android Wear)

Space Wars is your classing vertical-scrolling shoot-em-up game for Android Wear. The game features stellar graphics (for Android Wear of course) and puts you in control of a space ship that you can control to hit and destroy incoming enemies, either through wrist movement or tap control. Decent title if you want more than casual gaming on your smart watch.

Compatibility: Android 4.3 and up

Availability: Space War (Paid) – Google Play Store

7. Ball Escape – Android Wear

A simple game with a simple objective – prevent the ball from escaping the screen. You start off with a randomly moving ball in the center of the screen, just like gas molecules, and it would try to go off one of the screen edges. Tap the edge before the ball strikes to create a barrier, pushing it in the opposite direction. The game gets frantically faster as you progress, and you’d love this title through and through no matter what kind of games you like.

Compatibility: Android 2.3.3 and up

Availability: Ball Escape – Android Wear (Paid) – Google Play Store

8. Wear Droid

The first Android Wear game in this list that features 3D graphics. Wear Droid tells the story of a professor who creates droids and leaves them for you test for durability. This obstacle course title features progressive gameplay where you can unlock different kinds of robots as you move forward. This is one of those titles that you will want to have on your smart watch just so you can show off.

Compatibility: Android 4.0.3 and up

Availability: Wear Droid (Paid) – Google Play Store

9. Repulsion

Repulsion is an addictive finger-runner for Android Wear that can be truly frustrating in its gameplay. The objective is to pick the object with either the plus or minus sign, and navigate it through a twisting and turning path whilst avoiding the opposite sign. If you think it sounds easy, think again; the small screen of your smart watch will make you go nuts with this title.

Compatibility: Android 4.4 and up

Availability: Repulsion – Android Wear (Free) – Google Play Store

10. Wear Shooter for Moto 360

Don’t judge this game by its title, literally. While it says it’s for the Moto 360, it works fine on just about any Android Wear device, although it gets a weird landscape rotation on square devices. This title is a first person shooter for smart watches which, in my personal opinion, is a must-have title for showing off what these smart devices are capable of. The gameplay is simple and straightforward, and you move around by rotating your wrist, making control all the more challenging. Since it’s a free title, I strongly urge you to give it a shot.

Compatibility: Android 2.3 and up

Availability: Wear Shooter for Moto 360 (Free) – Google Play Store

11. Bow Man Android Wear

A simple archery game for Android Wear which pits you against a computer opponent that you need to defeat to move to the next levels. The graphics are simple, and there’s nothing to write home about there. The gameplay is engaging, though, and will keep you playing as long as your smart watch’s battery lasts.

Compatibility: Android 4.0 and up

Availability: Bow Man Android Wear (Free) – Google Play Store

12. Swirl Attack – Android Wear

Remember those old arcade games that required catching stuff falling from the sky? Swirl Attack mimics that experience on your Android Wear smart watch, with touch based control of a 360-rotating circle that attracts balls of different colors, and you need to catch them at the right angle of the circle. If the description sounds confusing, the gameplay will puzzle you even further, because like similar games of the puzzle genre, this title, too, becomes progressively more difficult.

Compatibility: Android 2.3.3 and up

Availability: Swirl Attack – Android Wear (Paid) – Google Play Store

13. Flopsy Droid

OK, so who isn’t familiar with the frustrating, agonizing, and virally-popular Flappy Bird? This game is a knock off of the addictive title on your Android Wear, where you need to navigate a Google Droid through pipes. What makes Flopsy Droid even more frustrating than the actual Flappy Bird is the small screen that you have to play with, which makes judging the upcoming pipes more difficult. Take it for a spin, and be careful not to smash your smart watch’s screen in annoyance.

Compatibility: Android 4.3 and up

Availability: Flopsy Droid (Free) – Google Play Store

14. Save the Troops – Android Wear

Another “catch-em-all” genre game, where paratroopers are falling from the sky and you get to catch them in your boat before they fell in the river and meet their demise. Controls are both tap and orientation based, and if you like you use your smart watch for more futuristic outlook when gaming, motion-based control is a better choice for this title. This game also features in-app purchases to unlock content, and has pleasing graphics that are neither stellar nor really cartoonish. Since the title is free, it’s probably worth checking out for yourself.

Compatibility: Android 2.3 and up

Availability: Save The Troops – Android Wear (Free) – Google Play Store

15. Wear Rider

Wear Rider will satiate the speed buff inside you with its high-speed traffic-dodging gameplay. This game is basically an endless runner where you navigate a bike through traffic while avoiding collisions. Different stunts give you more score, and, as you’d have come to expect by now, the gameplay will become more and more difficult as you move forth. This free title works well on any Android Wear smart watch, and is worth trying out.

Compatibility: Android 4.4 and up

Availability: Wear Rider – Android Wear (Free) – Google Play Store

SEE ALSO: 20 Best Android Wear Apps

15 Best Linux Books (2023 Update)

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Linux is an operating system based on UNIX and was first introduced by Linus Torvalds. It is based on the Linux Kernel and can run on different hardware platforms manufactured by Intel, MIPS, HP, IBM, SPARC, and Motorola.

Best Linux Books

Book Title Author Name Latest Edition Publisher Ratings Link

Daniel J. Barrett 3rd edition O’Reilly Media

William Shotts 2nd edition No Starch Press

Jason Cannon 1st edition Independently Published

Richard Blum 3rd edition Wiley

Jason Cannon 1st edition Independently Published

Linux Pocket Guide is a book written by Daniel J. Barrett. It provides an organized learning path. It also helps you to gain mastery of the most useful and important commands. This is an ideal reference book for both novice or who wants to get up to speed on Linux or experienced users.

This book features new commands for processing image files and audio files, reading and modifying the system clipboard, and manipulating PDF files.

The Linux Command Line is a book written by William Shotts. The author takes you from your very first terminal keystrokes to writing full programs using a Linux shell or command line.

In this book, you will also learn file navigation, environment configuration, pattern matching with regular expressions, etc. Apart from practical knowledge, the book also reveals the basic concept of every topic.

Linux for Beginners is a book written by Jason Cannon. The best part of this book is that you don’t need any prior knowledge of Linux OS. You will be guided using step by step logical and systematic approach.

This learning material also covers new concepts or jargon are encountered. The best thing about this tutorial book is that every detail are covered in this book in an easy to understand language and its basic concepts.

Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is a reference book written by Richard Blum. The book includes detailed instructions and abundant examples.

To use this book, you will learn how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate with your computer. This Linux book thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features.

It starts with command line fundamentals. The book gives information about shell scripting and shows you the practical application of commands for automatic, frequently performed functions.

Command Line Kung Fu is a book written by Jason Cannon. The book also includes packed with dozens of tips and over 100 practical, real-world examples. The examples given in this book help you to solve actual problems and accomplish worthwhile goals.

The book has a comprehensive index is included. So even if you want to find every example where a given command is used -even if it is not the main subject.

Linux Administration is a book written by Jason Cannon. This Linux learning material includes topics like Ubuntu Linux, Debian, Linux Mint, RedHat Linux, Fedora, SUSE Linux, Kali Linux, and more.

By the end of this Linux book, you will fully understand the most important and fundamental concepts of Linux server administration. Moreover, you will be able to put those concepts to use in various real-world situations.

The Complete Reference is a book written by Richard Petersen. The book includes various Linux features, tools, and utilities from this thoroughly updated and comprehensive resource.

This Linux book also covers use the desktops and shells, manage applications, deploy servers, and handle system and network admin tasks.

The book includes various details on the very different and popular Ubuntu and Red Hat/Fedora software installation. The book also teaches you tools used by different distributions.

How Linux Works, is a book written by Brian Ward. The book teaches you the concepts behind Linux internals. It is ideal reference material for anyone curious to know about the operating system’s inner workings.

You will also learn how development tools work and how to write effective shell scripts. In this book, you will also explore the kernel and examine key system tasks like system calls, input and output, and file systems.

This book covers more than seventy new interfaces, including POSIX asynchronous I/O, spin locks, barriers, and POSIX semaphores, etc. The book offers several chapter-length case studies, each reflecting contemporary environments.

Linux Kernel Development is a book written by Robert Love. The book gives details about the design and implementation of the Linux kernel. The writer is presenting the content in a manner that is beneficial to those writing and developing kernel code.

It is also an ideal book for programmers seeking to understand the Linux OS better. The book offers features of the Linux kernel, which includes its design, implementation, and interfaces.

This Linux book reveals the software design secrets of the original Unix designers. It also shows how they produce software that is fast, portable, reusable, modular, and long-lived.

The book covers topics like Basic of Unix Philosophy, Unix history, OS comparisons, Best practices, Finding notation that sings, etc. The book also includes 12 case studies to know the use of Linux in real-life applications.

Linux, in a Nutshell, is a book written by Stephen Figgins. The book includes programming tools, system and network administration tools, the shell, editors, etc.

This book focuses on Linux system essentials, as well as more coverage of new capabilities such as virtualization, revision control with git. It also includes an option for using the vast number of Linux commands.

The Linux Programming Interface is a book written by Michael Kerrisk. In this book, the author provides detailed descriptions of the system calls and library functions that you need to learn Linux programming, etc.

This book covers the wealth of Linux-specific features, including epoll, notify, and the /proc file system. The book emphasis on UNIX standards (POSIX.1-2001/SUSv3 and POSIX.1-2008/SUSv4). At the same time, this Linux book is also equally valuable to programmers working on other UNIX platforms.

Linux System programming is a book written by Robert Love. The book provides learning material on Linux system programming, a reference manual on Linux system calls. The book is an ideal guide to learn about writing smarter, faster code.

The book helps you to distinguish between POSIX standard functions and special services offered only by Linux. The book also includes a chapter on multithreading. This best linux books for beginners provides an in-depth look at Linux from both a theoretical and applied perspective.

Linux Administration is a book written by Wale Soyinka. The book teaches you how you can effectively set up and manage any version of Linux on individual servers or using this practical resource.

It is one of the best Linux books that offers clear explanations, step-by-step instructions, and real-world examples.

You will also learn how to configure hardware and software, work from the GUI or command line, maintain Internet and network services. This book included Software management and backup solutions.

FAQ: 🏅 What is Linux?

LINUX is an operating system or a kernel distributed under an open-source license. Its functionality list is quite like UNIX. The kernel is a program at the heart of the Linux operating system that takes care of fundamental stuff, like letting hardware communicate with software.

📚 Which are the Best Linux Books?

Following are some of the Best Linux Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers:

🚀 What are the basic requirements to learn Linux?

Nothing! This book list is designed for beginners to expert-level linux professionals.

15 Best Watchos 8 Tips And Tricks

watchOS 8 doesn’t make any radical changes to how the Apple Watch works. That’s a good thing. You don’t fix what’s not broken, right? But Apple’s latest update to watchOS still offers a handful of exciting features that you shouldn’t miss out on.

If you just upgraded to watchOS 8 or bought yourself a new Apple Watch, the tips and tricks below will help ramp up your user experience.

Table of Contents

1. Add Portraits as Watch Faces

With watchOS 8, you get to create amazing-looking watch faces with portrait photos. Your Apple Watch intelligently uses image depth data to make the digital clock float above and beyond the subject and even lets you zoom in using the Digital Crown.

To set up a portrait as a watch face, open the Watch app on your iPhone and tap Portraits under Face Gallery. You can then pick up to 24 portraits (which you can cycle through by tapping the screen later on), select a style (Classic, Modern, or Rounded), and add complications to spice things up.

2. Move Cursor with Digital Crown

watchOS 8 has unified the typing experience on Apple Watch with the ability to switch seamlessly between Scribble and Dictation. Also, if you make a mistake, you can quickly rotate the Digital Crown to move the cursor around.

3. Send GIFs in Messages

Want to send a GIF to someone? You don’t have to reach out for your iPhone anymore. With watchOS 8, you can add GIFs to messages right from the Apple Watch itself. 

Just tap the App Store icon to the left of the Create Message field in the Messages app and select the red-colored Search icon to access the GIF library.

4. Find Devices, Items, and People

Your Apple Watch can quickly help you locate a misplaced iPhone by pinging it. But with watchOS 8, the smartwatch expands its capabilities by adding a dedicated Find Devices app that helps you locate any Apple device you own. 

Additionally, you’ll find apps labeled Find Items and Find People. Consider that the iPhone’s Find My app is split into three distinct parts. Good stuff from Apple.

5. Set Up Separation Alerts

Open the Find Devices app, select a device, tap Notify When Left Behind, and turn on the switch next to Notify When Left Behind. You’ll then receive an alert the next time you stray away from the device. You can also set up safe areas (such as your home or workplace) by adding locations under Except At.

6. Use Focus Mode

Apple significantly enhanced Do Not Disturb with Focus across its complete lineup of products. As its name suggests, Focus keeps you focused on specific activities while still letting in notifications from select apps and contacts. 

Open the Control Center and tap the Do Not Disturb icon to switch between the four defaults—Personal, Work, Driving, and Sleep. 

7. Check Respiratory Rate 8. Add Home Keys

The Apple Watch has doubled up as a digital car key for a while. With watchOS 8, it also supports home keys. You can add them using the iPhone’s Home app and pick between two options—Express Mode and Require Authentication. 

9. Try a Reflect Session

If you loved the Breath app, you’re going to love Reflect mode in watchOS 8. Open the Mindfulness app (which now also houses Breath), and tap Reflect to focus on the stuff that matters. The default duration is set at one minute, but you can extend that by tapping the More icon (three dots) and selecting Duration.

10. Share Songs

You don’t have to hop over to your iPhone if you want to share songs in Apple Music. Just tap the More icon (three-dots) while playing a track and tap Share. You can then share it via Messages or Mail.

11. Share Photos

The same goes for photos. Tap the Share button while viewing an image in the Photos app, and you get to send it using Messages or Mail.

12. Pilates and Tai Chi

With watchOS 8, the Apple Watch supports two new workout types—Pilates and Tai Chi. Don’t forget to pick them up from the Workout app the next time you hit the gym.

13. Add Multiple Timers

Have you ever wished you could use the Apple Watch’s Timer app to keep track of multiple activities at the same time? watchOS 8 finally makes that possible. If you use Siri, you can even name them.

14. Use AssistiveTouch

Double-clench: Activate AssistiveTouch and Action Menu.

Clench: Confirm selection.

Pinch: Move forward.

Double-pinch: Move backward.

15. Search for Contacts

watchOS 8 sorts out a major pain point for the Apple Watch by introducing the Contacts app. The next time you want to call, message, or email a person, you can tap the contact within the Contacts app and pick the action you want to perform.

Improved and Less Reliant on the iPhone

15 Best And Biggest Mmorpgs For Android

The best and biggest MMORPGs for Android

Price: Free to play

AdventureQuest 3D is a rapidly growing MMORPG. It features a lot of the same stuff that most MMORPGs have. You’ll be able to quest a whole bunch, raid dungeons, create a character and more. Where AdventureQuest 3D really shines is its cross-platform support. You can play on mobile or PC in the same world with the same players. There is also support for multi-classing your characters, chat and other social engagement, and more. There are bugs present like most. However, they don’t seem to be as egregious as other games.

Arcane Legends

Price: Free to play

Arcane Legends has been around for a long time. Its longevity has made it one of the most successful MMORPGs out there. The game is pretty standard at its core. You’ll have three classes to choose from, each with its own unique set of skills and abilities. There is co-op play as well as PvP modes so you can play and engage with other players. It also includes various PvP formats to keep things interesting. The developers have done a good job of updating the game to keep content fresh. There are tons of things to do. It can get a little repetitive, though.

Aurcus Online

Black Desert Mobile

Price: Free to play

Black Desert Mobile is one of the newer Android MMORPGs. It boasts the usual MMORPG features, including a large open world, character customization, plenty of quests and missions to play, online social elements, and more. Players have a choice of five different classes as well as a minor builder element with your camp. Of course, you also get the usual stuff like pets and mounts. This game seems to tick all of the boxes while having relatively few issues. It is absolutely possible to spend hundreds, if not thousands, of hours in the game. It’s free to play like most mobile RPGs, but at least you can use Google Play Points to earn free stuff. You can also earn Google Play Points if you spend money in this game if that matters to you.

Diablo Immortal

Dragon Raja

Price: Free to play

Dragon Raja is one of the most popular MMORPGs on mobile for good reason. It’s enjoyable, it looks good, and it has some of the best character customizations in any mobile MMO. In terms of gameplay, it’s a solid game. There are a ton of quests to do, a story to follow, strong social elements, and above-average graphics. Unlike most, this one blends fantasy elements with real-world locations so it has a modern twist. It has a bit of a slow start, but gets going once you’re properly introduced into the game world. It has in-app purchases, but they seem to be mostly cosmetics as far as we can tell. It’s definitely good as long as the developer keeps the game properly updated.

Grow Stone Online

Price: Free to play

Grow Stone Online is a retro-style MMORPG. We don’t mean it acts like an old MMORPG. The graphics are 2D pixel art. It has most of the features of an MMORPG. That includes a vast world to explore, people to play with, many bad guys to kill, and much loot to collect. You can join clans and all of that jazz as well. It worked well in our testing. We didn’t disconnect and the controls are easy enough to learn. It’s a freemium game but you kind of expect that in this genre. It’s good for sure.

Lineage 2: Revolution

Price: Free to play

Lineage 2: Revolution is one of the newer MMORPGs on mobile. It features some decent graphics, tons of content, and the usual array of mobile MMORPG stuff. It does have some unique stuff, though. That includes a 50-vs-50 Fortress Siege mode that is actually pretty epic when it works right. You can do the usual stuff like questing, joining guilds and clans, and more. It’s a freemium game. Thus, it has a lot of the same issues as all of these other ones. However, it’s not too bad for a few dozen hours of fun as long as you don’t mind a few bugs. You can also earn rewards with Google Play Points for this title.

New School RuneScape

Price: Free / $10.99 per month / $99.99 per year

New School RuneScape is, well, OSRS for mobile devices. This is one of the most interesting MMORPGs on Android. For starters, you can play it for free without any free to play elements. You can get even more content if you subscribe. Both of these are strikingly different from the freemium model that most MMORPGs use. The game also boasts hundreds of quests, a rich in-game economy, and plenty of other things to do. The subscription players also get a map with a ton of extra stuff.

It works cross-platform and the developers do an above-average job listening to players. The graphics are a little old school, but everything else about the game is good. This may be the best MMORPG on mobile right now and a full mobile client is also available (Google Play) if you want better graphics with the gameplay. You can go with the old-school version or the full version. Both are pretty great.

Perfect World Mobile

Price: Free to play

Perfect World Mobile doesn’t have the highest download numbers, but it’s a reasonably decent MMORPG. The game boasts above average graphics for the genre, tons of things to do, and a large game world. It doesn’t reinvent the wheel so you have most of the MMORPG stuff like mounts, emotes, the ability to play with others, and mostly standard combat mechanics. It’s been around for 13 years on PC and while it’s definitely not as expansive as the PC version, it’s still pretty fun. Just watch out for the in-app purchases because they can get absurdly pricey.

Rucoy Online

Price: Free to play

Rucoy Online is another one of those unique Android MMORPGs. You play as a 2D sprite. The game also takes place on a 2D map. It features three character classes that you can switch between at will. You’ll also get an open world to explore, tons of quests, and more. The game offers a full range of multiplayer options, including PvP and co-op modes. It’s a lighter, slightly refreshing take on the MMORPG genre. However, on the other side of that coin, this game isn’t as deep as other MMORPGs.


Price: Free to play

Talion is another one of the newer Android MMORPGs. It has a lot of the same stuff as other MMORPGs, including the large open world, tons of quests, massive cooperative and competitive battles, and online PvP. We did enjoy that this game has FPS-style PvP game modes such as Occupy where you capture a point and fire catapults at each other. Character customization is above average and the stories and quests aren’t amazing but they aren’t terrible either. This is an auto-play MMORPG so players who dislike that should skip this. Additionally, the micro-transaction strategy is very aggressive as of the time of this writing. You can still progress without them, but it takes longer.

Toram Online

Price: Free to play

Toram Online is a favorite of our readership. There isn’t a class system. Everyone is given skill trees that they can fill out as they see fit. You also have the ability to customize weapons and change their abilities. It adds up to being one of the more customizable MMORPGs that we’ve seen. The graphics and game play give it a Final Fantasy (jRPG) feeling. There is also a campaign mode with an option to play co-op. You won’t find an MMORPG like this very often. It does have the occasional bug and connection issue, though. Just something to be aware of.

Warspear Online

Price: Free to play

Warspear Online is one of those MMORPGs that have been around for a long time. As such, it’s had a chance to expand its universe a lot. It currently comes with over 1500 quests, 150 achievements, PvP with up to five vs five combat, eight environments, and more. The character creation is also fairly expansive. You’ll be able to choose between four classes, two alliances, and 12 character classes. You can even take up crafting to make your own gear. The in-app purchase strategy is also fairly aggressive in this title.

World of Prandis

Price: Free to play

World of Prandis isn’t a new MMORPG. It’s actually vastly popular on other platforms. Its mobile version is rather new, though. The game features simple 3D graphics, two regions to play through, PvP, raids, guilds, parties, and even a lover system. The game uses tribes instead of races, but they do include three. There are also six total classes. We’re calling our shot with this one. Its popularity on other platforms should help keep mobile developers going. Here’s hoping this one turns out to be as good as we think it will be.

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